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1.
Pharmacol Res ; 202: 107125, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438091

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are currently the most widely focused drug targets in the clinic, exerting their biological functions by binding to chemicals and activating a series of intracellular signaling pathways. Formyl-peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) has a typical seven-transmembrane structure of GPCRs and can be stimulated by a large number of endogenous or exogenous ligands with different chemical properties, the first of which was identified as formyl-methionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF). Through receptor-ligand interactions, FPR1 is involved in inflammatory response, immune cell recruitment, and cellular signaling regulation in key cell types, including neutrophils, neural stem cells (NSCs), and microglia. This review outlines the critical roles of FPR1 in a variety of heart and brain diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurological tumors, with particular emphasis on the milestones of FPR1 agonists and antagonists. Therefore, an in-depth study of FPR1 contributes to the research of innovative biomarkers, therapeutic targets for heart and brain diseases, and clinical applications.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo , Humanos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo
2.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 43(8): 4231-4244, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37742326

RESUMO

Status epilepticus (SE) is described as continuous and self-sustaining seizures, which triggers hippocampal neurodegeneration, inflammation, and gliosis. N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) has been associated with inflammatory process. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) peptide plays an anti-inflammatory role, mediated by the activation of G-protein-coupled FPR. Here, we evaluated the influence of fMLP peptides on the behavior of limbic seizures, memory consolidation, and hippocampal neurodegeneration process. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) received microinjections of pilocarpine in hippocampus (H-PILO, 1.2 mg/µL, 1 µL) followed by fMLP (1 mg/mL, 1 µL) or vehicle (VEH, saline 0.9%, 1 µL). During the 90 min of SE, epileptic seizures were analyzed according to the Racine's Scale. After 24 h of SE, memory impairment was assessed by the inhibitory avoidance test and the neurodegeneration process was evaluated in hippocampal areas. There was no change in latency and number of wet dog shake (WDS) after administration of fMLP. However, our results showed that the intrahippocampal infusion of fMLP reduced the severity of seizures, as well as the number of limbic seizures. In addition, fMLP infusion protected memory dysfunction followed by SE. Finally, the intrahippocampal administration of fMLP attenuated the process of neurodegeneration in both hippocampi. Taken together, our data suggest a new insight into the functional role of fMLP peptides, with important implications for their potential use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of brain disorders, such as epilepsy. Schematic drawing on the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant role of fMLP during status epilepticus. Initially, a cannula was implanted in hippocampus and pilocarpine/saline was administered into the hippocampus followed by fMLP/saline (A-C). fMLP reduced seizure severity and neuronal death in the hippocampus, as well as protecting against memory deficit (D).


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Estado Epiléptico , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/uso terapêutico , Pilocarpina/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/complicações , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico
3.
Drug Deliv ; 30(1): 2241664, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37545034

RESUMO

Gradual loss of neuronal structure and function due to impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neuroinflammation are important factors in multiple sclerosis (MS) progression. Our previous studies demonstrated that the C16 peptide and angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) compound (C + A) could modulate inflammation and vascular protection in many models of MS. In this study, nanotechnology and a novel nanovector of the leukocyte chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) were used to examine the effects of C + A on MS. The acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS was established in Lewis rats. The C + A compounds were conjugated to control nano-carriers and fMLP-nano-carriers and administered to animals by intravenous injection. The neuropathological changes in the brain cortex and spinal cord were examined using multiple approaches. The stimulation of vascular injection sites was examined using rabbits. The results showed that all C + A compounds (C + A alone, nano-carrier C + A, and fMLP-nano-carrier C + A) reduced neuronal inflammation, axonal demyelination, gliosis, neuronal apoptosis, vascular leakage, and BBB impairment induced by EAE. In addition, the C + A compounds had minimal side effects on liver and kidney functions. Furthermore, the fMLP-nano-carrier C + A compound had better effects compared to C + A alone and the nano-carrier C + A. This study indicated that the fMLP-nano-carrier C + A could attenuate inflammation-related pathological changes in EAE and may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MS and EAE.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Esclerose Múltipla , Ratos , Animais , Coelhos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/química , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossomos , Angiopoietina-1/uso terapêutico , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 114(2): 116-125, 2023 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37017007

