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1.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 31(2): 142-152, Mayo 14, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-210819

RESUMO

Negative emotions reduce the academic achievement of college students. Students in Iraq experience bad emotions due to the country's social conditions. The purpose of this project is to improve the mental health of Iraqi students through physical activity. This study aims to examine the moderating link between psychological resilience and negative emotions among university students in Iraq. This study collects quantitative data using a Likert scale questionnaire and a random sample technique; the participants were students from several Najaf universities. The findings of this study indicate that physical health plays a substantial moderating influence between psychological resilience and unpleasant emotions. According to the study, students' negative feelings can be lessened with health education and mental health literacy. These findings are unusual since this study's theoretical framework offers a substantial relationship to the existing research. Similar to the theoretical implications, this study has significant practical consequences that are crucial to consider while attempting to reduce the negative emotions component among Iraqi university students. The next directions of this research are important for addressing the literature gap in negative emotions.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Resiliência Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Emoções , Estudantes , Universidades , Exercício Físico , Atividade Motora , Negativismo , Desempenho Acadêmico , Iraque , Psicologia do Esporte , Esportes , Saúde Mental , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371984

RESUMO

Dieting and disinhibited eating patterns are presented in both clinical and nonclinical samples. Repetitive negative thinking (i.e., rumination) may lead to maladaptive eating behaviors. While numerous studies have focused on dieting and disinhibited eating behaviors in clinical samples, less is known about these behaviors in nonclinical samples with normal body weight. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore how dieting, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating are related to rumination in adult women with normal body weight. One hundred eighty-eight women (Mage = 29.46 ± 8.94; MBMI = 23.16 ± 4.04) were involved in the current study. The Eating Attitudes Test, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 and the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire were administered to the participants. The results showed that repetitive negative thinking was a partial mediator in the relationship between dieting and uncontrolled eating, as well as in the relationship between dieting and emotional eating. Targeting repetitive negative thinking may be important for reducing disinhibited eating patterns in women with normal body weight.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Peso Corporal Ideal , Ruminação Cognitiva , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negativismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(4): E472-E479, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increased neural response to making errors has emerged as a biomarker of anxiety. Error negativity (Ne) or errorrelated negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential generated when people commit errors; the Ne/ERN is greater among people with anxiety and predicts increases in anxiety. However, no previous study has examined whether the Ne/ERN can be used as a prognostic indicator among people with current anxiety. The present study addressed this gap by examining whether the Ne/ERN prospectively predicts increases in anxiety symptoms in clinically anxious children and adolescents. METHODS: The sample included 34 female participants between the ages of 8 and 14 years who met the criteria for a clinical anxiety disorder based on clinical interview. The Ne/ERN was measured using a flanker task. RESULTS: Increased Ne/ERN at baseline predicted increases in total anxiety symptoms 2 years later, even when accounting for baseline symptoms. The Ne/ERN predicted increases in the symptom domains of generalized anxiety, social anxiety and harm avoidance/perfectionism, but not panic, separation anxiety, school avoidance or physical symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The sample size was small, which may have inflated the false discovery rate. To mitigate this possibility, we used multiple self-report measures, and the results for the 2 measures (as well as their symptom domains) converged. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the Ne/ERN can delineate specific risk trajectories, even among those who already meet the criteria for a clinical anxiety disorder. Considering the need for prognostic markers among people with clinical anxiety, the current findings are an important and novel extension of previous work.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/patologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados , Negativismo , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos
4.
J Sport Health Sci ; 10(3): 379-386, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to analyze the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA), sedentary time, and physical fitness with mental health in the early second trimester (16 ± 2 gestational weeks) of pregnancy. METHODS: From 229 women initially contacted, 124 pregnant women participated in the present cross-sectional study. Data were collected between November 2015 and March 2017. The participants wore Actigraph GT3X+ Triaxial accelerometers for 9 consecutive days to objectively measure their PA levels and sedentary time. A performance-based test battery was used to measure physical fitness. Self-report questionnaires assessed psychological ill-being (i.e., negative affect, anxiety, and depression), and psychological well-being (i.e., emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive affect). Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, educational level, accelerometer wear time, miscarriages, and low back pain. RESULTS: Moderate-to-vigorous PA was negatively associated with depression (ß = -0.222, adjusted R2 = 0.050, p = 0.041). Higher levels of sedentary time were negatively associated with positive affect (ß = -0.260, adjusted R2 = 0.085, p = 0.017). Greater upper-body flexibility was positively associated with better emotional regulation (ß = 0.195, adjusted R2= 0.030, p = 0.047). The remaining associations were not significant (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: An active lifestyle characterized by higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA and lower levels of sedentary time during pregnancy might modestly improve the mental health of pregnant women. Although previous research has focused on the benefits of cardiorespiratory exercise, the present study shows that only upper-body flexibility is related to emotional regulation in early pregnant women. If the present findings are corroborated in further experimental research, physical exercise programs should focus on enhancing flexibility to promote improvements in emotional regulation during early second-trimester of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Actigrafia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Inteligência Emocional , Regulação Emocional , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Negativismo , Otimismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/psicologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Autorrelato
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3870, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594094

