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1.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(3): 377-384, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462872

RESUMO

The two main components from a Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract (NnEx) were investigated for their ability to prevent triglyceride accumulation and promoting lipolysis. Sun-dried Nelumbo nucifera leaves were immersed in hot water to extract the soluble components, and the resulting solution was analyzed by LC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance. The results showed that quercetin-3-O-ß-glucuronide (Q3GA) and quercetin were the key components of the NnEx. In vitro experiments confirmed that quercetin and Q3GA functioned in lipid metabolism by promoting triglyceride degradation through inhibition of the cAMP pathway. In vivo experiments showed that NnEx ingestion inhibited the accumulation of neutral fats in ICR mice and transitioned the hepatocytes of type II diabetic KK-Ay mice out of glycogenosis. These results highlight the ability of NnEx to control metabolism by modulating fat and sugar absorption and may provide an interesting novel treatment for obesity and related lifestyle diseases such as type II diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nelumbo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361015

RESUMO

The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) can maintain a stable floral chamber temperature between 30 and 35 °C when blooming despite fluctuations in ambient temperatures between about 8 and 45 °C, but the regulatory mechanism of floral thermogenesis remains unclear. Here, we obtained comprehensive protein profiles from receptacle tissue at five developmental stages using data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based quantitative proteomics technology to reveal the molecular basis of floral thermogenesis of N. nucifera. A total of 6913 proteins were identified and quantified, of which 3513 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were screened. Among them, 640 highly abundant proteins during the thermogenic stages were mainly involved in carbon metabolism processes such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Citrate synthase was identified as the most connected protein in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Next, the content of alternative oxidase (AOX) and plant uncoupling protein (pUCP) in different tissues indicated that AOX was specifically abundant in the receptacles. Subsequently, a protein module highly related to the thermogenic phenotype was identified by the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). In summary, the regulation mechanism of floral thermogenesis in N. nucifera involves complex regulatory networks, including TCA cycle metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, fatty acid degradation, and ubiquinone synthesis, etc.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Flores/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Nelumbo/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Nelumbo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nelumbo/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Temperatura
3.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104994, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273439

RESUMO

Three new pairs of benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline (BIQ) alkaloid epimers, Seco-neferine A-F (1-6), were isolated from an EtOH extract of Plumula Nelumbinis. The structures of these compounds were identified by a combination of NMR, HR-ESI-MS, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopic analyses and specific rotations. The structure of compounds 1-6 possesses high similarity with neferine, because these three pairs of epimers have the same skeleton as neferine. Compounds 1,2 and 5,6 are open-loop compounds of position 1' and 1 of neferine respectively. The H connects with position 2' N of compounds 1,2 is replaced by methyl, forming the structure of compounds 3,4. Moreover, six compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell. Compound 6 displayed moderate inhibitory effects on breast cancer with IC50 of 38.96 µM, while compounds 2,3,4 show certain inhibitory effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Nelumbo/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Benzilisoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
4.
Food Chem ; 361: 130171, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077884

RESUMO

By inspecting starch hierarchical structural evolution, this work explored how microwave irradiation tailored the digestion characteristics of lotus seed starch-chlorogenic acid mixtures. The results showed that after microwave treatment, the granular structure, short-range ordered structure, helical conformation, and lamellar structure of starch exhibited different degrees of disorganization. In this procedure, chlorogenic acid interacted with starch molecules to form lotus seed starch-chlorogenic acid complexes and participated in the reorganization of the matrixes of the starch substrate in three forms: V-type inclusion complex, non-inclusion complex, and simply physically entrapped. These structural changes, coupled with the inhibition of chlorogenic acid on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, contributed to the slowly digestible features of lotus seed starch-chlorogenic acid complexes. This study provided a basis for understanding the multi-scale structure-digestibility relationship of starchy foods rich in phenolic acids under microwave treatment.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/química , Nelumbo/química , Amido/química , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Digestão , Hidrólise , Micro-Ondas , Sementes/química , Amido/farmacocinética
5.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3527-3538, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900335

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidins (LSOPC) and their main monomer catechin (CC) on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and Caco-2 cytotoxicity during gastrointestinal digestion. Studies have found that LSOPC and CC inhibited the AGEs formation effectively in simulated gastrointestinal digestion and protected Caco-2 cells from AGEs attack. The effect of CC on the inhibition of AGEs formation was significantly better than that of LSOPC. Further, they could effectively inhibit the digestive enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species, RAGE-p38MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathway, inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6), and adhesion factors (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) to protect Caco-2 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Nelumbo/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Catequina/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Pepsina A/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Tocoferóis/análise , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
6.
Mol Ecol ; 30(12): 2831-2845, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899994