RESUMO

A key molecule for neutrophil degranulation is Rac2 guanosine triphosphatase. Neutrophils from Rac2 knockout mice (Rac2-/-) exhibit impaired primary granule exocytosis in response to cytochalasin B/f-Met-Leu-Phe, while secondary and tertiary granule release is unaffected. Coronin 1A, a protein involved in actin remodeling, is diminished in Rac2-/- neutrophils. However, primary granule exocytosis from Rac2-/- neutrophils has not been determined using more immunologically relevant stimuli. We sought to determine the role of Rac2 in degranulation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in response to immobilized immune complexes and relate this to intracellular coronin 1A localization. We used bone marrow neutrophils from wild-type and Rac2-/- mice stimulated with immobilized immune complexes. Secretion of primary (myeloperoxidase), secondary (lactoferrin), and tertiary granule (MMP-2 and MMP-9) products was evaluated. Subcellular colocalization of coronin 1A with actin and the primary granule marker CD63 was determined by deconvolution microscopy. We found major differences in myeloperoxidase, MMP-2, and MMP-9 but not lactoferrin release, along with diminished filopodia formation, CD63 polarization, and colocalization of coronin 1A with CD63 in immune complex-stimulated Rac2-/- bone marrow neutrophils. Rac2 and coronin 1A were found associated with granules in cytochalasin B/f-Met-Leu-Phe-activated human neutrophils. This report confirms a role for Rac2 in immunologically relevant stimulation of neutrophil granule exocytosis. Rac2 appears to attach to neutrophil granules, polarize CD63+ granules to the cell surface in a manner dependent on coronin 1A, and induce filopodia formation. Our studies provide insight into mechanisms of Rac2-mediated regulation of granule exocytosis.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo , Neutrófilos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Actinas/metabolismo , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/metabolismo , Citocalasina B/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Exocitose , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteína RAC2 de Ligação ao GTP
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1112196, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36891309

RESUMO

Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. It is a common and complex syndrome and is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. The lungs are most vulnerable to the challenge of sepsis, and the incidence of respiratory dysfunction has been reported to be up to 70%, in which neutrophils play a major role. Neutrophils are the first line of defense against infection, and they are regarded as the most responsive cells in sepsis. Normally, neutrophils recognize chemokines including the bacterial product N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), complement 5a (C5a), and lipid molecules Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), and enter the site of infection through mobilization, rolling, adhesion, migration, and chemotaxis. However, numerous studies have confirmed that despite the high levels of chemokines in septic patients and mice at the site of infection, the neutrophils cannot migrate to the proper target location, but instead they accumulate in the lungs, releasing histones, DNA, and proteases that mediate tissue damage and induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This is closely related to impaired neutrophil migration in sepsis, but the mechanism involved is still unclear. Many studies have shown that chemokine receptor dysregulation is an important cause of impaired neutrophil migration, and the vast majority of these chemokine receptors belong to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this review, we summarize the signaling pathways by which neutrophil GPCR regulates chemotaxis and the mechanisms by which abnormal GPCR function in sepsis leads to impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, which can further cause ARDS. Several potential targets for intervention are proposed to improve neutrophil chemotaxis, and we hope that this review may provide insights for clinical practitioners.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Sepse , Animais , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/metabolismo
6.
Phytochemistry ; 206: 113528, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460139

RESUMO

Six previously undescribed components, bis(4-glycosyloxybenzyl) 2-isobutyltartrate derivatives (pholidotoside A-E) and phenolic glycoside (pholidotosin A), together with twenty known compounds were isolated from the pseudobulbs of Pholidota chinensis. Their structures and absolute configuration were elucidated and established through various spectroscopic and chemical methods. The anti-inflammatory potential of selected compounds was examined using a human neutrophil cell model activated by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). Among these, dihydrophenanthrenes exhibited potent inhibitory effect on both superoxide anion generation and elastase release assays with IC50 values ranging from 0.41 ± 0.05 to 7.14 ± 0.30 µM.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae , Pangolins , Humanos , Animais , Superóxidos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Neutrófilos
7.
J Immunol Methods ; 512: 113403, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502881

