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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641369

RESUMO

Flavonoids from plants play an important role in our diet. Watercress is a special plant that is rich in flavonoids. In this study, four important watercress varieties were compared with non-heading Chinese cabbage by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). A total of 132 flavonoid metabolites (including 8 anthocyanins, 2 dihydroflavone, 3 dihydroflavonol, 1 flavanols, 22 flavones, 11 flavonoid carbonosides, 82 flavonols, and 3 isoflavones) were detected. Flavonoid metabolites varied widely in different samples. Both the non-heading Chinese cabbage and the variety of watercress from Guangdong, China, had their own unique metabolites. This work is helpful to better understand flavonoid metabolites between the non-heading Chinese cabbage and the other four watercress varieties, and to provide a reliable reference value for further research.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Metaboloma , Nasturtium/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , China
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361814

RESUMO

The study demonstrated the effects of precursor feeding on the production of glucosinolates (GSLs), flavonoids, polyphenols, saccharides, and photosynthetic pigments in Nasturtium officinale microshoot cultures grown in Plantform bioreactors. It also evaluated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts. L-phenylalanine (Phe) and L-tryptophan (Trp) as precursors were tested at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mM. They were added at the beginning (day 0) or on day 10 of the culture. Microshoots were harvested after 20 days. Microshoots treated with 3.0 mM Phe (day 0) had the highest total GSL content (269.20 mg/100 g DW). The qualitative and quantitative profiles of the GSLs (UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS) were influenced by precursor feeding. Phe at 3.0 mM stimulated the best production of 4-methoxyglucobrassicin (149.99 mg/100 g DW) and gluconasturtiin (36.17 mg/100 g DW). Total flavonoids increased to a maximum of 1364.38 mg/100 g DW with 3.0 mM Phe (day 0), and polyphenols to a maximum of 1062.76 mg/100 g DW with 3.0 mM Trp (day 0). The precursors also increased the amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, and rutoside, and generally increased the production of active photosynthetic pigments. Antioxidant potential increased the most with 0.1 mM Phe (day 0) (CUPRAC, FRAP), and with 0.5 mM Trp (day 10) (DPPH). The extracts of microshoots treated with 3.0 mM Phe (day 0) showed the most promising bacteriostatic activity against microaerobic Gram-positive acne strains (MIC 250-500 µg/mL, 20-21 mm inhibition zones). No extract was cytotoxic to normal human fibroblasts over the tested concentration range (up to 250 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Nasturtium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Nasturtium/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schisandra/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Phytother Res ; 35(4): 2211-2219, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507592

RESUMO

Studies have demonstrated that diet rich in cruciferous vegetables of the Brassicaceae family can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress levels. Nasturtium officinale (Brassicaceae), commonly known as watercress is a perennial dicotyledonous plant usually found close to water. Although previous investigations have demonstrated the beneficial effects of watercress on hypercholesterolemia in animal studies, until now no such studies have been conducted with humans, up to this time. This study aimed to investigate whether overweight individuals were able to improve or maintain their serum lipid and oxidative stress markers when given standardized extract of Nasturtium officinale (SENO) as a supplement. This was a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial conducted over 5 weeks. Thirty-four overweight people with physical disabilities were selected randomly to participate in this study and then they were assigned randomly to two groups, one treated with 750 mg//kg/d of SENO and the other treated with 750 mg/kg/d of placebo. The results indicated that SENO caused a significant improvement in the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine, and lipid peroxidation. However, SENO did not cause a significant statistical change in total serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and high-density lipoprotein levels; catalase, superoxide dismutase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and urea parameters. The present data might provide supportive evidence that SENO did not cause any harm and positively affected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol profile and creatinine as well as lipid peroxidation levels in the participants. Nevertheless, further studies are suggested to clarify the results presented in this clinical trial.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nasturtium/química , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Adulto , Pessoas com Deficiência , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
New Phytol ; 229(1): 140-155, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792981