RESUMO

Negativity bias is not only central to mood and anxiety disorders, but can powerfully impact our decision-making across domains (e.g., financial, medical, social). This project builds on previous work examining negativity bias using dual-valence ambiguity. Specifically, although some facial expressions have a relatively clear negative (angry) or positive valence (happy), surprised expressions are interpreted negatively by some and positively by others, providing insight into one's valence bias. Here, we examine putative sources of variability that distinguish individuals with a more negative versus positive valence bias using structural equation modeling. Our model reveals that one's propensity toward negativity (operationalized as temperamental negative affect and internalizing symptomology) predicts valence bias particularly in older adulthood when a more positive bias is generally expected. Further, variability in social connectedness (a propensity to seek out social connections, use those connections to regulate one's own emotions, and be empathic) emerges as a notable and unique predictor of valence bias, likely because these traits help to override an initial, default negativity. We argue that this task represents an important approach to examining variability in affective bias, and can be specifically useful across the lifespan and in populations with internalizing disorders or even subclinical symptomology.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Reconhecimento Facial , Negativismo , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: First episode-psychosis (FEP) represents a stressful/traumatic event for patients. To our knowledge, no study to date has investigated thought suppression involved in FEP in a Romanian population. Our objective was to investigate thought suppression occurring during FEP within primary psychotic disorders (PPD) and substance/medication induced psychotic disorders (SMIPD). Further, we examined the relationship between thought suppression and negative automatic thoughts within PPD and SMIPD. METHODS: The study included 30 participants (17 females) with PPD and 25 participants (10 females) with SMIPD. Psychological scales were administered to assess psychotic symptoms and negative automatic thoughts, along a psychiatric clinical interview and a biochemical drug test. RESULTS: Participants in the PPD group reported higher thought suppression compared to SMIPD group. For the PPD group, results showed a positive correlation between thought suppression and automatic thoughts. For the SMIPD group, results also showed a positive correlation between thought suppression and automatic thoughts. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PPD rely more on thought suppression, as opposed to SMIPD patients. Thought suppression may be viewed as an unhealthy reaction to FEP, which is associated with the experience of negative automatic thoughts and might be especially problematic in patients with PPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended to decrease thought suppression and improve patients' functioning.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Pensamento , Feminino , Humanos , Negativismo , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
7.
J Adolesc ; 84: 200-212, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002659