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in phenotypic diversity, plant development, and environmental responses. However, the mechanisms of DNA methylation underpinning the adaption of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) ecotypes to high and low latitudes remain unsolved, especially adaptive evolution of their storage organs. Tropical and temperate lotus ecotypes have thin and enlarged rhizomes which are adapted to low and high latitudes, respectively. Here, we investigated the DNA methylomes and transcriptomes of rhizomes of the temperate and tropical lotus to address this issue. Compared with that of the tropical lotus, the DNA of the temperate lotus was significantly more hypermethylated, indicating an increase in global DNA methylation in the lotus, with rhizome enlargement. Meanwhile, genes associated with differentially methylated regions in their promoters tended to be differentially expressed between the two ecotypes. Interestingly, the genes with their expression negatively correlated with methylation levels in their promoters and genomic regions displayed significantly higher transposon coverage, while the genes showing a significant positive correlation between expression and methylation showed lesser transposon coverage. Further, we identified that DNA methylation, especially in the promoter region, was significantly correlated with the expression of many starch-biosynthetic, gibberellin-, and brassinosteroid-signalling genes associated with rhizome differentiation. Overall, our study unveiled that distinct global and local methylation patterns between the two lotus ecotypes contribute to their expression differences and adaptive phenotypic divergence of their storage organs, highlighting the role of DNA methylation in shaping the ecotypic differentiation of lotus.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Nelumbo , Ecótipo , Epigenoma , Nelumbo/genética , Rizoma
7.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916148

RESUMO

In this study, the combination of parameters required for optimal extraction of anti-oxidative components from the Chinese lotus (CLR) and Malaysian lotus (MLR) roots were carefully investigated. Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the pH (X1: 2-3), extraction time (X2: 0.5-1.5 h) and solvent-to-sample ratio (X3: 20-40 mL/g) to obtain a high flavonoid yield with high % DPPHsc free radical scavenging and Ferric-reducing power assay (FRAP). The analysis of variance clearly showed the significant contribution of quadratic model for all responses. The optimal conditions for both Chinese lotus (CLR) and Malaysian lotus (MLR) roots were obtained as: CLR: X1 = 2.5; X2 = 0.5 h; X3 = 40 mL/g; MLR: X1 = 2.4; X2 = 0.5 h; X3 = 40 mL/g. These optimum conditions gave (a) Total flavonoid content (TFC) of 0.599 mg PCE/g sample and 0.549 mg PCE/g sample, respectively; (b) % DPPHsc of 48.36% and 29.11%, respectively; (c) FRAP value of 2.07 mM FeSO4 and 1.89 mM FeSO4, respectively. A close agreement between predicted and experimental values was found. The result obtained succinctly revealed that the Chinese lotus exhibited higher antioxidant and total flavonoid content when compared with the Malaysia lotus root at optimum extraction condition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Nelumbo/química , Algoritmos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Teóricos , Solventes/química
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(1-2): 207-220, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738679

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The genome-wide allele-specific expression in F1 hybrids from the cross of tropical and temperate lotus unveils how cis-regulatory divergences affect genes in key pathways related to ecotypic divergence. Genetic variation, particularly cis-regulatory variation, plays a crucial role in phenotypic variation and adaptive evolution in plants. Temperate and tropical lotus, the two ecotypes of Nelumbo nucifera, show distinction in the degree of rhizome enlargement, which is associated with winter dormancy. To understand the roles of genome-wide cis-regulatory divergences on adaptive evolution of temperate and tropical lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), here we performed allele-specific expression (ASE) analyses on the tissues including flowers, leaves and rhizome from F1 hybrids of tropical and temperate lotus. For all investigated tissues in F1s, about 36% of genes showed ASE and about 3% of genes showed strong consistent ASE. Most of ASEs were biased towards the tropical parent in all surveyed samples, indicating that the tropical genome might be dominant over the temperate genome in gene expression of tissues from their F1 hybrids. We found that promoter sequences with similar allelic expression are more conserved than genes with significant or conditional ASE, suggesting the cis-regulatory sequence divergence underlie the allelic expression bias. We further uncovered biased genes being related to phenotypic differentiation between two lotus ecotypes, especially metabolic and phytohormone-related pathways in the rhizome. Overall, our study provides a global landscape of cis-regulatory variations between two lotus ecotypes and highlights their roles in rhizome growth variation for the climatic adaptation.


