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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107116, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562776

RESUMO

This study examines the relationship between personal networks and polysubstance use among people who use drugs (PWUD) in a medium sized city in the Midwest. A large body of work has demonstrated that personal relationships have an ambivalent association with substance use. On the one hand, a supportive network is associated with safer drug use practices and dramatically improves the outlook for recovery. However, individuals whose personal networks are composed of co-drug use partners are more likely to engage in risky practices. We argue that this notion of "supportive" social contacts and "risky" social contacts is ultimately incomplete: risky behaviors are introduced and further developed in a social context, often with the people who provide emotional support. We argue that personal networks with more multiplex relationships (where co-drug use and confiding fuse) are harmful because they combine norms of trust and reciprocity with drug use. We use data from the Rural Health Cohort (RHC) study to test this idea. The sample consists of 120 adult PWUD in a medium sized city located in southeastern Nebraska who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants listed up to nine confidants and nine co-drug use partners, indicating any overlap between the two networks. Our results demonstrate that multiplex ties are as strongly associated with polysubstance use as simple co-drug use relationships. As the drug crisis has increasingly shifted to underserved populations outside large urban centers, this paper represents an important advance in our understanding of the current drug crisis.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Nebraska/epidemiologia , Meio Social , Rede Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
2.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 59-60, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673698

RESUMO

As most students return to in-person learning this fall, a school nurse discusses her experiences amid the ongoing COVID crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes , Estudantes , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Nebraska , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126170, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492946

RESUMO

Dissolved arsenic typically results from chemical weathering of arsenic rich sediments and is most often found in oxidized forms in surface water. The mobility of arsenic is controlled by its valence state and also by its association with iron oxides minerals, the forms of which are both influenced by abiotic and biotic processes in aqueous environment. In this study, speciation methods were used to measure and confirm the presence of reduced arsenic species in the surface water of Frenchman creek, a gaining stream that crosses the Colorado-Nebraska border. Selective extraction analysis of aquifer and stream bed sediments shows that the bulk of the arsenic occurs with labile iron-rich oxy(hydroxide) minerals. Total dissolved arsenic in surface and groundwater ranged from ~3-18 µg L-1, and reduced arsenic species comprise about 41% of the total dissolved arsenic (16.0 µg L-1) in Frenchman creek. Leachable arsenic in the aquifer sediment samples ranged up to 1553 µg kg-1, while samples from Frenchman creek bed sediments contained 4218 µg kg-1. Dynamic surface and groundwater interaction sustains arsenite in iron-rich surface headwaters, and the implied toxicity of reduced arsenic in this hydrogeological setting, which can be important in surface water environments around the globe.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenitos , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nebraska , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126447, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550382

RESUMO

Importance: Scalable programs for school-based SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance are needed to guide in-person learning practices and inform risk assessments in kindergarten through 12th grade settings. Objectives: To characterize SARS-CoV-2 infections in staff and students in an urban public school setting and evaluate test-based strategies to support ongoing risk assessment and mitigation for kindergarten through 12th grade in-person learning. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pilot quality improvement program engaged 3 schools in Omaha, Nebraska, for weekly saliva polymerase chain reaction testing of staff and students participating in in-person learning over a 5-week period from November 9 to December 11, 2020. Wastewater, air, and surface samples were collected weekly and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA to evaluate surrogacy for case detection and interrogate transmission risk of in-building activities. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 detection in saliva and environmental samples and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: A total of 2885 supervised, self-collected saliva samples were tested from 458 asymptomatic staff members (mean [SD] age, 42.9 [12.4] years; 303 women [66.2%]; 25 Black or African American [5.5%], 83 Hispanic [18.1%], 312 White [68.1%], and 35 other or not provided [7.6%]) and 315 students (mean age, 14.2 [0.7] years; 151 female students [48%]; 20 Black or African American [6.3%], 201 Hispanic [63.8%], 75 White [23.8%], and 19 other race or not provided [6.0%]). A total of 46 cases of SARS-CoV-2 (22 students and 24 staff members) were detected, representing an increase in cumulative case detection rates from 1.2% (12 of 1000) to 7.0% (70 of 1000) among students and from 2.1% (21 of 1000) to 5.3% (53 of 1000) among staff compared with conventional reporting mechanisms during the pilot period. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in wastewater samples from all pilot schools as well as in air samples collected from 2 choir rooms. Sequencing of 21 viral genomes in saliva specimens demonstrated minimal clustering associated with 1 school. Geographical analysis of SARS-CoV-2 cases reported district-wide demonstrated higher community risk in zip codes proximal to the pilot schools. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of staff and students in 3 urban public schools in Omaha, Nebraska, weekly screening of asymptomatic staff and students by saliva polymerase chain reaction testing was associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 case detection, exceeding infection rates reported at the county level. Experiences differed among schools, and virus sequencing and geographical analyses suggested a dynamic interplay of school-based and community-derived transmission risk. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the performance and community value of test-based SARS-CoV-2 screening and surveillance strategies in the kindergarten through 12th grade educational setting.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Programas de Rastreamento , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Microbiologia do Ar , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebraska , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Professores Escolares , Estudantes , Águas Residuárias/virologia
5.
Child Obes ; 17(S1): S62-S69, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569846

