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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(6)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741706

RESUMO

Group I introns are mobile genetic elements encoding self-splicing ribozymes. Group I introns in nuclear genes are restricted to ribosomal DNA of eukaryotic microorganisms. For example, the myxomycetes, which represent a distinct protist phylum with a unique life strategy, are rich in nucleolar group I introns. We analyzed and compared 75 group I introns at position 516 in the small subunit ribosomal DNA from diverse and distantly related myxomycete taxa. A consensus secondary structure revealed a conserved group IC1 ribozyme core, but with a surprising RNA sequence complexity in the peripheral regions. Five S516 group I introns possess a twintron organization, where a His-Cys homing endonuclease gene insertion was interrupted by a small spliceosomal intron. Eleven S516 introns contained direct repeat arrays with varying lengths of the repeated motif, a varying copy number, and different structural organizations. Phylogenetic analyses of S516 introns and the corresponding host genes revealed a complex inheritance pattern, with both vertical and horizontal transfers. Finally, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of S516 nucleolar group I introns from insertion of mobile-type introns at unoccupied cognate sites, through homing endonuclease gene degradation and loss, and finally to the complete loss of introns. We conclude that myxomycete S516 introns represent a family of genetic elements with surprisingly dynamic structures despite a common function in RNA self-splicing.


Assuntos
Mixomicetos , RNA Catalítico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Íntrons/genética , Mixomicetos/genética , Mixomicetos/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Catalítico/genética , RNA Catalítico/metabolismo
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3642, 2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256681

RESUMO

Biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is typically metastable and can rapidly transform through aging, dehydration, and/or heating to crystalline calcium carbonate. Gaining insight into its structure and properties is typically hampered by its tendency to crystallize over short time periods once isolated from the host organism, and also by the small quantities that are usually available for study. Here we describe an exceptionally stable hydrated ACC (HACC) precipitated by the cosmopolitan slime mold Fuligo septica (L.) F.H. Wigg. (1780). A single slime mold can precipitate up to a gram of HACC over the course of one night. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, transmission electron microscopy images, infrared absorption spectra, together with the lack of optical birefringence are consistent with an amorphous material. XRD simulations, supported by thermogravimetric and evolved gas analysis data, are consistent with an intimate association of organic matter with ~ 1-nm-sized ACC units that have monohydrocalcite- and calcite-like nano-structural properties. It is postulated that this association imparts the extreme stability of the slime mold HACC by inhibiting loss of H2O and subsequent crystallization. The composition, structure, and thermal behavior of the HACC precipitated by F. septica collected over 8000 km apart and in markedly different environments, suggests a common structure, as well as similar biochemical and biomineralization mechanisms.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Physarida , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Cristalização , Cães , Mixomicetos/química , Physarida/química , Difração de Raios X
3.
Zootaxa ; 5039(1): 119-128, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811095

RESUMO

Two species of the genus Metatrichia Coquillett, from South America, are described as new to science: Metatrichia barbata sp. nov. and Metatrichia brunneipennis sp. nov. Their relationships with related species are discussed. Metatrichia bulbosa (Osten Sacken, 1877) is registered to Brazil for the first time. A key to New World species of Metatrichia is presented.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Mixomicetos , Distribuição Animal , Animais
4.
Eur J Protistol ; 81: 125839, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624792

RESUMO

Spores are the dispersal and reproductive units in Myxomycetes, and their ornamentation, usually at the light microscopy resolution limit, is taxonomically meaningful. Here, we analyze with scanning and transmission electron microscopy the spore ultrastructural features in Trichiales, one of the most morphologically diverse orders. In Trichiales, the spore wall consists of two layers, an outer one, including the ornamentation, and an inner layer subdivided into two sections. The diversity of ornamental elements includes verrucae, bacula, pila, muri, and cristae, the two latter creating reticulate patterns. Each of these elements defines a broadly recognized ornamentation type except cristae, from which we differentiate for the first time the cristate reticulate and patched subtypes. Besides, our results point out a previous incorrect classification of the spores of the species Trichia decipiens and T. scabra. Advances in Trichiales phylogeny showed that the capillitium ornamental elements, such as the spirals, do not reflect phylogenetic relationships among the species. The same seems to apply to some of spore ornamentation types, e.g., baculate. Consequently, we may consider the need to combine multiple characters, like the spore and capillitium ornamentation, so that Trichiales systematics better reflect the still cryptic phylogenetic affinities.


