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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-12-06. (OPS/LEG/DH/dhs8/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55301

RESUMO

En esta publicación se presentan los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en la protección del derecho a la salud y a una alimentación adecuada.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Nações Unidas , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Segurança Alimentar , Direitos Civis , Discriminação Social , Nutrição do Lactente , Nutrição da Criança , Nutrição Materna
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-12-03. (OPS/LEG/DH/dhs7/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55293

RESUMO

La Región de las Américas constituye un territorio extremadamente rico desde el punto de vista de la diversidad cultural, en la cual se presentan una variedad de desafíos relacionados con el reconocimiento y el respeto de los derechos humanos de los miembros de los pueblos indígenas, los afrodescendientes, los romaníes, así como de otros grupos étnicos. A lo largo del curso de la vida, estas personas experimentan discriminación estructural y poca representatividad e inclusión en los procesos de toma de decisiones, lo cual dificulta su acceso a los servicios de salud, afecta la calidad de la atención que reciben y tiene un efecto general en sus condiciones de vida. Por tanto, la protección y la promoción de su salud y seguridad socioeconómica es una cuestión no solo de política pública, sino también de protección y ejercicio de los derechos humanos. En esta publicación se presentan los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en el derecho a la salud, al medio ambiente sano y otros derechos relacionados con el cuidado del planeta.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Diversidade Cultural , Nações Unidas , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Ar , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes da Água , Água Potável , Mudança Climática , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
3.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(5): 447-456, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919369

RESUMO

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities promotes the active and responsible participation of this group of people in medical care decision-making. The informed consent is the process which promotes their autonomy for an integral and inclusive approach that enhaces their competence and legal capacity. To protect the validity of the informed consent, some recommendations are proposed. These must improve reception, analysis, and comprehension of medical information through support, and reasonable accommodation focused on the person and the environment, and they must be in agreement with the Convention.


Assuntos
Bioética , Pessoas com Deficiência , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Nações Unidas
4.
Creat Nurs ; 27(4): 242-244, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903626

RESUMO

There is an urgent call to redesign health care to be more equitable, to address the climate change crisis, and to implement the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the health of the global community. Now is the time for nurses to get involved in leading these necessary changes. In 2019, the authors were chosen to present a concurrent session at the 68th United Nations Civil Society Conference. The conference focused on SDG 11, Building Inclusive and Sustainable Cities and Communities. The experience convinced the authors that nurses have unique knowledge and skills to contribute to the mission of the United Nations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas , Mudança Climática , Humanos
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 5883-5895, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909981

RESUMO

Eradicating modern slavery is a relevant scientific, social, and institutional challenge issue. Indeed, efforts are being made globally to understand, map, and eradicate contemporary slavery as a target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. However, little attention has been given to the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) in the strategies and struggle against exploiting relationships. In order to fill this gap, the paper discusses contemporary slave labor (CSL) and its specificities in Brazil from an occupational health surveillance perspective. We initially highlight the link between CSL, occupational health, and occupational health surveillance (VISAT). We then present three VISAT challenges to addressing CSL: the challenging task of characterizing economic sectors and populations most affected; identifying determinants, risks, and effects on health; and strengthening occupational health practices and services to trigger specific actions regarding formation, information, and intervention in regions of high CSL prevalence. We conclude that Occupational Health Surveillance can play an essential role in the emancipation of workers engaged in slavery relationships.