RESUMO

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) protect the host from invading microorganisms. However, excessively activated PMNs can also cause damage to host tissues under inflammatory conditions. Here we developed simple assays to determine the activation state of PMNs in human whole blood that contains soluble mediators known to influence PMN functions. Because mouse models are widely used to study the role of PMNs in infectious and inflammatory diseases, we adapted these assays for the rapid and reliable assessment of PMN functions in murine blood samples. Freshly collected whole blood samples were stimulated with agonists of the formyl peptide receptors (FPR) of PMNs and changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the expression of CD11b, CD62L (L-selectin), CD66b, and CD63 on the cell surface were analyzed with flow cytometry. We optimized these assays to minimize inadvertent interferences such as cell stress generated during sample handling and the loss of plasma mediators that regulate PMN functions. Human PMNs readily responded to the FPR agonist N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). The most sensitive responses of human PMNs to fMLP were CD11b, CD62L, and CD66b expression with half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of 5, 8, and 6 nM fMLP, respectively. CD63 expression and ROS production required markedly higher fMLP concentrations with EC50 values of 19 and 50 nM fMLP, respectively. Mouse PMNs did not respond well to fMLP and required significantly higher concentrations of the FPR agonist WKYMVm (W-peptide) to achieve equivalent cell activation. The most sensitive response of mouse PMNs was ROS production with an EC50 of 38 nM W-peptide. Because mice do not express CD66b, we only assessed the expression of CD62L, CD11b, and CD63 with EC50 values of 54, 119, and 355 nM W-peptide, respectively. Validation of our optimized assays showed that they sensitively detect the responses of human PMNs to priming with endotoxin in vitro as well as the corresponding responses of murine PMNs to bacterial infection in a sepsis model. We conclude that these optimized assays could be useful tools for the monitoring of patients with infections, sepsis, and other inflammatory conditions as well as for the design and interpretation of preclinical studies of these diseases in mouse models.


Assuntos
Ativação de Neutrófilo , Sepse , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ativação de Neutrófilo/fisiologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia
8.
Analyst ; 147(24): 5739-5746, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409228

RESUMO

The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in living organisms and environment have strong effects on many biological processes inducing cell apoptosis/cell necrosis and wound disinfection. Therefore, it is important to have an accurate and in situ detection of H2O2. Herein, an AuPd@FexOy nanozyme-based electrochemical (EC) sensor (termed as AuPd@FexOy NPs/GCE) with good stability and anti-interference ability has been prepared for the detection of H2O2 by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometry dual-measurement modes. The AuPd@FexOy NPs/GCE exhibits good linear relationships in the ranges from 13.0 to 6.0 × 103 µM (DPV measurement) and 50 to 1.0 × 103 µM (chronoamperometry measurement), low detection limits (LODs) of 1.6 µM (DPV measurement) and 3.0 µM (chronoamperometry measurement) and high sensitivities of 83.8 nA µM-1 cm-2 (DPV measurement) and 120.7 nA µM-1 cm-2 (chronoamperometry measurement). The practicability of the as-prepared AuPd@FexOy NPs/GCE has been demonstrated by an in situ real-time detection of H2O2 released from adherent living MCF-7 cells triggered by varying amounts of N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP) from 0.5 to 3.0 µM and the quantitative determination of H2O2 in commercial disinfectants.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Humanos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina , Apoptose , Células MCF-7 , Necrose
9.
Clin Interv Aging ; 17: 1513-1526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36247200

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to establish and quantify the relation between healthy ageing and the innate and adaptive immune parameters as indicators of age-related diseases. Patients: In order to observe the immunological changes that occur according to age, several humoral and cellular immune parameters were investigated for 288 healthy donors (30-80 years). Subjects' selection was done using clinical, biochemical and immunological parameters of inclusion/exclusion criteria from SENIEUR protocol. Results: Age-related changes were observed for both humoral and cellular immune parameters. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping revealed several significant differences in the distribution of cells, both intra- and inter-age groups, namely decreased values of T-CD3+, T-CD8+ and NK cells, and elevated values for T-CD4+, T-CD4+/T-CD8+ ratio and B cells. The percentages of unstimulated neutrophils that show basal oxidative activity and the intensity of this activity had an increasing tendency age-related. The percentage of N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine stimulated neutrophils clearly decreases with age, and is associated with an increasing intensity of oxidative activity. Our data also have shown an increased percentage of oxidative neutrophils after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation and an elevated oxidative activity with age. Conclusion: Overall healthy ageing is governed by some immune-related deregulations that account for immune exhaustion due to numerous developed immune processes during a life-time and the age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Acetatos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Miristatos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5232, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064945