Assuntos
Amebozoários , Mixomicetos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Esporos de Protozoários
5.
Mycologia ; 113(6): 1327-1342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533412

RESUMO

A new nivicolous myxomycete is described as a result of a comprehensive study of Didymium nivicola collections from the entire range of its occurrence. Statistical analysis of 12 morphological characters, phylogenetic analyses of nuc 18S rDNA and elongation factor 1-alpha gene (EF1A), and a delimitation method (automatic barcode gap diversity) have been applied to corroborate the identity of the new species. A preliminary morphological analysis of D. nivicola revealed high variability of South American populations where four types of spore ornamentation were noted. However, results of molecular study and statistical analysis of morphological characters did not support recognition of these four forms but the distinction of two morphotypes. Consequently, two species have been recognized: D. nivicola and the newly proposed D. pseudonivicola. The new species can be distinguished from D. nivicola by distinctly larger and mostly plasmodiocarpic sporophores, which are scattered to gregarious, paler spores, and by the paler, more delicate and more elastic capillitium. Spore ornamentation of D. pseudonivicola is uniform and can be described as distinctly spiny (pilate under scanning electron microscope [SEM]), whereas those of D. nivicola is more variable, where spines (pilae under SEM) are delicate, distinct, or conspicuous. Additionally, whereas D. nivicola is a species distributed worldwide, D. pseudonivicola occurs only in the austral Andes of Argentina and Chile.


Assuntos
Mixomicetos , Physarida , Argentina , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Mixomicetos/genética , Filogenia , Physarida/genética
6.
Curr Biol ; 31(8): R364-R366, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905686

RESUMO

Interview with Audrey Dussutour, who uses slime molds and ant colonies to study collective behavior and cognition at the Center for Integrative Biology in Toulouse.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Mixomicetos , Animais , Cognição , Comunicação , História do Século XXI , Mentores , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Sexismo , Redação
7.
J Microbiol Methods ; 184: 106203, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722637

RESUMO

Unlike fungi, which have a universally accepted barcode marker, universal primers still lack in myxomycetes. Typically, DNA barcode primers were designed based on comparing existing myxomycetes sequences and targeting the conserved regions. However, the extreme genetic diversity within major myxomycetes groups and the frequent occurrence of group I introns have made the development of universal DNA barcode a severe challenge. The emergence of next-generation sequencing provides an opportunity to address this problem. We sequenced the mixed genomic DNA of 81 myxomycetes and extracted the SSU gene's reads using next-generation sequencing. After alignment and assembly, we designed a set of SSU primers that matched all potential SNPs, avoided all known group I intron insertion sites, and were highly conserved between major myxomycetes orders. This set of SSU primers has the potential to become one of the universal primer combinations. Due to the high genetic divergence caused by long and complicated evolutionary histories, the lack of universal barcode primers is common in protists. Our research provides a new method to solve this problem.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mixomicetos/genética , Variação Genética , Mixomicetos/classificação , Mixomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4851(2): zootaxa.4851.2.1, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056725

RESUMO

A survey of myxomycete diversity on five islands of the Seychelles yielded 105 species and 10 infra-specific taxa, which included 89 species on La Digue, 66 on Praslin, 63 on Mahé, 31 on Curieuse and 4 on Félicité. Among these records, 64 species are new for the Seychelles and together with data from the literature, 143 species of myxomycetes are now known for all of the Seychelles. Most collecting on all five islands was carried out in low elevation areas. Forty-four species (73% of all specimens of myxomycetes) were found in low-elevation localities, and among these were Arcyria helvetica, Dictydiaethalium dictyosporum, Echinostelium paucifilum, Physarum aeneum, Ph. echinosporum, Reticularia olivacea, and Stemonaria longa. From 54 species of plants used by myxomycetes as substrates, eight species provided 63% of the specimens of myxomycetes, with most samples recorded from Calophyllum inophyllum. On the basis of substrate type, myxomycetes were distributed as follows: 37% of specimens were collected on dead wood and decaying palm stems, 16% on the bark and stems of living plants, 25% on ground litter, and 22% on aerial litter. A comparison of the assemblages of myxomycetes found in zones with different levels of human impact indicated that 84 species were found in forests, 74 in anthropogenic areas, and 62 in recreational coastal areas. The Seychelles provide a good background for a high level of myxomycete diversity, as a consequence of favorable climatic conditions and their location between Asia and Africa.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mixomicetos , Animais , Humanos , Ilhas , Seicheles
9.
Fitoterapia ; 146: 104725, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946947