Assuntos
Pessoas Escravizadas , Escravização , Saúde do Trabalhador , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nações Unidas
6.
ACS Nano ; 15(12): 18608-18623, 2021 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910476

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has important roles to play in international efforts in sustainability. We discuss how current and future capabilities in nanotechnology align with and support the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. We argue that, as a field, we can accelerate the progress toward these goals both directly through technological solutions and through our special interdisciplinary skills in communication and tackling difficult challenges. We discuss the roles of targeting solutions, technology translation, the circular economy, and a number of examples from national efforts around the world in reaching these goals. We have formed a network of leading nanocenters to address these challenges globally and seek to recruit others to join us.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas , Nanotecnologia
7.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(2): 49-61, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966224

RESUMO

Pesticide exposure and poisoning among children can lead to devastating long-lasting health effects that impact their human rights, with communities in low- and middle-income countries experiencing the negative impacts of pesticides more profoundly than those in high-income countries. While United Nations agencies recommend banning highly hazardous pesticides responsible for serious pesticide poisonings, childhood pesticide poisoning is rarely discussed, especially from a human rights perspective. In India, a country with a large population of children and widespread pesticide use, no law or policy addresses pesticide poisoning among children. This lack of prioritization leads to gaps in poisoning surveillance and lack of government action to prevent poisoning, causing violations of children's rights. The proposed pesticides ban can reduce pesticide poisoning among children in India, but to fully protect children's rights, the government needs to establish comprehensive pesticide poisoning surveillance and ensure the mainstreaming of pesticide poisoning prevention into law and policy based on a human rights framework.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Criança , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Índia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Nações Unidas
8.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(2): 81-94, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966227

RESUMO

The global community is facing an existential crisis that threatens the web of life on this planet. Climate change, in addition to being a fundamental justice and ethical issue, constitutes a human rights challenge. It is a human rights challenge because it undermines the ability to promote human flourishing and welfare through the implementation of human rights, particularly the right to life and the right to health. It is also a human rights challenge because climate change disproportionately impacts poor and the vulnerable people in both low-income and high-income countries. Those living in many low-income countries are subject to the worst impacts of climate change even though they have contributed negligibly to the problem. Further, low-income countries have the fewest resources and capabilities at present to adapt or cope with the severe, long-lasting impacts of climate change. Building on human rights principles of accountability and redress for human rights violations, this paper responds to this injustice by seeking to make long-neglected societal amends through the implementation of the concept of climate reparations. After discussing the scientific evidence for climate change, its environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and the ethical and human rights justifications for climate reparations, the paper proposes the creation of a new global institutional mechanism, the Global Climate Reparations Fund, which would be linked with the United Nations Human Rights Council, to fund and take action on climate reparations. This paper also identifies which parties are most responsible for the current global climate crisis, both historically and currently, and should therefore fund the largest proportion of climate-related reparations.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Justiça Social , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Nações Unidas
9.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(2): 253-267, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966240

RESUMO

The global tuberculosis (TB) response has undergone a transformation in recent years. Calls for a paradigm shift have inspired a new focus on the importance of communities, human rights, and gender in the response. This focus has led to new approaches and innovative tools to fight an age-old disease that still affects millions each year. Notable among these tools is the Stop TB Partnership's community, rights, and gender (CRG) assessment. TB civil society and community groups, in partnership with national TB programs and others, have conducted the CRG assessment in 20 countries across four regions. Using the normative right to health framework, this article analyzes the evidence base generated by this assessment to understand the communities, legal environments, and gender dynamics at the heart of the epidemic. It describes an array of issues revealed by the assessment findings, including limited access to health services, disease-based discrimination, lack of privacy protections, and the impact of patriarchal norms on women affected by TB. Finally, this article considers how to strengthen the CRG assessment and how countries affected by TB and their donors and technical partners can leverage its findings in line with the Sustainable Development Goals and the political declaration from the first-ever United Nations High-Level Meeting on Tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Tuberculose , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Nações Unidas
10.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9324