RESUMO

Pediatric weight management interventions (PWMIs) have resulted in positive changes among family members and, if widely disseminated, could have an impact on pediatric weight management in rural communities. The purpose of this article is to describe a backward design approach taken to create an online packaged program and implementation blueprint for building healthy families (BHF), an effective PWMI for implementation in rural communities. The backward design process included the identification of end users: primary (facilitators to be trained through the packaged program and implementation blueprint), secondary (researchers and evaluators), terminal (caregivers and children impacted by PWMI participation), tertiary (community support organizations, funding agency promoting widespread PWMI, and payors), as well as, key outcomes for respective end user groups based on the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. This process resulted in the BHF Online Training Resources and Program package and implementation blueprint that included a modular approach encompassing the interplay of training modules for program facilitators, knowledge checks to ensure mastery of program components, recruitment resources for school and clinical settings, all program materials, embedded fidelity assessments for quality assurance, and a data portal to track participant success. Next steps include preliminary product testing with potential facilitators and a type 3 effectiveness implementation trial to determine the utility of the BHF Online Training Resources and Program package with and without participation in a learning collaborative to support implementation and sustainability.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , População Rural , Criança , Família , Humanos , Nebraska/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
6.
Child Obes ; 17(S1): S70-S78, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569848

RESUMO

Background: Several family-based efficacious pediatric weight management interventions (PWMIs) have been developed to reduce child weight status. These programs are typically based in larger cities delivered by an interdisciplinary team in a hospital or medical center. The degree to which these efficacious PWMIs have been translated to, and are feasible in, rural or micropolitan areas is unclear. This study protocol describes a pilot Type III hybrid effectiveness-implementation (T3HEI) trial testing a multilevel strategy that focuses on the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of a PWMI online training program and resource package designed for implementation in micropolitan and rural areas. Methods: The trial design employed the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework to evaluate outcomes and the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework to specify potential mechanisms of adoption, implementation, and sustainability. The study will test the feasibility of a fund and contract dissemination strategy in the adoption of a PWMI in four to eight rural communities, compare a learning collaborative implementation strategy including embedded training and sustainability action planning with communities who receive the PWMI online program and resources alone, and determine whether the PWMI reach, effectiveness, and maintenance are of magnitude similar to previous effectiveness trials. The dissemination and implementation process focused on an integrated research-practice partnership process model that includes a systems-based approach with multiple sectors and vertical decision-making representation. Conclusions: Our pilot T3HEI study has the potential to inform how best to move and sustain evidence-based PWMIs into practice. The findings will inform larger scale dissemination, implementation, and sustainability efforts in medically underserved areas across the country. Trial registration: This protocol is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04719442).


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Família , Humanos , Nebraska , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , População Rural
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444570