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms controlling underwater elongation are based extensively on studies on internode elongation in the monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and petiole elongation in Rumex rosette species. Here, we characterize underwater growth in the dicot Nasturtium officinale (watercress), a wild species of the Brassicaceae family, in which submergence enhances stem elongation and suppresses petiole growth. We used a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed antithetical growth responses. Though submergence caused a substantial reconfiguration of the petiole and stem transcriptome, only little qualitative differences were observed between both tissues. A core submergence response included hormonal regulation and metabolic readjustment for energy conservation, whereas tissue-specific responses were associated with defense, photosynthesis, and cell wall polysaccharides. Transcriptomic and physiological characterization suggested that the established ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), and GA growth regulatory module for underwater elongation could not fully explain underwater growth in watercress. Petiole growth suppression is likely attributed to a cell cycle arrest. Underwater stem elongation is driven by an early decline in ABA and is not primarily mediated by ethylene or GA. An enhanced stem elongation observed in the night period was not linked to hypoxia and suggests an involvement of circadian regulation.


Assuntos
Nasturtium , Oryza , Rumex , Ácido Abscísico , Giberelinas , Oryza/genética , Água
5.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187324

RESUMO

The main compounds in both extracts were gluconasturtiin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and rutoside, the amounts of which were, respectively, determined as 182.93, 58.86 and 23.24 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) in biomass extracts and 640.94, 23.47 and 7.20 mg/100 g DW in plant herb extracts. The antioxidant potential of all the studied extracts evaluated using CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Activity), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assays was comparable. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was tested based on the inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phospholipase A2. The results demonstrate significantly higher inhibition of COX-2 for in vitro cultured biomass compared with the herb extracts (75.4 and 41.1%, respectively). Moreover, all the studied extracts showed almost similar antibacterial and antifungal potential. Based on these findings, and due to the fact that the growth of in vitro microshoots is independent of environmental conditions and unaffected by environmental pollution, we propose that biomass that can be rapidly grown in RITA® bioreactors can serve as an alternative source of bioactive compounds with valuable biological properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/química , Nasturtium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Flavonoides/química , Imersão , Nasturtium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Picratos/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825613

RESUMO

This paper presents an optimization of conditions for microshoot cultures of Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (watercress). Variants of the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators (PGRs): cytokinins-BA (6-benzyladenine), 2iP (6-γ,γ-dimethylallylaminopurine), KIN (kinetin), Zea (zeatin), and auxins-IAA (3-indoleacetic acid), IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 2,4-d (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), IPA (indole-3-pyruvic acid), NAA (naphthalene-1-acetic acid), total 27 MS variants, were tested in agar and agitated cultures. Growth cycles were tested for 10, 20, or 30 days in the agar cultures, and 10 or 20 days in the agitated cultures. Glucosinolate and phenolic acid production, total phenolic content and antioxidant potential were evaluated. The total amounts of glucosinolates ranged from 100.23 to 194.77 mg/100 g dry weight of biomass (DW) in agar cultures, and from 78.09 to 182.80 mg/100 g DW in agitated cultures. The total phenolic acid content varied from 15.89 to 237.52 mg/100 g DW for the agar cultures, and from 70.80 to 236.74 mg/100 g DW for the agitated cultures. Extracts of the cultured biomass contained higher total amounts of phenolic acids, lower total amounts of glucosinolates, a higher total phenolic content and similar antioxidant potentials compared to plant material. The analyses performed confirmed for the first time the explicit influence on secondary metabolite production and on the antioxidant potential. The significance was statistically estimated in a complex manner.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Nasturtium/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Meios de Cultura/química , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Glucosinolatos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/química , Espectrofotometria
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(7): 5001-5012, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533401