Assuntos
Alelos , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hibridização Genética , Nelumbo/genética , Clima Tropical , Sequência Conservada/genética , Genoma de Planta , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , RNA-Seq , Rizoma/genética
9.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 85(6): 1332-1340, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713113

RESUMO

Owing to the high degree of diversity of metabolite pools and complexity of spatial and temporal distributions within biological tissues, currently available methods for metabolite characterization face large challenges. In this study, the temporal and spatial distributions of the alkaloid components of the medicinal plant lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) were investigated over various growth phases. The results showed that alkaloid biosynthesis in lotus leaf is regulated by development and that there is maximum accumulation of alkaloids when the lotus leaf was completely expanded. Furthermore, alkaloid content tended to be stable in mature lotus leaves. However, there was significant variation in the alkaloid content of lotus leaves with different genotypes, suggesting that genetic background is an important factor that affects the temporal and spatial distributions of alkaloids in sacred lotus leaves. The dynamic contents of alkaloids during the growth and development of lotus leaves provide insight into basic biological differences when sampling.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Nelumbo/metabolismo , Alcaloides/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise Espaço-Temporal
10.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 171, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The AP2/ERF family is widely present in plants and plays a crucial regulatory role in plant growth and development. As an essential aquatic horticultural model plant, lotus has an increasingly prominent economic and research value. RESULTS: We have identified and analysed the AP2/ERF gene family in the lotus. Initially, 121 AP2/ERF family genes were identified. By analysing their gene distribution and protein structure, and their expression patterns during the development of lotus rhizome, combined with previous studies, we obtained an SNP (megascaffold_20:3578539) associated with lotus rhizome phenotype. This SNP was in the NnADAP gene of the AP2 subfamily, and the changes in SNP (C/T) caused amino acid conversion (proline/leucine). We constructed a population of 95 lotus varieties for SNP verification. Through population typing experiments, we found that the group with SNP CC had significantly larger lotus rhizome and higher soluble sugar content among the population. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we speculate that the alteration of the SNP in the NnADAP can affect the size and sugar content of the lotus rhizome.


Assuntos
Lotus , Nelumbo , Genoma de Planta , Lotus/genética , Nelumbo/genética , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rizoma/genética
11.
Food Chem ; 348: 129109, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524694

RESUMO

Lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera G.) is a high economic value crop in the world. In this study, the storage characteristics (color, sensory, texture, and fatty acids) of lotus root ("Elian No.5″) were evaluated at different harvest periods (September 2018, October 2018, November 2018, December 2018, and January 2019). Moreover, the storage characteristics were evaluated after the short- term and long-term storage of lotus root at 4 °C and 20 °C. The hardness of lotus root significantly decreased at both temperatures (4 °C and 20 °C) during the first 3 days of storage. In contrast, the decrease in hardness delayed at 4 °C (beyond 3 days of storage). Further, genes related to hardness at different storage temperatures were identified using the RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. The results of this study provide a reference for lotus root storage and a basis for the molecular breeding of longterm-storable lotus root.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lotus/química , Nelumbo/química , Temperatura
12.
Planta ; 253(3): 65, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564987

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: CONSTANS-LIKE 5 of Nelumbo nucifera is capable of promoting potato tuberization through CONSTANS-FLOWERING LOCUS T and gibberellin signaling pathways with a probable association with lotus rhizome enlargement. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an aquatic plant that is affiliated to the Nelumbonaceace family. It is widely used as an ornamental, vegetable, and medicinal herb with its rhizome being a popular vegetable. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying its rhizome enlargement, we conducted a systematic analysis on the CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) gene family, with the results, indicating that this gene plays a role in regulating potato tuber expansion. These analyses included phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, and expressional patterns of lotus COL family genes. Based on these analyses, NnCOL5 was selected for further study on its potential function in lotus rhizome formation. NnCOL5 was shown to be located in the nucleus, and its expression was positively associated with the enlargement of lotus rhizome. Besides, the overexpression of NnCOL5 in potato led to increased tuber weight and starch content under short-day conditions without changing the number of tubers. Further analysis suggested that the observed tuber changes might be mediated by affecting the expression of genes in CO-FT and GA signaling pathways. These results provide valuable insight in understanding the functions of COL gene as well as the enlargement of lotus rhizome.