RESUMO

Agriculture is a dangerous industry with high rates of occupational injuries. Immigrants comprise the majority of the hired agricultural workforce in the United States, and these workers may be at a higher risk for job-related injuries. This study addressed the frequency, characteristics, and risk factors of occupational injuries among Latino immigrant cattle feedyard workers. Data were collected through structured interviews with Latino immigrant cattle feedyard workers in Kansas and Nebraska (n = 243; 90.9% male). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for injury. Nearly three-fourths of participants (71.2%) reported having experienced one or more injuries in the past while working on a cattle feedyard. The most frequent types of reported injuries, including those not requiring medical care, were bruises/contusions (40%), cuts/lacerations (21%), and sprains/strains (12%). These injuries were mainly caused by animals/livestock (33%), chemicals (23%), falls (12%), and tools (9%). Significant risk factors for injury included male gender (OR 5.9), being over age 35 (OR 2.6), working on a large or an extra-large feedyard (OR 5.4), having 11 or more employees on the feedyard (OR 3.6), and working more than eight hours a day (OR 4.7). Having received safety training was also associated with greater risk of injury in a univariable model (OR 2.6). Cattle feedyard workers are at high risk for injury and require more effective preventive measures.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Nebraska , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(11): 4884-4891, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amaranthus tuberculatus is a problematic weed species in Midwest USA agricultural systems. Inhibitors of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) are an important chemistry for weed management in numerous cropping systems. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture underlying the HPPD-inhibitor resistance trait in an A. tuberculatus population (NEB). RESULTS: Dose-response studies of an F1 generation identified HPPD-inhibitor resistance as a dominant trait with a resistance factor of 15.0-21.1 based on dose required for 50% growth reduction. Segregation analysis in a pseudo-F2 generation determined the trait is moderately heritable (H2  = 0.556) and complex. Bulk segregant analysis and validation with molecular markers identified two quantitative trait loci (QTL), one on each of Scaffold 4 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance to HPPD inhibitors is a complex, largely dominant trait within the NEB population. Two large-effect QTL were identified controlling HPPD-inhibitor resistance in A. tuberculatus. This is the first QTL mapping study to characterize herbicide resistance in a weedy species.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxifenilpiruvato Dioxigenase , Amaranthus , Herbicidas , 4-Hidroxifenilpiruvato Dioxigenase/genética , Amaranthus/genética , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Nebraska
10.
Milbank Q ; 99(3): 693-720, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166528

RESUMO

Policy Points States can create policies that provide access to publicly funded prenatal care for undocumented immigrants that garner support from diverse political coalitions. Policymakers have used a wide range of moral and practical reasons to support the expansion of care to this population, which can be tailored to frame prenatal policies for different stakeholder groups. CONTEXT: Even though nearly 6% of citizen babies born in the United States have at least one undocumented parent, undocumented immigrants are ineligible for most public health insurance. Prenatal care is a recommended health service that improves birth outcomes, and some states, including both traditionally "blue" and "red" states, have opted to provide publicly funded coverage for prenatal services for people who are otherwise ineligible due to immigration status. This article explores how courts and legislatures in three states have approached the question of publicly funded prenatal care for undocumented immigrants and its relationship to the abortion debate, with a particular focus on the moral and practical justifications that policymakers employ. METHODS: We employed a review and qualitative analysis of the documents that comprise the legislative histories of prenatal policies in three case states: California, New York, and Nebraska. FINDINGS: This review and analysis of policy documents identified moral reasons based on appeals to different conceptions of moral status, respect for autonomy, and justice, as well as prudential reasons that appealed to the health and economic benefits of prenatal care for US citizens and legal residents. We found that much of the variation in reasons supporting policies by state can be traced to the state's position on the protection of reproductive rights and whether the policymakers in each state supported or opposed access to abortion. Interestingly, despite these differences, the states arrived at similar prenatal policies for immigrants. CONCLUSIONS: There may be areas where policymakers with different political orientations can converge on health policies affecting access to care for undocumented immigrants. Future research should explore the reception of various message frames for expanding public health insurance coverage to immigrants in other contexts.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados , Adulto , California , Feminino , Humanos , Nebraska , New York , Formulação de Políticas , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(2): R162-R173, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161745