RESUMO

Bate Papo na Saúde – Relatório ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas: Esta edição do Bate Papo na Saúde fala sobre o relatório ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas. O mais recente relatório do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas, o IPCC, na sigla em inglês, vinculado a Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU), não deixou dúvidas. A ação humana é responsável pelas mudanças climáticas que ameaçam o planeta. Por isso, o Bate Papo na Saúde discute o Relatório da ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas. Com foco nisso, o apresentador Renato Farias discute o Relatório da ONU sobre Mudanças Climáticas com o geógrafo e pesquisador do Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde (Icict/Fiocruz), Christovam Barcellos e com o professor do Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Paulo Artaxo. Programa exibido em 6 de setembro de 2021. Apresentador: Renato Farias O Bate Papo na Saúde é um programa de entrevistas que leva temas da saúde pública para a tela do Canal Saúde.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental , Vetores de Doenças , Vazamento de Gases/políticas , Institutos Governamentais de Pesquisa , Desastres Naturais/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Entrevista , Nações Unidas , Grupos de Risco ,
11.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48504

RESUMO

O Pacto Global das Nações Unidas anunciou hoje que proibiria as empresas de tabaco e qualquer outra organização que obtenha renda com a produção ou fabricação de produtos de tabaco de participar da iniciativa.


Assuntos
Nações Unidas , Indústria do Tabaco
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770219

RESUMO

The right of people with disability to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health without discrimination on the basis of disability is enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Among its obligations as a signatory to the CRPD, Australia is required to collect appropriate information, including statistical and research data, to inform development and implementation of policies to give effect to the Convention. In this commentary, we first describe how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) conceptual model of disability can be operationalised in statistical data collections, with a focus on how this is achieved in key Australian data sources such that people with disability can be identified as a population group. We then review existing statistical data on health and health service use for people with disability in Australia, highlighting data gaps and limitations. Finally, we outline priorities and considerations for improving data on health and access to health services for people with disability. As well as conceptual, practical, and ethical considerations, a key principle that must guide future disability data development is that people with disability and their representative organisations must be involved and participate fully in the development of disability data and statistics, and in their use.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Austrália , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Nações Unidas
13.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-22. (OPS/LEG/DH/dhs5/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55203

RESUMO

En esta publicación se presentan los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en el derecho a la salud de las personas mayores en los países de la Región de las Américas.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Nações Unidas , Idoso , Saúde do Idoso , Envelhecimento , Cobertura Universal de Saúde
14.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-22. (OPS/LEG/DH/dhs3/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55201

RESUMO

En esta publicación se presentan los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en el derecho a la salud de las personas con discapacidad en los países de la Región de las Américas.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Nações Unidas , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Saúde da Pessoa com Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental , América , Crianças com Deficiência , Discriminação Social , Políticas Públicas de não Discriminação
15.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-22. (OPS/LEG/DH/dhs2/21-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55200