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While research has shown convincingly that psychologically controlling parenting increases the risk for internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents, little is known about how adolescents cope with such parenting. This study examined the role of two non-autonomous ways of coping (i.e., compulsive compliance and oppositional defiance) and one more autonomous way of coping (i.e., negotiation) in the associations between psychologically controlling parenting and internalizing and externalizing problems. METHOD: Two-wave data from a larger longitudinal study with Belgian adolescents (N = 198; 51% female; mean age = 14.89 years, range = 13-17 years) were analyzed using multilevel modeling. RESULTS: The results showed that oppositional defiance exacerbated associations between psychologically controlling parenting and externalizing problems at the between-person level of analysis. Both compulsive compliance and negotiation exacerbated the association with internalizing problems at the within-person level. In addition to these moderating effects, both oppositional defiance and negotiation played a partly mediating role in associations between psychologically controlling parenting and externalizing problems and oppositional defiance partly mediated associations between psychologically controlling parenting and internalizing problems at the between-person level. CONLUSION: Overall, results suggest that oppositional defiance and compulsive compliance are rather dysfunctional coping responses and that negotiation is a mixed blessing. Directions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Negativismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 206-213, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892702

RESUMO

Over-integration of HIV-related trauma into the client's memory in a negative emotional valence could be a serious health debilitating process which may result in negative post-traumatic health outcomes, affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people living with HIV (PLWH). We hypothesized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are the mediating link between negative event centrality (NEC) and HRQoL among PLWH. Nine hundred and sixty-nine PLWH in Nigeria completed measures of NEC, PTSD symptoms and HRQoL. Model 4 of Hayes' regression-based PROCESS macro version 3.0 for SPSS was employed to investigate relationships between variables of interest. NEC was positively associated with all domains of HRQoL. PLWH who had high negatively centralized identity on HIV also had high scores on PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptoms were also positively associated with all domains of HRQoL. PTSD symptoms also mediated the relationship between NEC and all domains of HRQoL. Assessing and treating PTSD symptoms among PLWH by clinicians could be helpful in enhancing HRQoL.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Negativismo , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
9.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 45: 100852, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890958

RESUMO

Anxiety is the most common form of psychopathology, and it is often characterized by chronic impairment across the lifespan. Researchers have identified core neural markers that confer risk for anxious outcomes. An increased error-related negativity (ERN) in anxious individuals has been shown to prospectively predict onset of anxiety disorders across development. Hence, it is critical to examine environmental factors that may shape the ERN. In the current study, we use a large sample of 170 female adolescents aged 10-17 to investigate whether the ERN mediates the relationship between parenting style and anxiety diagnostic status. This study replicates previous findings, and it extends previous work by suggesting that this relationship is more robust in young children as compared to adolescents. Interventions targeting the ERN via parenting may be most effective during childhood.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Negativismo , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos
10.
Child Dev ; 91(5): e1064-e1081, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738072

RESUMO

This study examined two possible mechanisms, evocative gene-environment correlation and prenatal factors, in accounting for child effects on parental negativity. Participants included 561 children adopted at birth, and their adoptive parents and birth parents within a prospective longitudinal adoption study. Findings indicated child effects on parental negativity, such that toddlers' negative reactivity at 18 months was positively associated with adoptive parents' over-reactive and hostile parenting at 27 months. Furthermore, we found that child effects on parental negativity were partially due to heritable (e.g., birth mother [BM] internalizing problems and substance use) and prenatal factors (e.g., BM illicit drug use during pregnancy) that influence children's negative reactivity at 18 months. This study provides critical evidence for "child on parent" effects.