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is used in the management of autoimmune conditions and malignant illnesses. However, its therapeutic use is limited because of its severe side effects, especially hepatotoxicity attributed to oxidative stress. Nasturtium officinale R. Br (watercress or WC) has pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammation, and antioxidant activities. Therefore, the present study was design to assess effects of WC or its active ingredient, quercetin (QE), against CPA-induced hepatotoxicity. For this study, 49 male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly selected and categorized into seven equal groups. The animals were pre- and post-treated with both hydroalcoholic extract of WC (500 mg/kg) and quercetin (75 mg/kg) for 10 consecutive days, and intraperitoneal administration of CPA (200 mg/kg) was performed on only day 10, one hour before the last dose of WC or quercetin. On day 11, all the animals were sacrificed, and their blood and liver were gathered for evaluation of the liver enzyme, hepatic oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes activity, and hematoxylin and eosin staining. CPA significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and liver biomarkers. Otherwise, hepatic catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiol content (tSH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were considerably lower than the control group. Results showed that WC has the ability to reduce the changes (MDA, PCO, FRAP, CAT, ALT and AST) and QE (MDA, PCO, AST) induced by CPA (p < 0.05). Histopathological finding confirmed the indicated results. These findings propose that WC and QE have protective effect against the CPA-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Nasturtium/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Phytother Res ; 34(10): 2756-2765, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510696

RESUMO

It is well established that plants from the Brassicaceae family, particularly watercress, have been associated to reduce oxidative DNA damage. Nasturtium officinale R. Br (watercress) contains glucosinolates, with anti-inflammatory action and protective effect on human health against oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate whether the standardized extract of Nasturtium officinale (SENO) is capable of changing biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in people with physical disabilities. 65 people enrolled this study: as a control group composed by; 15 people with no physical disability assessed once, 25 people with physical disabilities using 750 mg/kg/day of SENO, and 25 people with physical disabilities using 750 mg/kg/day of placebo-control for 5 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were analyzed on day 0 and 36. The results indicated that SENO was associated with decreasing levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and C-reactive protein. Furthermore, the cytokine kit demonstrated below and out of invertible range, which was impossible to detect the inflammatory process. Despite the cytokine kit was not able to detect the inflammation; these data might provide supportive evidence that SENO, have affected positively people with physical disabilities decreasing their biomarkers of oxidative stress and C-reactive protein. Further studies are required.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Nasturtium/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 156, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examines the antimicrobial activity of nasturtium herb (Tropaeoli maji herba) and horseradish root (Armoraciae rusticanae radix) against clinically important oral bacterial pathogens involved in periodontitis, gingivitis, pulpitis, implantitis and other infectious diseases. METHODS: A total of 15 oral pathogens, including members of the genera Campylobacter, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Porphyromonas, Tanerella, Veillonella, and HACEK organisms, were exposed to [1] a combination of herbal nasturtium and horseradish using a standardized gas test and [2] a mixture of synthetic Isothiocyantes (ITCs) using an agardilution test. Headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry was employed to quantify the amount of allyl-, benzyl-, and 2- phenyl- ethyl-ITC. RESULTS: With exception of Veillonella parvula, all tested species were highly susceptible to herbal nasturtium and horseradish in the gas test with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 50/20 mg and 200/80 mg and to synthetic ITCs in the agardilution with MICs between 0.0025 and 0.08 mg ITC/mL, respectively. Minimal bactericidal concentrations extended from 0.005 mg ITC/mL to 0.34 mg ITC/mL. CONCLUSIONS: ITCs may be considered an interesting alternative to antibiotics for prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal infections, periodontitis and related diseases. Furthermore, the suitability of ITCs for endocarditis prophylaxis in dental procedures might be worth further investigation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Armoracia/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nasturtium/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Mostardeira , Raízes de Plantas/química , Pós
11.
Parasite ; 27: 17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186511

RESUMO

Field investigations in 14 wild watercress beds located in the French region of Limousin, a known endemic area for distomatosis, were performed for three years to determine the distance that cercariae of Fasciola hepatica can reach in water before their encystment on the host plant. Each bed was located on the course of an open drainage furrow, while snails (Galba truncatula) lived upstream around the emergence of a source. Five plant species were collected in early April and examined to find metacercariae. Most cysts were noted on Nasturtium officinale (188 on 48.7 kg of dripped plants), followed by Helosciadium nodiflorum (125 on 33.4 kg). On the other plant species, there were few larvae. Most cercariae encysted on the plants growing in the most upstream part of each bed, usually on the first 50 cm in length. When water in the beds was fast running, the distribution of metacercariae was more limited and their number was fewer than those in the beds fed by a slow flow of water. Cercariae were able to swim or were carried away by the current up to a mean of 5 m in slow-flow waters before encysting; this distance was only 4 m in faster waters. Plants growing on the most upstream section of a watercress bed located in a drainage furrow are the most used by cercariae for their encystment, when snails live around the emergence of a source. The speed of the water current affected the number and distribution of metacercariae in the bed.