RESUMO

The formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) is primarily responsible for detection of short peptides bearing N-formylated methionine (fMet) that are characteristic of protein synthesis in bacteria and mitochondria. As a result, FPR1 is critical to phagocyte migration and activation in bacterial infection, tissue injury and inflammation. How FPR1 distinguishes between formyl peptides and non-formyl peptides remains elusive. Here we report cryo-EM structures of human FPR1-Gi protein complex bound to S. aureus-derived peptide fMet-Ile-Phe-Leu (fMIFL) and E. coli-derived peptide fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLF). Both structures of FPR1 adopt an active conformation and exhibit a binding pocket containing the R2015.38XXXR2055.42 (RGIIR) motif for formyl group interaction and receptor activation. This motif works together with D1063.33 for hydrogen bond formation with the N-formyl group and with fMet, a model supported by MD simulation and functional assays of mutant receptors with key residues for recognition substituted by alanine. The cryo-EM model of agonist-bound FPR1 provides a structural basis for recognition of bacteria-derived chemotactic peptides with potential applications in developing FPR1-targeting agents.


Assuntos
Moléculas com Motivos Associados a Patógenos , Staphylococcus aureus , Fatores Quimiotáticos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/química , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Moléculas com Motivos Associados a Patógenos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2201249119, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878025

RESUMO

The bacteria-derived formyl peptide fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLF) is a potent chemoattractant of phagocytes that induces chemotaxis at subnanomolar concentrations. At higher concentrations, fMLF inhibits chemotaxis while stimulating degranulation and superoxide production, allowing phagocytes to kill invading bacteria. How an agonist activates distinct cellular functions at different concentrations remains unclear. Using a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based FPR1 biosensor, we found that fMLF at subnanomolar and micromolar concentrations induced distinct conformational changes in FPR1, a Gi-coupled chemoattractant receptor that activates various phagocyte functions. Neutrophil-like HL-60 cells exposed to subnanomolar concentrations of fMLF polarized rapidly and migrated along a chemoattractant concentration gradient. These cells also developed an intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient. In comparison, high nanomolar and micromolar concentrations of fMLF triggered the PLC-ß/diacyl glycerol/inositol trisphosphate pathway downstream of the heterotrimeric Gi proteins, leading to Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx from extracellular milieu. A robust and uniform rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ level was required for degranulation and superoxide production but disrupted cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration gradient and inhibited chemotaxis. In addition, elevated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ß-arrestin2 membrane translocation were associated with diminished chemotaxis in the presence of fMLF above 1 nM. These findings suggest a mechanism for FPR1 agonist concentration-dependent signaling that leads to a switch from migration to bactericidal activities in phagocytes.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos , Fagócitos , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo , Superóxidos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fatores Quimiotáticos/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Fagócitos/fisiologia , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270456, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749549

RESUMO

Three-dimensional tracking of cells is one of the most powerful methods to investigate multicellular phenomena, such as ontogenesis, tumor formation or wound healing. However, 3D tracking in a biological environment usually requires fluorescent labeling of the cells and elaborate equipment, such as automated light sheet or confocal microscopy. Here we present a simple method for 3D tracking large numbers of unlabeled cells in a collagen matrix. Using a small lensless imaging setup, consisting of an LED and a photo sensor only, we were able to simultaneously track ~3000 human neutrophil granulocytes in a collagen droplet within an unusually large field of view (>50 mm2) at a time resolution of 4 seconds and a spatial resolution of ~1.5 µm in xy- and ~30 µm in z-direction. The setup, which is small enough to fit into any conventional incubator, was used to investigate chemotaxis towards interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8) and N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). The influence of varying stiffness and pore size of the embedding collagen matrix could also be quantified. Furthermore, we demonstrate our setup to be capable of telling apart healthy neutrophils from those where a condition of inflammation was (I) induced by exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and (II) caused by a pre-existing asthma condition. Over the course of our experiments we have tracked more than 420.000 cells. The large cell numbers increase statistical relevance to not only quantify cellular behavior in research, but to make it suitable for future diagnostic applications, too.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Neutrófilos , Colágeno , Humanos , Inflamação , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia
13.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 201: 115091, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569521