Assuntos
Hostilidade , Negativismo , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Adoção/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Parto/fisiologia , Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 139, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication can prevent serious consequences, possibly with lifelong effects. Numerous factors have been observed that influence adherent behaviour, but the impact of personality traits has been inadequately explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between personality traits and adherence to ADHD medication, beliefs about the medication, and perceptions of ADHD. METHOD: Adolescents (n = 99) on ADHD medication were administered: Health-Relevant Personality Traits Five-Factor Inventory, Medication Adherence Report Scale, Beliefs about Medicines Specific and Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaires. RESULTS: The personality trait Antagonism correlated with adherence behaviour (r = - 0.198, p = 0.005) and perceived personal control of ADHD (r = - 0.269, p = 0.007). Negative Affectivity correlated with beliefs regarding necessity (r = 0.319, p = 0.001), concerns (r = 0.344, p = 0.001), and experienced side effects of medication (r = 0.495, p = 0.001), alongside perceptions regarding duration (r = 0.272, p = 0.007), identity (r = 0.388, p < 0.001), being emotionally affected (r = 0.374, p < 0.01), personal control (r = - 0.287, p = 0.004) and concerns about ADHD (r = 0.465, p < 0.001). Impulsivity correlated with perceived consequences (r = - 0.226, p = 0.0255) and personal control of ADHD (r = - 0.379, p < 0.001). Hedonic Capacity correlated with concerns about medication (r = - 0.218, p = 0.0316) and perceived identification with ADHD (r = - 0.203, p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Personality traits are related to adherence, beliefs about ADHD medicines and perceptions of ADHD. Antagonism is associated with adherence, especially intentional non-adherence, while Negative Affectivity correlates with numerous perceptions of ADHD and beliefs about medications. Personality assessments could be useful in the care and treatment of adolescents with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Personalidade , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negativismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 400-405, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345033

RESUMO

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not to heavily rely on screen media devices to regulate children's distress, many parents often resort to this regulatory strategy. However, little is known about the long-term implications of using this strategy for children's emotional functioning. To address this issue, this study examined the longitudinal links between the use of media to regulate distress and children's negative emotionality (NE) during toddlerhood, a period in which children strongly rely on external regulation. We also examined whether children with initially high NE were more sensitive to the effects of this regulatory strategy on subsequent NE. Participants were 207 mothers who completed questionnaires assessing child NE, use of media to regulate distress, child screen time, and demographic covariates at 2 time points: 18 months (T1) and 26 months (T2) of children's age. Use of media to regulate child distress at T1 did not directly predict child NE at T2, and vice versa. However, there was a significant interaction between child NE and use of media to regulate distress at T1 in predicting NE at T2. Simple slopes analysis indicated that maternal use of media to regulate distress was positively related to increases in children's NE, but only for children with initially low NE, and not for children with initially high NE. Our findings can inform family-based prevention initiatives that may be delivered in community pediatric settings, aiming at promoting thoughtful use of media in young children's everyday lives.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Mães/psicologia , Negativismo , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112756, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931271

RESUMO

Daily levels of drinking to cope (DTC) have been found to be related to negative outcomes such as increased negative affect, and these effects vary across person. We examined whether daily-level effects of DTC motivation were related to two genetic polymorphisms (rs1360780 in the FKBP5 gene and 5-HTTLPR in SLC6A4) thought to be associated with maladaptive drinking and stress-reactivity. We also examined whether these associations changed during the transition from college to post-college life. Participants (N = 839, 55% women) completed an Internet-based 30-day daily diary during college and again five years later in which they reported their previous night's drinking and drinking motivation, and their current day's negative affect. Saliva was collected at wave 1 to provide DNA for genotyping. The within-person association between nighttime DTC motivation and next-day anxiety and depression was stronger (more positive) for FKBP5 rs1360780 T-allele carriers, compared C/C-allele individuals. We also found that 5-HTTLPR L'/S' subjects (but not S'/S' homozygotes), compared to L'/L' homozygotes, showed stronger positive associations between DTC and anxiety. Results for FKBP5 T-allele carriers are discussed in terms of past findings indicating that such individuals tend to demonstrate increased attention toward stressors, thus possibly intensifying the deleterious effects of DTC-motivated drinking.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Motivação/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Adulto , Afeto , Alelos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negativismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Saliva/metabolismo , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(3): 679-688, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment (ANA), a framework for measuring heterogeneity in alcohol use disorder (AUD), focuses on 3 domains that reflect neurobiological dysfunction in addiction and correspond to the cycles of addiction: executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality. Kwako and colleagues (Am J Psychiatry 176:744, 2019) validated a 3-factor model of the ANA with neuropsychological and self-report indicators among treatment-seekers and non-treatment-seekers with and without AUD. The present analysis replicated and extended these findings in a treatment-seeking sample, focusing on the negative emotionality domain. METHODS: Participants (n = 563; 58.8% male; mean age = 34.3) were part of a multisite prospective study of individuals entering AUD treatment. We examined the factor structure of the negative emotionality domain at the baseline, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up assessments. The Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Trait Anger Subscale, and 3 Drinker Inventory of Consequences items assessing negative affective consequences were indicators in the model. RESULTS: Results indicated that a 1-factor model was an excellent fit at all assessments and that the negative emotionality domain was time and gender invariant. Furthermore, negative emotionality was associated with drinking patterns and reasons for alcohol use (i.e., drinking because of negative emotions and urges/withdrawal) at all assessments. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides evidence for the construct validity and measurement invariance of the ANA negative emotionality domain among AUD treatment-seekers. Future studies are needed to evaluate prospective associations between negative emotionality and specific treatment modalities, and whether individuals with greater negative emotionality are more likely to respond to treatment that targets drinking to relieve negative affective states.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Emoções , Negativismo , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Inventário de Personalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112674, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831200