Assuntos
Cercárias/fisiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Fasciola hepatica/fisiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Larva , Metacercárias , Nasturtium/parasitologia , Plantas/parasitologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023999

RESUMO

This study examines a farmer-led initiative to sow watercress (Nasturtium officinale) in field ditches. The objective was to assess the potential of this practice to mitigate summer nutrient loads in rivers. Two ditches-one seeded, the other unseeded-on a mixed-livestock farm in Eastern Scotland were monitored during the spring-summer of 2014-2016. The un-replicated trial design limited statistical analysis. However, changes in N and P concentrations along the two ditches were measured. In the watercress-seeded ditch, N retention of 0.092 g/m2/d (p < 0.001, SE = 0.020) and P retention of 0.0092 g/m2/d (p = 0.001, SE = 0.0028) occurred, while total organic C in the water increased along the ditch. Retention was close to zero for the unseeded ditch. The seeded ditch was also found to have more dry matter production and lower stream temperature. The impact of plastic covering (to increase spring temperature) on vegetation and nutrient removal was also assessed on replicate 5-m sections of the ditches. No significant impact on N and P removal was found; however, the release of C increased significantly in the plastic-covered sections. The rise in air temperature (up to > 30 ℃) promoted a greater growth of opportunist species (nettle (Urtica), rush (Juncus), and grasses. These observations were used to make a simple assessment of the potential catchment scale impact of seeding watercress into first and second order streams in the nearby Lunan Water catchment. It was concluded that this could make a significant contribution to the reduction of nutrient loads.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Nasturtium , Humanos , Nutrientes , Rios , Escócia
13.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033149

RESUMO

Microalgae are microorganisms with the capacity to contribute to the sustainable and healthy food production, in addition to wastewater treatment. The subject of this work was to determine the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus microalga grown in brewery wastewater to act as a plant biostimulant. The germination index of watercress seeds, as well as the auxin-like activity in mung bean and cucumber, and in the cytokinin-like activity in cucumber bioassays were used to evaluate the biostimulant potential. Several biomass processes were studied, such as centrifugation, ultrasonication and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as the final concentration of microalgal extracts to determine their influence in the biostimulant activity of the Scenedesmus biomass. The results showed an increase of 40% on the germination index when using the biomass at 0.1 g/L, without any pre-treatment. For auxin-like activity, the best results (up to 60% with respect to control) were obtained at 0.5 g/L of biomass extract, after a combination of cell disruption, enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation. For cytokinin-like activity, the best results (up to 187.5% with respect to control) were achieved without cell disruption, after enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation at a biomass extract concentration of 2 g/L.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nasturtium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Citocininas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/análise
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(4): 1413-1421, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625270

RESUMO

Watercress leaf and passion fruit seed macerates produce volatile organic compounds toxic to Meloidogyne incognita and 1-octanol, found in volatile emissions of watercress leaves, shows nematicidal activity against M. incognita.


Assuntos
Nasturtium , Passiflora , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Frutas , Folhas de Planta , Sementes
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6312-6325, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865563

RESUMO

Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of two types of biochar (2% (w/w)), Pennisetum sinese Roxb biochar (PB) and coffee grounds biochar (CB), combined with iron fertilizer (1.3 g kg-1 Fe) on the growth, quality, Cd/Pb accumulation in watercress, soil physicochemical properties, soil fertility, soil enzyme activities, and fraction distribution of Cd/Pb in soil. The results showed that the two types of biochar combined with iron fertilizer (BC-Fe) amendments could increase the shoot height, root length, plant biomass, soluble sugar and soluble protein of watercress, soil pH value, soil organic matter (SOM), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), available phosphorus, and available potassium. CB-Fe amendment enhanced soil urease, sucrose, and catalase activities, while PB-Fe amendment only enhanced soil urease activity among the three enzymes. The two BC-Fe amendments decreased exchangeable-Cd/Pb and reducible-Cd/Pb concentrations, while enhanced oxidizable-Cd/Pb and residual-Cd/Pb concentrations. Furthermore, the two BC-Fe amendments decreased significantly Cd and Pb accumulation in watercress root and shoot. The reduction rate for Cd and Pb in shoot by 42.9%, 20.0%, and 68.2%, 58.4% under PB-Fe and by 38.1%, 20%, and 62.5%, 48.8% under CB-Fe, respectively, for the first crop and the second crop. In conclusion, BC-Fe amendment could improve soil physicochemical properties and soil fertility, promote Cd and Pb transfer to the stable form, thus, reduce the bioavailability and mobility of Cd and Pb, and further, decrease Cd and Pb ecotoxicity and its accumulation in watercress and improve watercress quality.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Nasturtium/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Ferro , Chumbo/análise , Oryza , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 446-451, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001448