RESUMO

The over-activated neutrophils through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) caused inflammation or tissue damage. Therefore, GPCRs or their downstream molecules are major targets for inhibiting uncontrolled neutrophil activation. Our studies investigate the action and underlying mechanism of larixol, a diterpene extract from the root of euphorbia formosana, on fMLP-induced neutrophil respiratory burst, chemotaxis, and granular release. The immunoprecipitation assay was performed to investigate whether larixol inhibits fMLP-induced respiratory burst by interfering with the interaction of fMLP receptor Gi-protein ßγ subunits with its downstream molecules. Briefly, larixol inhibited fMLP (0.1 µM)-induced superoxide anion production (IC50:1.98 ± 0.14 µM), the release of cathepsin G (IC50:2.76 ± 0.15 µM) and chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner; however, larixol did not inhibit these functions induced by PMA (100 nM). Larixol inhibited fMLP-induced Src kinase phosphorylation. Therefore, larixol attenuated the downstream signaling of Src kinases, ERK1/2, p38, and AKT phosphorylation. Moreover, larixol inhibited fMLP-induced intracellular calcium mobilization, PKC phosphorylation, and p47phox translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Larixol inhibited the interaction of the ßγ subunits of Gi-protein of fMLP receptor with Src kinase or with PLCß by the immunoprecipitation and duolink assay. Furthermore, larixol did not antagonize the formyl peptide receptors. Larixol did not increase cyclic nucleotide levels in neutrophils. These results suggest that larixol modulated fMLP-induced neutrophils superoxide anion production, chemotaxis, and granular releases by interrupting the interaction of the ßγ subunits of Gi-protein with downstream signaling of the fMLP receptor.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo , Quimiotaxia , Humanos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/metabolismo , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
14.
Clin Immunol ; 238: 108994, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390547

RESUMO

Chemotaxis is the directed movement of neutrophils towards an infected site. This physiological process can be reproduced using a modified Boyden chamber, such as the Transwell® support. Different techniques can be used to count neutrophils after migration to the lower chamber of the holder. The present study supports the use of an optimized Transwell® assay coupled with a flow cytometry-based method (Sysmex XN-9000) to detect chemotaxis abnormalities. A reference interval of neutrophil's chemotaxis was determined as part of this work. A first step involves the extraction of neutrophils from whole blood. The migration of neutrophils from the upper to the lower support chamber is subsequently directed by a chemoattractant gradient using N-formyl-l-Methionyl-l-Leucyl-l-Phenylalanine (fMLP). Neutrophils collected in the lower chamber are finally counted by flow cytometry. The original protocol was optimized through the comparison of different parameters. The use of Polymorphprep®, in the extraction of neutrophils, showed an improvement of the neutrophils yield of 1.65 times (57.5% of recovery) compared to the extraction using the Ficoll-Hypaque® gradient. A solution containing 5% of Bovin Serum Albumin (BSA) was used to suspend the extracted neutrophils, stabilize their viability and preserve their integrity. The mechanical agitation of the Transwell® permeable supports during migration did not show an increase in neutrophil yield. A migration time of 1 h 30 was identified as the best time for collecting the largest number of neutrophils after migration. Finally, we demonstrated that scraping the bottom of the well after migration improved neutrophil collection from the lower chamber by 1.9-fold compared to a non-scraping method. In conclusion, our results support the use of Polymorphprep® and a 5% BSA solution in the suspension, without agitation of the medium. An incubation time of 1 h 30 was identified as optimal for neutrophil migration through the chamber. Scraping the bottom after neutrophil migration improved neutrophil collection yield. Normal adult values were obtained with directed migration equal to 32.4% ±13.41% on 15 men and 18 women.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Neutrófilos , Adulto , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/fisiologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia
15.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(4): 771-791, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494308