RESUMO

Biased processing of threatening stimuli, including attention toward and away from threat, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms. Research examining theoretically-derived mechanisms through which dysregulated processing of threat may be associated with PTSD is scarce. Negative affect, a transdiagnostic risk factor for many types of psychopathology, is one potential mechanism that has yet to be examined. Thus, the present study (n = 92) tested the indirect effect of attention bias on PTSD via negative affect using rigorous eye-tracking methodology in a sample of urban-dwelling, trauma-exposed African-American women. We found support for the hypothesis that attention bias toward threat was indirectly associated with PTSD symptoms through increased negative affect. These results suggest that negative affect may be an important etiological process through which attention bias patterns could impact PTSD symptom severity. Implications for psychological and pharmacological therapeutic interventions targeting threat-related attention biases and negative affect are discussed.


Assuntos
Afeto , Viés de Atenção , Movimentos Oculares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negativismo , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112697, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791707

RESUMO

Therapeutic writing can enhance psychological and physical health. Recent studies have suggested that these kinds of interventions can be effective when delivered online. The present study investigated whether positive emotional writing online can influence psychological and physical health in individuals reporting high levels of negative affectivity, who are most likely to benefit from psychological intervention (N = 72, Mage = 28.5, SDage = 8.7), and further, to investigate the potential moderating role of social inhibition. Participants completed self-report measures of physical symptoms, perceived stress, perceived stress reactivity, depression and generalised anxiety, before completing either i) positive emotional writing, or ii) a non-emotive control writing task on an online portal, for 20 min per day over three consecutive days. State anxiety was measured immediately after each writing session, and self-report questionnaires were again administered four weeks post-writing. Socially inhibited individuals exhibited significant reductions in depression and perceived stress reactivity four weeks following positive emotional writing, relative to writing about a neutral topic. The present study supports the efficacy of online therapeutic writing in individuals who, due to their socially inhibited nature, are most likely to benefit from online interventions which avoid interaction with a therapist or other clients.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Redação , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negativismo , Autorrelato , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112692, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784065

RESUMO

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by more frequent and more intense negative emotions and less frequent positive emotions in daily life than healthy controls (HC) experience, but there is limited empirical evidence regarding whether this is a transdiagnostic or disorder-specific finding and which specific emotions are especially distressing in BPD. We assessed participants' current emotions and distress every 15 min over a 24-h period using e-diaries to investigate the frequency, intensity, and the associated distress of specific emotions. To test the disorder specificity, we used multilevel modeling to compare 43 female patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 HC. Patients with BPD exhibited anger more frequently than any of the clinical or healthy control groups, demonstrating specificity. The quality of anger accounted for additional distress beyond the pure emotional intensity. In patients with BPD, joy was associated with reduced distress, which was not the case in HC or PTSD. However, the majority of the comparisons (anxiety, sadness, shame, disgust, jealousy, guilt, interest) revealed transdiagnostic patterns. The distress-enhancing or distress-reducing effects of anger and joy might represent an important part of affective dysregulation in BPD.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Culpa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Negativismo , Vergonha , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
18.
Emotion ; 20(8): 1390-1398, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380662