RESUMO

Abstract Urban agriculture is very common in the cities, as Rio de Janeiro and adjacencies, being important as economic activity. However, this practice can create appropriate conditions for establishment and maintenance of life cycle of many parasites. Lymneid snails can act as intermediate hosts of many trematodes species, including those that infect humans and wild and domestic. In the present study, the snail Lymnaea columella was collected from an urban watercress plantations and the morphology of cercariae released by them was analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The specimens were identified as xiphidiocercariae, belonging to the Cercariae Ornatae group, of the order Plagiorchiiformes. Histological examination of the digestive gland of the infected snails revealed the presence of developing sporocysts, with hemocitary infiltration and metaplasia in the epithelial tissue.


Resumo Agricultura urbana é muito comum nas cidades, como Rio de Janeiro e adjacências, sendo uma importante atividade econômica de subsistência. No entanto, esta prática pode criar condições adequadas para o estabelecimento e manutenção do ciclo de vida de muitos parasitos. Os moluscos limneídeos podem atuar como hospedeiros intermédios de muitas espécies de trematódeos, incluindo aqueles que infectam humanos e animais selvagens e domésticos. No presente estudo, o molusco Lymnaea columella foi coletado de plantações urbanas de agrião e a morfologia das cercárias liberadas por eles foi analisada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura leve e de varredura. As larvas foram identificadas como xifidiocercárias, pertencentes ao grupo das Cercariae Ornatae, Ordem Plagiorchiiformes. Análises histológicas da glândula digestiva dos moluscos infectados evidenciaram esporocistos, com formação de granuloma e metaplasia do tecido epitelial.


Assuntos
Animais , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Lymnaea/parasitologia , Trematódeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trematódeos/ultraestrutura , Brasil , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cidades , Nasturtium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Cercárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cercárias/fisiologia , Cercárias/ultraestrutura
17.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 108: 104443, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437473

RESUMO

Nasturtium officinale (watercress) is a perennial dicotyledonous plant, rich in vitamins, minerals and chemical compounds. The leaves of this plant, which contain glucosinolate, are used for its diuretic and hypoglycemic effects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety of the standardized extract of Nasturtium officinale (SENO) with phenylethyl glucosinolate 5.0 mg/ml-1, using acute and sub-acute oral dosage in Wistar rats. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyzed the chemical composition, from aerial parts of watercress. In the acute toxicity study, dose estimated was LD50 in the range of 2000-5000 mg/kg, signs of mortality and toxicity on female rats were observed for 14 days, after single doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg. In the sub-acute study, female and male rats, age 10 weeks, were supplemented at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days. On the 29th day, rats were fasted, anesthetized, euthanized, then their blood used for hematological and biochemical evaluation. No significant changes in general behavior were reported regarding the acute study, while the sub-acute study demonstrated no toxicity of the hematopoietic and biochemical systems. The results showed that SENO at dosage up to 5000 mg/kg in acute study was safe, and NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect levels) in the sub-acute, was up to 1000 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Nasturtium , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade
18.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 58: 104613, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450359