RESUMO

Myxomycetes, one of the lowest classes of eukaryote (true slime molds), are an unusual group of primitive organisms. Their life cycle consists of two stages, namely the free-living plasmodium and the fruiting body with unique structures and colors. The chemical studies on the secondary metabolites of the myxomycetes are limited due to a lack of understanding of their laboratory cultivation. In this review, 93 natural products from myxomycetes, including their chemical structures and bioactivities were described. We also provided a conceptual overview over five culture methods of myxomycetes, including moist chamber culture, feeding culture, pure culture, liquid culture and hanging drop culture.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Mixomicetos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Mixomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Secundário
10.
Mycologia ; 112(4): 753-780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649270

RESUMO

Nivicolous myxomycetes are a group of amoebozoan protists dependent on long-lasting snow cover worldwide. Recent fine-scale analysis of species diversity from the austral Andes revealed high intraspecific variability of most taxa, suggesting independent evolutionary processes and significant differences in species compositions between the Northern (NH) and Southern (SH) Hemispheres. The present study is the second part of this analysis based on representatives of Trichiales. A total of 173 South American collections were studied based on morphological and molecular data, and 15 taxa have been identified. Two of them, Hemitrichia crassifila and Perichaena patagonica, are proposed as new species confirmed by a phylogeny of Trichiales. However, their affinity to the genera in which they are proposed are not confirmed due to polyphyletic character of all genera of Trichiales. Four species, Dianema subretisporum, Trichia contorta var. karstenii, T. nivicola, and T. sordida, are reported for the first time from the Southern Hemisphere. One species, T. alpina, is new for Argentina. Additionally, we provide the first record of Perichaena megaspora from Chile. Specimen frequency and species diversity of Trichiales found at nivicolous localities in the austral Andes are unexpectedly high, exceeding those of Stemonitidales, the most numerous group in the Northern Hemisphere, where Trichiales play a marginal role. By contrast, Trichiales appear the main component of nivicolous assemblages in the Andes. Results of the present work, together with the earlier analysis of Stemonitidales, indicate that the Andes constitute an exceptionally important evolutionary hot spot for nivicolous myxomycetes characterized by an outstanding species diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mixomicetos/classificação , Argentina , Chile , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Mixomicetos/citologia , Mixomicetos/genética , Mixomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Neve/parasitologia
11.
Explore (NY) ; 16(4): 250-256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475792

RESUMO

Background From intelligent behaviors of individual molecules and primitive organisms to those with a nervous system and brain, nature displays a fascinating collective memory across time and space. Using certain electronic circuits called memristors, it has been possible to emulate several processes of memory and learning, including a predictive form of intelligence of simple amoebas. Purpose What is the core of such intelligent performances? Although memristors are able to effectively describe puzzling biologic behaviors, recent results challenge their very existence altogether. This paper asks what can be gleaned from the underlying controversy itself, which will be argued is analogous to the observer principle in quantum physics. It is hypothesized that the material phenomena of resonance and sync have a counterpart involving behavior and memory. This questions the prominent role of a causative agent, and which type of behavior or memory is being occasioned. Results Building on the theory of memristors, the challenge of their actualization, and puzzling behaviors of amoebas, this paper proposes that 'resonating actions' - that is, similar or interlinked behaviors beyond space and time - are enabled by an underlying field of potentiation or domain of influence, and not by a cause-effect relationship. Such linked behaviors resemble a form of 'action coherence.' Habituated actions, memory, and behavior may arise out of a similar field of consciousness (here, modeled as memristors). These principles may be at the core of many hitherto unexplained mysteries of collective learning and behavior beyond space and time. Although this study is based on amoebas, the key postulates are also of great relevance to human thinking, behavior, and performance (including the representation of illness), and have independently been confirmed in the fields of consciousness research and spirituality.


Assuntos
Amoeba/fisiologia , Cognição , Memória , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Mixomicetos/fisiologia
12.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(5): 674-683, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386295

RESUMO

Major phenotypic innovations in social amoeba evolution occurred at the transition between the Polysphondylia and group 4 Dictyostelia, which comprise the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, such as the formation of a new structure, the basal disk. Basal disk differentiation and robust stalk formation require the morphogen DIF-1, synthesized by the polyketide synthase StlB, the des-methyl-DIF-1 methyltransferase DmtA, and the chlorinase ChlA, which are conserved throughout Dictyostelia. To understand how the basal disk and other innovations evolved in group 4, we sequenced and annotated the Polysphondylium violaceum (Pvio) genome, performed cell type-specific transcriptomics to identify cell-type marker genes, and developed transformation and gene knock-out procedures for Pvio. We used the novel methods to delete the Pvio stlB gene. The Pvio stlB- mutants formed misshapen curly sorogens with thick and irregular stalks. As fruiting body formation continued, the upper stalks became more regular, but structures contained 40% less spores. The stlB- sorogens overexpressed a stalk gene and underexpressed a (pre)spore gene. Normal fruiting body formation and sporulation were restored in Pvio stlB- by including DIF-1 in the supporting agar. These data indicate that, although conserved, stlB and its product(s) acquired both a novel role in the group 4 Dictyostelia and a role opposite to that in its sister group.