RESUMO

Novel negative events are simulated in more event-specific detail than novel positive events. In the present study, we set out to assess whether this negative event detail bias is specific to simulations of personal events or whether evoking negative valence, in the context of simulations of personal and nonpersonal events, is sufficient for boosting simulated event detail. Participants simulated novel negative and positive events that might take place in their future, the future of an acquaintance, or the future of a familiar individual with whom they have not had prior contact. Across 2 experiments, we found that novel negative events were simulated in more event-specific detail than novel positive events irrespective of whether the events under consideration were personal or nonpersonal. This pattern of results also emerged when negative and positive events did not differ on a subjective measure of arousal, indicating that negative valence may play a key role in encouraging detailed elaboration of novel negative events. Implications of our findings for the role of event simulation in adaptive behavior are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Viés , Emoções/fisiologia , Negativismo , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Affect Disord ; 261: 9-20, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is a widely recognized public health concern with significant implications for child functioning, including the development of negative child affect and risk for later depression. Negative mental representations may partially account for the association between maternal depression and child negative affect. METHODS: The effect of depression on low-income mothers' representations of their child, self, and mother was assessed via Expressed Emotion (EE) during Five-Minute Speech Samples. Direct and indirect pathways between maternal depression, EE, and child negative affect were examined. Mothers (M = 24 years old) who had experienced a major depressive episode (n = 144) since child's birth, non-depressed comparison mothers (n = 62), and their children participated. RESULTS: Examination of between-group differences revealed that depressed mothers had higher levels of overall self EE. Trend results also suggest depressed mothers may have higher overall EE toward their children and their own mothers. Novel coding systems for EE toward self (Identity and Depressotypic Cognitions) and EE toward mother (Source of Concrete Support and Resolution of Past Adversity) were also developed and tested. A significant indirect relation was found between maternal baseline depression and child negative affect at 26 months via the mother's level of EE-Criticism of her mother. LIMITATIONS: Certain EE subcodes may need to be adapted for young children and high-risk, low-income participants. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlights the importance of relational interventions that focus on maternal representations for women with depression and their children.


Assuntos
Afeto , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Negativismo , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções Manifestas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza
20.
Eat Behav ; 36: 101343, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715461

RESUMO

Affect and reward are associated with unhealthy eating and weight; however, less research has examined affective predictors of hedonic hunger (i.e., extreme reward responsivity, pleasure toward, and drive for food), particularly among adolescents. Whether symptoms indicative of emotional disturbance increase risk of adverse reward-based eating-related symptoms such as hedonic hunger, is unknown. Such evidence could explain why emotional problems increase risk of eating and weight problems among adolescents, when eating-related health problems often originate. This report examined baseline emotional disorder symptoms, negative urgency (i.e., tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect), and anhedonia (i.e., loss of interest in activities and decreased pleasure) as prospective predictors of increases in hedonic hunger in adolescents; associations between changes in emotional disturbance problems and hedonic hunger were also examined. Ninth-grade students (N = 2598) from high schools completed paper-and-pencil surveys at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. In a multivariable model controlling for the covariance of emotional problems, higher negative urgency, general anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and lower anhedonia at baseline independently predicted increases in hedonic hunger one year later. Also, increases in negative urgency, general anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and decreases in anhedonia independently predicted increases in hedonic hunger. Affect- and reward-related variables may be important contributors to risk of hedonic hunger in adolescence.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Anedonia/fisiologia , Fome/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negativismo , Estudos Prospectivos
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