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2.
Br J Dermatol ; 186(5): 792-802, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are essential in delivering optimum healthcare, such as for atopic dermatitis (AD), a highly prevalent skin disease. Although many CPGs are available for AD, their quality has not been critically appraised. OBJECTIVES: To identify CPGs on AD worldwide and to assess with validated instruments whether those CPGs are clear, unbiased, trustworthy and evidence based (CUTE). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Emcare, Epistemonikos, PsycINFO and Academic Search Premier for CPGs on AD published between 1 April 2016 and 1 April 2021. Additionally we hand searched prespecified guideline resources. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment of eligible guidelines were independently carried out by two authors. Instruments used for quality assessment were the AGREE II Reporting Checklist, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria of trustworthiness and Lenzer's Red Flags. RESULTS: Forty CPGs were included, mostly from countries with a high sociodemographic index. The reporting quality varied enormously. Three CPGs scored 'excellent' on all AGREE II domains and three scored 'poor' on all domains. We found no association between AGREE II scores and a country's gross domestic product. One CPG fully met all nine IOM criteria and two fully met eight. Three CPGs had no red flags. 'Applicability' and 'rigour of development' were the lowest scoring AGREE II domains; 'external review', 'updating procedures' and 'rating strength of recommendations' were the IOM criteria least met; and most red flags were for 'limited or no involvement of methodological expertise' and 'no external review'. Management of conflicts of interest (COIs) appeared challenging. When constructs of the instruments overlapped, they showed high concordance, strengthening our conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, many CPGs are not sufficiently clear, unbiased, trustworthy or evidence based (CUTE) and lack applicability. Therefore improvement is warranted, for which using the AGREE II instrument is recommended. Some improvements can be easily accomplished through robust reporting. Others, such as transparency, applicability, evidence foundation and managing COIs, might require more effort.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Dermatologia , Lista de Checagem , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , PubMed , Estados Unidos
4.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 27(1): 46-54, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177167

RESUMO

Conflicts of interest (COIs) in healthcare are increasingly discussed in the literature, yet these relationships continue to influence healthcare. Research has consistently shown that financial COIs shape prescribing practices, medical education and guideline recommendations. In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM, now the National Academy of Medicine) published Conflicts of Interest in Medical Research, Practice, and Education-one of the most comprehensive reviews of empirical research on COIs in medicine. Ten years after publication of theIOM's report, we review the current state of COIs within medicine. We also provide specific recommendations for enhancing scientific integrity in medical research, practice, education and editorial practices.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Conflito de Interesses , Revelação , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Estados Unidos
5.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 63(2): e182-e187, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Dying in America, we undertook an institution wide effort to improve the experience of patients and families facing serious illness by engaging leadership and developing a program to promote the practice of generalist palliative care. MEASURES: The impact of the program was measured with process measures related to its' three parts. INTERVENTION: We developed a three-part generalist palliative care program that focuses on 1) instructional design, 2) advance care planning, and 3) engagement. OUTCOMES: Over four years, the program trained 51 interprofessional clinicians in a two-week intensive palliative care course and 1,541 interprofessional clinicians in a 90-150 min skills-based training. Clinicians documented 15,791 serious illness conversations. Zoom community engagement sessions were attended by 411 live viewers, and subsequently, 1918 YouTube views. Additionally, we report on the impact of the COIVD-19 crisis on our efforts. Early in the pandemic, over two months, 464 interprofessional clinicians documented 5,168 conversations with patients. CONCLUSION/LESSONS LEARNED: A broad based strategy resulted wide institutional engagement with serious illness care.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Comunicação , Hospitais , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Cuidados Paliativos , Estados Unidos
6.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(1): 44-50, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308684

RESUMO

The applicability of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations of gestational weight gain (GWG) for Chinese twin gestations is uncertain. In this article, we aimed to investigate the associations between GWG among twin gestations, as categorized according to the 2009 IOM guidelines and perinatal outcomes in Chengdu, China. A retrospective cohort study of pregnant women delivering live twins ≥28 weeks at a tertiary maternal and child hospital was conducted. The incidences of perinatal outcomes were compared across three groups-that is, women with low, adequate, and excessive GWG. Logistic regression analyses were next performed to confirm the associations while taking into account potential confounders. Results showed that low GWG was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth, low and very low birthweight, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and gestational diabetes, whereas preeclampsia was more frequent among excessive GWG women. In conclusion, adherence to the 2009 IOM guidelines for twin pregnancies are associated with improved perinatal outcomes. This has the potential to improve short- and long-term public health outcomes.