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques in the lower extremity conduit arteries, which impairs blood flow and walking capacity. Dietary nitrate has been used to reduce blood pressure (BP) and improve walking capacity in PAD. However, a standardized dose for PAD has not been determined. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of a body mass-normalized moderate dose of nitrate (0.11 mmol nitrate/kg) as beetroot juice on serum nitrate/nitrite, vascular function, walking capacity, and tissue oxygen utilization capacity in patients with PAD. A total of 11 patients with PAD received either nitrate supplement or placebo in a randomized crossover design. Total serum nitrate/nitrite, resting BP, brachial and popliteal artery endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD), arterial stiffness (pulse-wave velocity, PWV), augmentation index (AIx), maximal walking distance and time, claudication onset time, and skeletal muscle oxygen utilization were measured pre- and postnitrate and placebo intake. There were significant group × time interactions (P < 0.05) for serum nitrate/nitrite, FMD, BP, walking distance and time, and skeletal muscle oxygen utilization. The nitrate group showed significantly increased serum nitrate/nitrite (Δ1.32 µM), increased brachial and popliteal FMD (Δ1.3% and Δ1.7%, respectively), reduced peripheral and central systolic BP (Δ-4.7 mmHg and Δ-8.2 mmHg, respectively), increased maximal walking distance (Δ92.7 m) and time (Δ56.3 s), and reduced deoxygenated hemoglobin during walking. There were no changes in PWV, AIx, or claudication (P > 0.05). These results indicate that a body-mass normalized moderate dose of nitrate may be effective and safe for reducing BP, improving endothelial function, and improving walking capacity in patients with PAD.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Claudicação Intermitente/dietoterapia , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/dietoterapia , Caminhada , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebraska , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Rigidez Vascular , Vasodilatação
12.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 47(4): 433-443, 2021 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114916

RESUMO

Background: Bisexual and mostly heterosexual women report higher substance use than exclusively heterosexual or lesbian women. In sexual minority men, sex-linked substance use (SLSU) can increase risk for substance use problems; equivalent research in women is lacking.Objectives: To test if sexual excitation and inhibition mediate the association between sexual minority status and women's SLSU.Methods: We surveyed a convenience sample of 595 undergraduate women who identified as exclusively heterosexual (n = 499), mostly heterosexual (n = 59), or bisexual (n = 37). Participants reported on their last month use of alcohol, cannabis, and other drugs (e.g., cocaine) in sexual and non-sexual contexts, and symptoms of alcohol and non-alcohol drug use disorders (e.g., withdrawal symptoms). Drug use symptoms were collapsed across non-alcohol substances. We used structural equation modeling to test serial mediations of women's SLSU and overall drug and alcohol use.Results: Bisexual and mostly heterosexual women reported higher cannabis use (η2 = 0.030) and drug use disorder symptoms (η2 = 0.050) than heterosexual women. Mostly heterosexual women's SLSU was a stronger predictor of alcohol use (η2 = 0.019) and binge drinking frequency (η2 = 0.015) than for other orientation groups. Bisexual and mostly heterosexual women's higher sexual excitation predicted their higher SLSU, which in turn predicted higher cannabis use frequency and drug use disorder symptoms. However, sexual inhibition failed to mediate either SLSU or overall substance use.Conclusion: These findings point to SLSU as a mechanism by which sexual minority women may experience disparities in substance use related harms.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Heterossexualidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Excitação Sexual , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Nebraska/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 37(2): 106-108, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184040

RESUMO

On August 27, 2019, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identified in a neighborhood located in York, NE, through routine arboviral surveillance. Expanded surveillance using traps and morphologic identification revealed 118 adult Ae. aegypti throughout the adjacent neighborhood, including identification from larval sampling. Our findings describe the first recorded Ae. aegypti introduction in Nebraska and provide evidence of a breeding mosquito population, which suggests suitable habitat and the risk of potential establishment, raising concerns about prevention of arboviral diseases in Nebraska.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções por Arbovirus , Arbovírus , Animais , Larva , Nebraska
14.
Surg Innov ; 28(2): 208-213, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980097

RESUMO

As the scope and scale of the COVID-19 pandemic became clear in early March of 2020, the faculty of the Malone Center engaged in several projects aimed at addressing both immediate and long-term implications of COVID-19. In this article, we briefly outline the processes that we engaged in to identify areas of need, the projects that emerged, and the results of those projects. As we write, some of these projects have reached a natural termination point, whereas others continue. We identify some of the factors that led to projects that moved to implementation, as well as factors that led projects to fail to progress or to be abandoned.