RESUMO

The leaf extract of a medicinally important plant, watercress (Nasturtium officinale), was obtained through an ultrasound-facilitated method and utilized for the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles via a joint ultrasound-microwave assisted procedure. The characteristics of the extract enriched nanoparticles (Ext/ZnO) were determined by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDX, BET, FTIR, TGA, and UV-Vis DRS analyses and compared to that of ZnO prepared in the absence of the extract (ZnO). The presence of carbon and carbonaceous bonds, changes in the morphology, size, band gap energy, and weight-decay percentage were a number of differences between ZnO and Ext/ZnO that confirmed the link of extract over nanoparticles. Ext/ZnO, watercress leaf extract, ZnO, and insulin therapies were administrated to treat alloxan-diabetic Wister rats and their healing effectiveness results were compared to one another. The serum levels of the main diabetic indices such as insulin, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile (total triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were estimated for healthy, diabetic, and the rats rehabilitated with the studied therapeutic agents. The watercress extract-enriched ZnO nanoparticles offered the best performance and suppressed the diabetic status of rats. Moreover, both ZnO samples satisfactory inhibited the activities of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. Based on the results, the application of Nasturtium officinale leaf extract can strongly empower ZnO nanoparticles towards superior antidiabetic and enhanced antibacterial activities.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Nanopartículas/química , Nasturtium/química , Extratos Vegetais/síntese química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Óxido de Zinco/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Food Chem ; 300: 125184, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351261

RESUMO

The study evaluated bioaccumulation capacity of macro- and microelements, their impact on the production of glucosinolates and phenolic acids and antioxidant properties in a microshoot culture model of Nasturtium officinale. Elements: calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, magnesium, selenium and zinc were supplemented in different salt concentrations to culture media. Bioaccumulation of elements [mg/100 gDW] varied from 1.24 (Li,1 mg/l) to 498.62 (Cr,50 mg/l) and was dependent on the type of element and its concentration. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) ranged from 11.37 (Li,25 mg/l) to 4467.00 (Ca,1 mg/l). The total glucosinolate contents [mg/100gDW] varied from 108.11 (Cr,1 mg/l) to 172.90 (Ca,1 mg/l). The presence of four phenolic acids was confirmed in the microshoots. Their total contents [mg/100gDW] ranged from 19.35 (Mg,10 mg/l) to 139.21 (Fe,50 mg/l). The highest antioxidant activity [nM trolox/mgDW], as evaluated by CUPRAC and QUENCHER-CUPRAC methods, was equal to 55.50 (Cu,1 mg/l) and 161.10 (Li,5 mg/l), respectively. The results proved good correlations between all studied parameters.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Metais/farmacocinética , Nasturtium/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Nasturtium/citologia , Nasturtium/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
20.
J Food Biochem ; 43(4): e12783, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353578

RESUMO

Betong watercress (Nasturtium officinale R.Br.) contains phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), derived from myrosinase-mediated hydrolysis of glucosinolates. Effects of fresh and cooked Betong watercress (FBW & CBW) on N-demethylation and C-8-hydroxylation of caffeine (CF) in rats were investigated. Wistar rats received a single dose of CF before and after pretreatments with a single or five-day administration of PEITC, FBW, and CBW dry powders. Plasma CF metabolic ratios (CMRs) were compared between before and after pretreatments. Single pretreatment with PEITC, FBW, but not CBW, significantly decreased CMRs. Five-day pretreatment with PEITC, FBW, and CBW significantly decreased CMRs. The decreases in CMRs after multiple doses of PEITC, FBW, and CBW were significantly higher than after a single dose. The decrease in CMRs caused by CBW was significantly lower than those by FBW, both single- and multiple doses. Cooking decreases the activity of FBW in inhibition of CYP1A2 mediating CF metabolism. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: PEITC and fresh watercress possess chemoprotective effects due to the inhibitory activity of PEITC on cytochrome P450s mediated bioactivation of carcinogens. Several clinical trials of the therapeutic uses of PEITC for cancer and other diseases are still in the pipeline. Betong watercress is a common ingredient in hot soup and stir-fried Thai recipes. Cooking heat inactivates plant myrosinase involving the production of PEITC. Consumption of watercress in cooked form may contribute less chemoprotective benefit. More appropriate preparation to deliver PEITC is needed to be evaluated.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Nasturtium/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticarcinógenos/química , Culinária , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Hidroxilação , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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