RESUMO

Neutrophils are critical for inflammation and innate immunity, and their adhesion to vascular endothelium is a crucial step in neutrophil recruitment. Mitofusin-2 (MFN2) is required for neutrophil adhesion, but molecular details are unclear. Here, we demonstrated that ß2 -integrin-mediated slow-rolling and arrest, but not PSGL-1-mediated cell rolling, are defective in MFN2-deficient neutrophil-like HL60 cells. This adhesion defect is associated with reduced expression of fMLP (N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) receptor FPR1 as well as the inhibited ß2 integrin activation, as assessed by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. MFN2 deficiency also leads to decreased actin polymerization, which is important for ß2 integrin activation. Mn2+ -induced cell spreading is also inhibited after MFN2 knockdown. MFN2 deficiency limited the maturation of ß2 integrin activation during the neutrophil-directed differentiation of HL60 cells, which is indicated by CD35 and CD87 markers. MFN2 knockdown in ß2-integrin activation-matured cells (CD87high population) also inhibits integrin activation, indicating that MFN2 directly affects ß2 integrin activation. Our study illustrates the function of MFN2 in leukocyte adhesion and may provide new insights into the development and treatment of MFN2 deficiency-related diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD18 , Neutrófilos , Antígenos CD18/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina , Infiltração de Neutrófilos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884704

RESUMO

A large number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) invade the ocular surface during prolonged eye closure (sleep); these leukocytes are commonly referred as tear PMNs. PMNs contribute to homeostasis and possess an arsenal of inflammatory mediators to protect against pathogens and foreign materials. This study examined the ability of tear PMNs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), an essential killing mechanism for PMNs which can lead to oxidative stress and imbalance. Cells were collected after sleep from healthy participants using a gentle eye wash. ROS production in stimulated (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)) and unstimulated tear PMNs was measured using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence for 60 min. A high level of constitutive/spontaneous ROS production was observed in tear PMNs in the absence of any stimulus. While tear PMNs were able to produce ROS in response to PMA, they failed to appropriately respond to LPS and fMLP, although fMLP-stimulated tear PMNs generated ROS extracellularly in the first three minutes. Higher ROS generation was observed in isolated tear PMNs which may be due to priming from the magnetic bead cell separation system. The differential responses of tear PMNs in ROS generation provide further evidence of their potential inflammatory roles in ocular complications involving oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Lágrimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Adulto , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lágrimas/citologia , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675073

RESUMO

Neutrophils sense and migrate through an enormous range of chemoattractant gradients through adaptation. Here, we reveal that in human neutrophils, calcium-promoted Ras inactivator (CAPRI) locally controls the GPCR-stimulated Ras adaptation. Human neutrophils lacking CAPRI (caprikd ) exhibit chemoattractant-induced, nonadaptive Ras activation; significantly increased phosphorylation of AKT, GSK-3α/3ß, and cofilin; and excessive actin polymerization. caprikd cells display defective chemotaxis in response to high-concentration gradients but exhibit improved chemotaxis in low- or subsensitive-concentration gradients of various chemoattractants, as a result of their enhanced sensitivity. Taken together, our data reveal that CAPRI controls GPCR activation-mediated Ras adaptation and lowers the sensitivity of human neutrophils so that they are able to chemotax through a higher-concentration range of chemoattractant gradients.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/imunologia , Proteínas ras/antagonistas & inibidores , Actinas/imunologia , Movimento Celular , Polaridade Celular , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HL-60 , Humanos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Neutrófilo/genética , Ativação de Neutrófilo/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/imunologia , Complexo Shelterina/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/imunologia , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/deficiência , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética , Proteínas ras/imunologia
18.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 55(5): 858-869, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671008