Assuntos
Engenharia Biomédica , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Engenharia Biomédica/instrumentação , Engenharia Biomédica/métodos , Engenharia Biomédica/organização & administração , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Nebraska , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Appetite ; 165: 105319, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004242

RESUMO

In the United States, typical dietary patterns are not necessarily healthy and sustainable. In order to shift diets, we need to provide support to individuals in a way that reflects what matters most to them. In this study, we aimed to identify the considerations that are most important to individuals regarding food-related decisions, and to determine how those considerations relate to specific foods, with a focus on health and environmental sustainability. In a sequential mixed-methods design, we first conducted 27 semi-structured interviews with participants in California and Nebraska. These interviews included a free-listing activity, where we used a technical construct of salience, Smith's S Index, to identify the considerations that were most important to our participants. We followed up with 20 of those participants to complete a pile-sorting survey, where participants sorted and rated 42 food items for price, taste, health, convenience, familiarity, and environmental impact. Our findings showed that the most salient considerations cited by our participants were price, health, taste, and time. There was consensus for how participants rated the foods for price, taste, convenience, and familiarity. However, there was only weak consensus for how participants rated the foods for health impact, and no consensus for how participants rated the foods for environmental impact. There was also disagreement on how to sort new plant-based products intended to replace or substitute meat and other animal-based foods. These findings have implications for how to communicate about healthy and sustainable diets. They highlight conflicting considerations, disagreement in classification of new products, and limited consensus for perceived health and environmental impact of foods, which present challenges to the achievement of diets that are healthy and environmentally sustainable in the United States.


Assuntos
Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Animais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Carne , Nebraska , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 47(3): 311-318, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010582

RESUMO

Background: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an increasingly popular and feasible form of data collection, but it can be intensive and intrusive. Especially for at-risk, vulnerable populations like people who use drugs (PWUD), poor experiences with EMA may exacerbate existing chronic struggles while decreasing response rates. However, little research queries participants' experiences with EMA studies.Objectives: We explore participants' positive and negative experiences with EMA, identifying what they liked about the study, the problems they experienced, and suggested solutions to these problems.Methods: Results come from semi-structured interviews from 26 PWUD (6 women; 20 men) in Nebraska who participated in a two-week EMA pilot study on drug use with a study-provided smartphone. Participant responses were recorded by interviewers into open-text fields in Qualtrics. Data were analyzed with an iterative open coding procedure.Results: We found that many participants enjoyed the study and seamlessly incorporated the phone into their daily lives. There were a number of negative study aspects identified, however, as many participants experienced functional issues (e.g., running out of high-speed data, trouble keeping the phone charged, not able to answer questions within the two-hour timeframe) that detracted from their experience, especially if they were homeless.Conclusion: Our findings provide methodological considerations for studies with EMA components among at-risk, vulnerable populations, like PWUD. These suggestions are targeted toward the continued ethical collection of high-quality data in clinical and non-clinical settings.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebraska , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905422

RESUMO

The Sandhills of Nebraska is a complex ecosystem, covering 50,000 km2 in central and western Nebraska and predominantly of virgin grassland. Grasslands are the most widespread vegetation in the U.S. and once dominated regions are currently cultivated croplands, so it stands to reason that some of the current plant pathogens of cultivated crops originated from grasslands, particularly soilborne plant pathogens. The anamorphic genus Rhizoctonia includes genetically diverse organisms that are known to be necrotrophic fungal pathogens, saprophytes, mycorrhiza of orchids, and biocontrol agents. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity of Rhizoctonia spp. on four native grasses in the Sandhills of Nebraska and determine pathogenicity to native grasses and soybean. In 2016 and 2017, a total of 84 samples were collected from 11 sites in the Sandhills, located in eight counties of Nebraska. The samples included soil and symptomatic roots from the four dominant native grasses: sand bluestem, little bluestem, prairie sandreed, and needle-and-thread. Obtained were 17 Rhizoctonia-like isolates identified, including five isolates of binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-F; two isolates each from binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-B, AG-C, and AG-K, Rhizoctonia solani AGs: AG-3, and AG-4; one isolate of binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-L, and one isolate of R. zeae. Disease severity was assessed for representative isolates of each AG in a greenhouse assay using sand bluestem, needle-and-thread, and soybean; prairie sandreed and little bluestem were unable to germinate under artificial conditions. On native grasses, all but two isolates were either mildly aggressive (causing 5-21% disease severity) or aggressive (21-35% disease severity). Among those, three isolates were cross-pathogenic on soybean, with R. solani AG-4 shown to be highly aggressive (86% disease severity). Thus, it is presumed that Rhizoctonia spp. are native to the sandhills grasslands and an emerging pathogen of crops cultivated may have survived in the soil and originate from grasslands.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Poaceae/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/genética , Rhizoctonia/patogenicidade , DNA Fúngico/genética , Nebraska , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Virulência
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1822): 20200138, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611996