Assuntos
Genoma de Protozoário , Mixomicetos/genética , Mixomicetos/metabolismo , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Mixomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Policetídeo Sintases/deficiência , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19730, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874965

RESUMO

Myxomycetes constitute a group within the Amoebozoa well known for their motile plasmodia and morphologically complex fruiting bodies. One obstacle hindering studies of myxomycete evolution is that their fossils are exceedingly rare, so evolutionary analyses of this supposedly ancient lineage of amoebozoans are restricted to extant taxa. Molecular data have significantly advanced myxomycete systematics, but the evolutionary history of individual lineages and their ecological adaptations remain unknown. Here, we report exquisitely preserved myxomycete sporocarps in amber from Myanmar, ca. 100 million years old, one of the few fossil myxomycetes, and the only definitive Mesozoic one. Six densely-arranged stalked sporocarps were engulfed in tree resin while young, with almost the entire spore mass still inside the sporotheca. All morphological features are indistinguishable from those of the modern, cosmopolitan genus Stemonitis, demonstrating that sporocarp morphology has been static since at least the mid-Cretaceous. The ability of myxomycetes to develop into dormant stages, which can last years, may account for the phenotypic stasis between living Stemonitis species and this fossil one, similar to the situation found in other organisms that have cryptobiosis. We also interpret Stemonitis morphological stasis as evidence of strong environmental selection favouring the maintenance of adaptations that promote wind dispersal.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Mixomicetos/classificação , Mixomicetos/fisiologia , Filogenia
14.
Mycologia ; 111(6): 981-997, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613722

RESUMO

The genus Siphoptychium is resurrected on the basis of comparative morphology and phylogeny of partial nuc 18S rDNA (18S) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1A) nucleotide sequences. The genus is characterized by the firm upper surface of the pseudoaethalium, accreted but easily separable sporothecae, a tubular or fibrous columella, and spores with a reticulate ornamentation consisting of 7-9 meshes across the diameter. In addition to the currently known single species S. casparyi (= Tubifera casparyi), two new members of Siphoptychium are described: S. violaceum from coniferous forests of Europe, east Asia, and southeast Asia, and S. reticulatum from temperate and subarctic regions of North America and alpine regions of Europe. A second genus, Thecotubifera, is described to accommodate Tubifera dictyoderma. The fruiting body of this species is transitional between a pseudoaethalium and a true aethalium. It is covered by a contiguous membranous cortex formed by the fused tips of the sporothecae, a feature typical for aethalia. However, the inner portions of sporothecae remain discernible, a feature more typical for pseudoaethalia. Columellae of Th. dictyoderma are formed by perforated plates, and the spores have a reticulate ornamentation consisting of 2-5 meshes across the diameter. For Th. dictyoderma, we could confirm records only for tropical regions and Japan, whereas all studied European specimens, including those mentioned in current monographs, represent species of Siphoptychium.


Assuntos
Mixomicetos/classificação , Mixomicetos/genética , Filogenia , Ásia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Europa (Continente) , Microscopia , Mixomicetos/citologia , Mixomicetos/isolamento & purificação , América do Norte , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Protist ; 170(5): 125681, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586669

RESUMO

The nuclear small subunit rRNA gene (SSU or 18S) is a marker frequently used in phylogenetic and barcoding studies in Amoebozoa, including Myxomycetes. Despite its common usage and the confirmed existence of divergent copies of ribosomal genes in other protists, the potential presence of intra-individual SSU variability in Myxomycetes has never been studied before. Here we investigated the pattern of nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' end fragment of SSU by cloning and sequencing a total of 238 variants from eight specimens, each representing a species of the dark-spored orders Stemonitidales and Physarales. After excluding singletons, a relatively low SSU intra-individual variability was found but our data indicate that this might be a widely distributed phenomenon in Myxomycetes as all samples analyzed possessed various ribotypes. To determine if the occurrence of multiple SSU variants within a single specimen has a negative effect on the circumscription of species boundaries, we conducted phylogenetic analyses that revealed that clone variation may be detrimental for inferring phylogenetic relationships among some of the specimens analyzed. Despite that intra-individual variability should be assessed in additional taxa, our results indicate that special care should be taken for species identification when working with closely related species.