Assuntos
Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ganho de Peso
7.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E316-E323, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956294

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Governments at all levels work to ensure a healthy public, yet financing, organization, and delivery of public health services differ across the United States. A 2012 Institute of Medicine Finance report provided a series of recommendations to ensure a high-performing and adequately funded public health infrastructure. OBJECTIVES: This review examines the influence of the Finance report's 10 recommendations on public health policy and practice. DESIGN: This review utilized peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2012. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Documents that address at least one of the Finance report's 10 recommendations and contain information on either official actions taken in response to the Finance report or evidence of the report's influence on the practice community. RESULTS: Of 2394 unique documents found, a total of 56 documents met the eligibility criteria. Review of these 56 documents indicated that the most substantial activity related to the recommendations was focused on the "minimum package of public health services" concept and establishment of a uniform chart of accounts. DISCUSSION: Progress has been mixed on the Finance report recommendations. Improved tracking and auditing of public health activity appears to be advancing, yet financial benchmarks remain unmet. Challenges remain in determining actual investment in public health and equitable resource allocation approaches. State and local health department use of cost estimation methodology and a uniform chart of accounts tool has contributed to an increase in understanding and improvement in public health spending. CONCLUSIONS: The Finance report has served as a strong impetus for advocating for an increased investment in governmental public health. Efforts are bolstered by informed public health practitioners and stakeholders but often stymied by policy makers who must balance complex competing issues and priorities. Although many successes have occurred, further work is needed toward improving investment in the nation's public health.


Assuntos
Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Estados Unidos
8.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E244-E255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review changes in public health finance since the 2012 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "For the Public's Health: Investing in a Healthier Future." DESIGN: Qualitative study involving key informant interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sample of US public health practitioners, leaders, and academics expected to be knowledgeable about the report recommendations, public health practice, and changes in public health finance since the report. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Qualitative feedback about changes to public health finance since the report. RESULTS: Thirty-two interviews were conducted between April and May 2019. The greatest momentum toward the report recommendations has occurred predominantly at the state and local levels, with recommendations requiring federal action making less progress. In addition, much of the progress identified is consensus building and preparation for change rather than clear changes. Overall, progress toward the recommendations has been slow. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the achievements reported by respondents were characterized as increased dialogue and individual state or local progress rather than widespread, identifiable policy or practice changes. Participants suggested that public health as a field needs to achieve further consensus and a uniform voice in order to advocate for changes at a federal level. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Slow progress in achieving 2012 IOM Finance Report recommendations and lack of a cohesive voice pose threats to the public's health, as can be seen in the context of COVID-19 emergency response activities. The pandemic and the nation's inadequate response have highlighted deficiencies in our current system and emphasize the need for coordinated and sustained core public health infrastructure funding at the federal level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
10.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(12): 1981-1991, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends different ranges of gestational weight gain (GWG) based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). In Taiwan, IOM guidelines are implemented concurrently with the local recommendation for GWG (10-14 kg). This study compared between the two sets of guidelines in relation to adverse perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed 31,653 primiparas with singletons from 2011 to 2016 annual National Breastfeeding Surveys. Logistic regressions for preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), cesarean section and excessive postpartum weight retention (EPWR) were fitted separately for GWG categorized according to IOM and Taiwan ranges. Areas under the receiver-operator curves (AUC) and the predicted probabilities for each outcome were compared in each BMI group. RESULTS: AUC for both guidelines ranged within 0.51-0.73. Compared to Taiwan recommendation, IOM ranges showed lower probabilities of SGA for underweight (0.11-0.15 versus 0.14-0.18), of LGA for obese (0.12-0.15 versus 0.15-0.18), of EPWR for overweight (0.19-0.30 versus 0.27-0.39), and obese (0.15-0.22 versus 0.25-0.36); and higher probabilities of EPWR for underweight (0.17-0.33 versus 0.14-0.22). CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Discriminative performance of IOM and Taiwan recommendations was poor for the five adverse birth outcomes, and no preference for either set of recommendations could be inferred from our results. In the absence of specific GWG guidelines, health care workers may provide inconsistent information to their patients. Future research is needed to explore optimal GWG ranges that can reliably predict locally relevant perinatal outcomes for mother and child.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
12.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 76(8): 493-503, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449852