RESUMO

En esta publicación se presentan los instrumentos internacionales y regionales de derechos humanos y los sistemas de protección de esos derechos instaurados por las Naciones Unidas y el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, así como medidas para hacerlos efectivos, con especial hincapié en el derecho a la salud de las personas con alteraciones de la salud mental en los países de las Américas.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Saúde Mental , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Transtornos Mentais , Nações Unidas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
16.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003831, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UNAIDS has established new program targets for 2025 to achieve the goal of eliminating AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. This study reports on efforts to use mathematical models to estimate the impact of achieving those targets. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We simulated the impact of achieving the targets at country level using the Goals model, a mathematical simulation model of HIV epidemic dynamics that includes the impact of prevention and treatment interventions. For 77 high-burden countries, we fit the model to surveillance and survey data for 1970 to 2020 and then projected the impact of achieving the targets for the period 2019 to 2030. Results from these 77 countries were extrapolated to produce estimates for 96 others. Goals model results were checked by comparing against projections done with the Optima HIV model and the AIDS Epidemic Model (AEM) for selected countries. We included estimates of the impact of societal enablers (access to justice and law reform, stigma and discrimination elimination, and gender equality) and the impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results show that achieving the 2025 targets would reduce new annual infections by 83% (71% to 86% across regions) and AIDS-related deaths by 78% (67% to 81% across regions) by 2025 compared to 2010. Lack of progress on societal enablers could endanger these achievements and result in as many as 2.6 million (44%) cumulative additional new HIV infections and 440,000 (54%) more AIDS-related deaths between 2020 and 2030 compared to full achievement of all targets. COVID-19-related disruptions could increase new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 10% in the next 2 years, but targets could still be achieved by 2025. Study limitations include the reliance on self-reports for most data on behaviors, the use of intervention effect sizes from published studies that may overstate intervention impacts outside of controlled study settings, and the use of proxy countries to estimate the impact in countries with fewer than 4,000 annual HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: The new targets for 2025 build on the progress made since 2010 and represent ambitious short-term goals. Achieving these targets would bring us close to the goals of reducing new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% between 2010 and 2030. By 2025, global new infections and AIDS deaths would drop to 4.4 and 3.9 per 100,000 population, and the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) would be declining. There would be 32 million people on treatment, and they would need continuing support for their lifetime. Incidence for the total global population would be below 0.15% everywhere. The number of PLHIV would start declining by 2023.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Saúde Global , Objetivos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde Pública , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , Causas de Morte , Epidemias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Nações Unidas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United Nations (UN) created the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) to monitor progress toward achieving goals of the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection, and Development of Children and its plan of action. The MICS is nationally representative and internationally comparable. METHODS: In this study, we use MICS data from 51 low- and middle-income countries on 159 959 children between 36 and 59 months of age. To index national development, we used the 2013 UN Human Development Index (HDI), which provides data on country-level life expectancy, education, and income. To index child development, we used the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI), which assesses literacy and numeracy, socioemotional development, physical health, and approaches to learning. RESULTS: Children's literacy and numeracy, socioemotional development, and approaches to learning all increase linearly as national development on the HDI (especially education) increases. Overall, the HDI revealed a positive association (r = 0.40) with the ECDI: the HDI explained 16% of variance in children's ECDI scores and was the most influential predictor of ECDI scores examined. HDI-ECDI relations are robust, even when we control for multiple demographic aspects of children (age, sex), mothers (age, education), and households (size variables) as covariates. No family demographic variable was a stronger predictor of child development than national development. CONCLUSIONS: To promote child development, low- and middle-income countries need to develop and implement policies that ensure national health and wealth and, particularly, the educational achievements of children's caregivers. These findings are faithful to the World Summit for Children and inform the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which drive the international development agenda through 2030.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Países em Desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Inteligência Emocional , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Expectativa de Vida , Alfabetização , Idade Materna , Matemática/educação , Mães/educação , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nações Unidas
18.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(4): 267-269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666962

RESUMO

Twenty-five years after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) mandate in 1994, India has fallen far short of providing universal access to preventive and treatment services for infertility. This mandate was a call to "prioritize the reproductive health and rights of all people" (1), and reproductive health was defined as.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Nações Unidas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639630

RESUMO

In recent years, global attention to disability inclusion in humanitarian and development contexts, notably comprising disability inclusion within the Sustainable Development Goals, has significantly increased. As a result, UN agencies and programmes are increasingly seeking to understand and increase the extent to which persons with disabilities are accounted for and included in their efforts to provide life-saving assistance. To explore the effects and effectiveness of such measurement, this paper applies a complexity-informed, realist evaluation methodology to a case study of a single measurement intervention. This intervention, 'A9', was the first indicator designed to measure the number of persons with disabilities assisted annually by the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP). Realist logic of analysis combined with complexity theory was employed to generate context-mechanism-outcome configurations (CMOC's) against which primary interviews and secondary data were analysed. We show that within the complexity of the WFP system, the roll-out of the A9 measurement intervention generated delayed, counter-intuitive and unanticipated effects. In turn, path dependency and emergent behaviours meant that the intervention mechanisms of yesterday were destined to become the implementation context of tomorrow. These findings challenge the current reliance on quantitative data within humanitarian-development disability inclusion efforts and contribute to our understanding of how data can best be leveraged to support inclusion in such contexts.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Nações Unidas
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