RESUMO

Neutrophils fight with invading pathogens through various mechanisms including degranulation, phagocytosis, and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). This study aimed to determine the impact of a synthetic formyl-peptide (FMLP) on human neutrophils in vitro, and to determine the role of mitoxantrone (MTX), a pharmacological blocker of mitochondrial Ca^(2+) Uniporter (MCU), on FMLP-induced alterations. Isolated neutrophils and a whole-blood preparation of neutrophils were pre-treated with MTX and then stimulated with FMLP. Field's-stained smears and brightfield microscopy were employed for morphological characterization and quantification of neutrophils. The release of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was also measured for determining neutrophil damage. Our data demonstrated degenerative changes in neutrophils and a greater cfDNA release upon stimulation with FMLP which was negatively associated with the presence of resting platelets in whole blood preparation. Interestingly, MTX pre-treatment significantly reduced FMLP-triggered neutrophil damage and cfDNA release. Metformin, a known inhibitor of NETs formation, also decreased the FMLP-induced changes in neutrophils. In addition to confirming the degenerative potential of FMLP, this study reveals a novel contribution of MCU in regulating FMLP-induced morphological alterations in human neutrophils.


Assuntos
Mitoxantrona , Neutrófilos , Plaquetas , Humanos , Mitoxantrona/farmacologia , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Peptídeos
19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1179: 338827, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535266

RESUMO

Infectious and inflammatory diseases involve superoxide anion (O2•-) production. Real-time and non-invasive evaluation of O2•- in intact biological systems has been a significant challenge in biology and medicine. Here, I report that an advanced near-infrared chemiluminescent probe, MCLA-800, enables reliable non-invasive optical readout of O2•-ex vivo and in vivo. MCLA-800 allowed highly selective and sensitive monitoring of O2•- in undiluted human whole blood ex vivo. For the first time, the use of MCLA-800 revealed two reproducible types of O2•- production in response to stimulation by unopsonized zymosan particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that is, slow response (S-type) and fast response (F-type), specific to each individual. O2•- production was synchronized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) activation in the former type but not in the latter. Moreover, as new findings, MCLA-800 chemiluminescence demonstrated that the chemiluminescence intensity-time properties of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced O2•- production and MPO activity were independent of S- and F-type zymosan-induced MCLA-800 chemiluminescence whole blood and that PMA-induced MPO activation synchronized with PMA-induced O2•- production in S- and F-type zymosan-induced MCLA-800 chemiluminescence whole blood, but fMLP-induced MPO activation did not synchronize with fMLP-induced O2•- production in both of S- and F-type blood. Furthermore, MCLA-800 spatiotemporally allowed non-invasive and clear in vivo imaging of O2•- in animal models of acute dermatitis and focal arthritis. Therefore, MCLA-800 could be possibly applied in various advanced diagnostic techniques.


Assuntos
Medições Luminescentes , Superóxidos , Animais , Humanos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina , Peroxidase , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol
20.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(9): 552-557, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543534

RESUMO

Bacterial rhinosinusitis (BRS) is a complicated form of rhinosinusitis, characterized by its acute course and tendency to chronicity. A significant role in pathogenetic mechanisms of HRS is played by functional state of neutrophils responsible for inflammation development at HRS. Investigation of neutrophils metabolic activity on external stimuli by chemiluminescence method in patients with acute and chronic forms of the disease will enable to develop method of differential diagnostics of BRS forms. The examination of 65 patients with BRS which were divided into patients with acute form (n=35) and chronic form of the disease (n=30) was carried out. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects. Functional activity of neutrophils was studied in whole blood by chemiluminescence with double stimulation (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). In patients with the acute form of BRS we found an increase in parameters of specific maximum intensity of neutrophils luminescence, light sum of spontaneous and stimulated luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and a decrease in time to maximum output. Patients with the chronic form of BRS revealed a decrease in the luminescence of spontaneous, stimulated neutrophil production and maximum luminescence intensity. On the basis of significant differences in chemiluminescence indices of neutrophils, a method of differential diagnosis of the BRS forms was developed. The results obtained testify to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils in the process of killing in patients with acute form of LRS and depletion of cell function and reserve in patients with the chronic form. Developed on the basis of the studied indicators method of diagnosing the forms of BRS by chemiluminescence will allow to differentiate acute and chronic forms of the disease, which will increase the effectiveness of treatment of patients.


Assuntos
Medições Luminescentes , Neutrófilos , Humanos , Luminol , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
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