Assuntos
Mixomicetos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Variação Genética
16.
Microb Ecol ; 78(3): 764-780, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903202

RESUMO

We used direct DNA amplification from soil extracts to analyze microbial communities from an elevational transect in the German Alps by parallel metabarcoding of bacteria (16S rRNA), fungi (ITS2), and myxomycetes (18S rRNA). For the three microbial groups, 5710, 6133, and 261 operational taxonomic units (OTU) were found. For the latter group, we can relate OTUs to barcodes from fruit bodies sampled over a 4-year period. The alpha diversity of myxomycetes was positively correlated with that of bacteria. Vegetation type was found to be the main explanatory parameter for the community composition of all three groups and a substantial species turnover with elevation was observed. Bacteria and fungi display similar community responses, driven by symbiont species and plant substrate quality. Myxamoebae show a more patchy distribution, though still clearly stratified between taxa, which seems to be a response to both structural properties of the habitat and interaction with specific bacterial and fungal taxa. Finally, we report a high number of myxomycete OTUs not represented in a reference database from fructifications, which might represent novel species.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Mixomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Alemanha , Mixomicetos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Theory Biosci ; 138(1): 127-132, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809766

RESUMO

Detailed analyses into the life cycle of the soil-dwelling microbe Dictyostelium discoideum led to the conclusion that this "social amoeba" practices some form of "non-monoculture farming" via the transfer of bacteria to novel environments. Herein, we show that in myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) a similar "farming symbiosis" has evolved. Based on laboratory studies of two representative species in the genera Fuligo and Didymium, the sexual life cycle of these enigmatic microbes that feed on bacteria was reconstructed, with reference to plasmo- and karyogamy. We document that the spores carry and transfer bacteria and hence may inoculate new habitats. The significance of this finding with respect to Ernst Haeckel's work on myxomycetes and his concept of ecology are addressed.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mixomicetos/microbiologia , Mixomicetos/fisiologia , Bactérias , Ecologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Simbiose
18.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 66(5): 757-770, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793409

RESUMO

Myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds) are abundant protist predators that feed on bacteria and other microorganisms, thereby playing important roles in terrestrial nutrient cycling. Despite their significance, little is known about myxomycete communities and the extent to which they are affected by nutrient availability. We studied the influence of long-term addition of N, P, and K on the myxomycete community in a lowland forest in the Republic of Panama. In a previous study, microbial biomass increased with P but not N or K addition at this site. We hypothesized that myxomycetes would increase in abundance in response to P but that they would not respond to the sole addition of N or K. Moist chamber cultures of leaf litter and small woody debris were used to quantify myxomycete abundance. We generated the largest myxomycete dataset (3,381 records) for any single locality in the tropics comprised by 91 morphospecies. In line with our hypothesis, myxomycete abundance increased in response to P addition but did not respond to N or K. Community composition was unaffected by nutrient treatments. This work represents one of very few large-scale and long-term field studies to include a heterotrophic protist highlighting the feasibility and value in doing so.


Assuntos
Mixomicetos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Florestas , Mixomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Panamá , Fósforo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Solo/parasitologia , Madeira/parasitologia
19.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 66(4): 538-544, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30329204

RESUMO

Myxogastria (also called Myxomycetes or plasmodial slime-moulds) are mostly known through their usually conspicuous fruiting bodies. Another unifying trait is the presence of a facultative flagellate stage along with the obligate amoeboid stage. Here we show with two-gene phylogenies (SSU rRNA and EF-1alpha genes) that the incertae sedis, non-flagellate Echinosteliopsis oligospora belongs to the dark-spore clade (Fuscisporidia) of the Myxogastria. In addition, we confirm that Echinostelium bisporum, firstly described as a protostelid, belongs to the Echinosteliida, which are divided into three major clades and are paraphyletic to the remaining Fuscisporidia.


Assuntos
Mixomicetos/classificação , Filogenia , Mixomicetos/genética , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico/análise
20.
Biosystems ; 173: 4-6, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321582

RESUMO

A list of papers and books of the late Lev V. Beloussov was compiled and is available in Word and EndNote Supplements. The breadth of his work is briefly described.


Assuntos
Embriologia/história , Embriologia/métodos , Animais , Aves/embriologia , Galinhas , Peixes/embriologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hydra/embriologia , Moluscos/embriologia , Mixomicetos , Publicações , Ranidae/embriologia , Federação Russa , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Anêmonas-do-Mar/embriologia , U.R.S.S. , Urodelos/embriologia , Xenopus laevis/embriologia
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