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Ten years have passed since the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its recommendations for gestational weight gain (GWG), based on a woman's prepregnancy body mass index. Despite this, the majority of women do not gain the appropriate gestational weight; most women gain too much weight, and a small but substantial number gain too little. OBJECTIVE: We review the literature concerning GWG, the opinions and practices of clinicians in managing their patients' weight, and how these practices are perceived by patients. We also review several randomized control trials that investigate the efficacy of clinical intervention in managing GWG. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature review search was conducted with no limitations on the number of years searched. RESULTS: The number of clinicians who are aware of and use the IOM recommendations has increased, but the prevalence of inappropriate GWG has not decreased. Clinicians report feeling less than confident in their ability to have an impact on their patients' weight gain, and there are discrepancies between what clinicians and patients report regarding counseling. Many randomized control trials demonstrate a beneficial impact of clinical intervention, highlighting the importance of collaboration and technology to provide educational information and support throughout a pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy provides an opportunity for clinicians to have open and direct conversations with their patients about their weight. Providing clinicians with the tools, skillset, and confidence to assist in the management of GWG is essential to the health of women and their children, and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Papel do Médico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Gravidez , Fatores Raciais , Tecnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204323

RESUMO

Although validated in other parts of the world, the suitability of the U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 recommendations on gestational weight gain (GWG) for Bangladeshi women remains to be examined. We evaluated the association between the weekly rate of weight gain during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, categorized according to IOM recommendations, and adverse perinatal outcomes among 1569 pregnant women with singleton live births in rural Matlab, Bangladesh. Gaining weight at rates below the IOM recommendations was associated with higher odds of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6), low birth weight (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.03-2.0), small-for-gestational-age newborns (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.04-1.7), and poor neonatal outcome (severe neonatal morbidity or death, AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.03-5.6). A GWG rate above the recommendations was associated with higher odds of cesarean delivery (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6), preterm birth (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.4), large-for-gestational-age newborns (AOR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5-23.1), and poor neonatal outcome (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.04-7.0). Our results suggest that the IOM 2009 recommendations on GWG rate during the second and third trimester may be suitable for guiding rural Bangladeshi women in the prenatal period, although the women should aim for rates near the lower bound of the range.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 508, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine association between gestational weight gain (GWG) in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled women with GDM who delivered at 2010-2020 in Changzhou, Jiangsu. Total GWG, rates of GWG in second trimester and third trimesters were stratified into three categories according to IOM guidelines: within, below, and above IOM guidelines. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: Overall, 1606 women with GDM fulfilled inclusion criteria. Compared with within IOM guidelines and after adjusting for confounders, total GWG above IOM guidelines in pregnancy was associated with an increased odds of caesarean delivery [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.72], hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) (aOR = 2.00, 1.28-3.12), preeclampsia (aOR = 2.06, 1.01-3.12), macrosomia (aOR = 1.55, 1.13-2.13) and large for gestational age (LGA) (aOR = 2.82, 1.94-3.23), and a decreased odds of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) (aOR = 0.46, 0.36-0.60) and preterm birth (aOR = 0.35, 0.26-0.44); total GWG below IOM guidelines in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (aOR = 1.96, 1.44-2.66), small for gestational age (SGA) (aOR = 1.32, 1.11-1.50) and a decreased odds of macrosomia (aOR = 0.35, 0.23-0.53) and LGA (aOR = 0.54, 0.42-0.72). Further, in both second and third trimesters of pregnancy, rates of GWG above IOM guidelines was found to be associated with a high odds of HDP (aOR = 2.55, 1.86-3.38; aOR = 1.93, 1.08-2.98), preeclampsia (aOR = 2.28, 1.21-3.81; aOR = 2.17, 1.35-4.37), macrosomia (aOR = 1.20, 1.02-1.82; aOR = 2.02, 1.51-2.64) and LGA (aOR = 1.42, 1.24-1.97; aOR = 1.79, 1.51-2.54). Rates of GWG above IOM guidelines in third trimester of pregnancy also increased odds of caesarean delivery (aOR = 1.48, 1.16-2.34) when compared with within IOM guidelines. While rates of GWG below IOM guidelines in both second and third trimesters of pregnancy was associated with a decreased odds of macrosomia (aOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52-0.78; aOR = 0.52, 0.39-0.63) and LGA(aOR = 0.71, 0.51-0.82; aOR = 0.67, 0.55-0.79). In addition, rate of GWG below IOM guidelines in third trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 1.52, 1.12-2.05) and SGA (aOR = 1.21, 1.10-1.69). CONCLUSION: GWG, outside IOM guidelines has increased risks of APOs among women with GDM, implying that careful surveillance for GWG during different stages of pregnancy is warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Guias como Assunto , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Trimestres da Gravidez , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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