RESUMO

Uncertainty has been shown to impact political evaluation, yet the exact mechanisms by which uncertainty affects the minds of citizens remain unclear. This experiment examines the neural underpinnings of uncertainty in political evaluation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During fMRI, participants completed an experimental task where they evaluated policy positions attributed to hypothetical political candidates. Policy positions were either congruent or incongruent with candidates' political party affiliation and presented with varying levels of certainty. Neural activity was modelled as a function of uncertainty and incongruence. Analyses suggest that neural activity in brain regions previously implicated in affective and evaluative processing (anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex) differed as a function of the interaction between uncertainty and incongruence, such that activation in these areas was greatest when information was both certain and incongruent, and uncertainty influenced processing differently as a function of the valence of the attached information. These findings suggest that individuals are attuned to uncertainty in the stated issue positions of politicians, and that the neural processing of this uncertainty is dependent on congruence of these positions with expectations based on political party identification. Implications for the study of emotion and politics and political cognition are discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'The political brain: neurocognitive and computational mechanisms'.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Cognição , Emoções , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Política , Incerteza , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebraska , Políticas , Adulto Jovem
19.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E10, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571083

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: We developed a competitive application process to test the feasibility of a fund and contract dissemination strategy to identify and engage communities that demonstrated the necessary resources and motivation to adopt, implement, and sustain a pediatric weight management intervention, Building Healthy Families, in rural and micropolitan (<50,000 residents) communities in Nebraska. INTERVENTION APPROACH: From April through December 2019, a community advisory board with representation from rural and micropolitan clinical, public health, education, and recreational organizations collaboratively developed a request for applications, as a fund and contract dissemination strategy, to encourage community adoption of Building Healthy Families. EVALUATION METHODS: Quantitative assessments included determining the distribution of requests for applications, evaluating organizational readiness to change assessment (ORCA) ratings (on a scale of 1 to 5, from strongly disagree to strongly agree that the organization is ready to change), and reviewing community advisory board member ratings of applications. We gathered qualitative data from community narratives provided in response to the request for applications and community advisory board reviews of the applications. RESULTS: The request for applications was distributed to all 93 counties in Nebraska. Of the 8 communities that submitted a letter of intent, 7 submitted a community narrative. Across the 8 communities, 31 ORCAs were completed by the organizational decision makers (n = 15) and staff members (n = 16) who would be responsible for screening, recruiting, or implementing the intervention. Overall mean ORCA scores varied by ratings of evidence (4.1-4.6), context (4.2-4.9), and facilitation (4.3-4.8), indicating a high degree of readiness. Community advisory board ratings of applications ranged from 2.3 to 3.4 of 4 points. Qualitative data indicated that lower community narrative scores were primarily caused by weak implementation and sustainability plans. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: Findings provide guidance for translating pediatric weight management programs in medically underserved geographic areas by maximizing the probability of successful adoption and implementation through a fund and contract dissemination strategy.


Assuntos
Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Criança , Saúde da Família , Humanos , Motivação , Nebraska , População Rural
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1032-1038, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591249

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has severely impacted the meat processing industry in the United States. We sought to detail demographics and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections among workers in Nebraska meat processing facilities and determine the effects of initiating universal mask policies and installing physical barriers at 13 meat processing facilities. During April 1-July 31, 2020, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 5,002 Nebraska meat processing workers (attack rate 19%). After initiating both universal masking and physical barrier interventions, 8/13 facilities showed a statistically significant reduction in COVID-19 incidence in <10 days. Characteristics and incidence of confirmed cases aligned with many nationwide trends becoming apparent during this pandemic: specifically, high attack rates among meat processing industry workers, disproportionately high risk of adverse outcomes among ethnic and racial minority groups and men, and effectiveness of using multiple prevention and control interventions to reduce disease transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Controle de Infecções , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Feminino , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/organização & administração , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/métodos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/organização & administração , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/tendências , Saúde das Minorias/estatística & dados numéricos , Nebraska/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Local de Trabalho/normas
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