Assuntos
Nelumbo , Solanum tuberosum , Nelumbo/genética , Filogenia , Tubérculos/genética , Rizoma , Solanum tuberosum/genética
13.
Plant J ; 106(2): 351-365, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486798

RESUMO

Lotus plumule, the embryo of the seed of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), contains a high accumulation of secondary metabolites including flavonoids and possesses important pharmaceutical value. Flavonoid C-glycosides, which accumulate exclusively in lotus plumule, have attracted considerable attention in recent decades due to their unique chemical structure and special bioactivities. As well as mono-C-glycosides, lotus plumule also accumulates various kinds of di-C-glycosides by mechanisms which are as yet unclear. In this study we identified two C-glycosyltransferase (CGT) genes by mining sacred lotus genome data and provide in vitro and in planta evidence that these two enzymes (NnCGT1 and NnCGT2, also designated as UGT708N1 and UGT708N2, respectively) exhibit CGT activity. Recombinant UGT708N1 and UGT708N2 can C-glycosylate 2-hydroxyflavanones and 2-hydroxynaringenin C-glucoside, forming flavone mono-C-glycosides and di-C-glycosides, respectively, after dehydration. In addition, the above reactions were successfully catalysed by cell-free extracts from tobacco leaves transiently expressing NnCGT1 or NnCGT2. Finally, enzyme assays using cell-free extracts of lotus plumule suggested that flavone di-C-glycosides (vicenin-1, vicenin-3, schaftoside and isoschaftoside) are biosynthesized through sequentially C-glucosylating and C-arabinosylating/C-xylosylating 2-hydroxynaringenin. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the biosynthesis of flavonoid di-C-glycosides by proposing a new biosynthetic pathway for flavone C-glycosides in N. nucifera and identifying a novel uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase (UGT708N2) that specifically catalyses the second glycsosylation, C-arabinosylating and C-xylosylating 2-hydroxynaringenin C-glucoside.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Nelumbo/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Nelumbo/enzimologia , Nelumbo/genética , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tabaco
14.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 38, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514746

RESUMO

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, or lotus) is one of the most widely grown aquatic plant species with important uses, such as in water gardening and in vegetable and herbal medicine. A public genomic database of lotus would facilitate studies of lotus and other aquatic plant species. Here, we constructed an integrative database: the Nelumbo Genome Database (NGD, http://nelumbo.biocloud.net ). This database is a collection of the most updated lotus genome assembly and contains information on both gene expression in different tissues and coexpression networks. In the NGD, we also integrated genetic variants and key traits from our 62 newly sequenced lotus cultivars and 26 previously reported cultivars, which are valuable for lotus germplasm studies. As applications including BLAST, BLAT, Primer, Annotation Search, Variant and Trait Search are deployed, users can perform sequence analyses and gene searches via the NGD. Overall, the valuable genomic resources provided in the NGD will facilitate future studies on population genetics and molecular breeding of lotus.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma de Planta , Nelumbo/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genômica
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 160: 155-165, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497846

RESUMO

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is a perennial aquatic plant with great value in ornamentation, nutrition, and medicine. Being a storage organ, lotus rhizome is not only used for vegetative reproduction, but also as a popular vegetable in Southeast Asia. Rhizome development, especially enlargement, largely determines its yield and hence becomes one of the major concerns in rhizome lotus breeding and cultivation. To obtain the genetic characteristic of this trait, and discover markers or genes associated with this trait, an F2 population was generated by crossing between temperate and tropical cultivars with contrasting rhizome enlargement. Based on this F2 population and Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) technique, a genetic map was constructed with 1475 bin markers containing 12,113 SNP markers. Six traits associated with rhizome yield were observed over 3 years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis identified 22 QTLs that are associated with at least one of these traits, among which 9 were linked with 3 different intervals. Comparison of the genes located in these three intervals with our previous transcriptomic data showed that light and phytohormone signaling might contribute to the development and enlargement of lotus rhizome. The QTLs obtained here could also be used for marker-assisted breeding of rhizome lotus.


Assuntos
Ligação Genética , Nelumbo/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rizoma/genética
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 542-549, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454327

RESUMO

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Eleocharis dulcis, Sagittaria sagittifolia L., and Trapa bispinosa Roxb. are common aquatic vegetables that are rich in starch. Starches from these four aquatic vegetables and their applications in edible films were studied to facilitate full use of starch resources. Significant differences in transparency, freeze-thaw stability, water solubility index, swelling power, water and oil absorption capacities, starch particle morphology, and rheology were observed among the starches from these four aquatic vegetables. All starches exhibited a typical "A" type diffraction pattern. N. nucifera, E. dulcis, and S. sagittifolia starches have similar thermal properties, while T. bispinosa starch has a higher gelatinization temperature. S. sagittifolia starch film has the highest transparency and lower WVP and water solubility. These results will promote the development of products based on starch obtained from aquatic vegetables.


Assuntos
Eleocharis/química , Lythraceae/química , Nelumbo/química , Sagittaria/química , Amido/química , Verduras/química , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Reologia , Solubilidade , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Amido/ultraestrutura , Água/química
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(22): 27878-27884, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517550

RESUMO

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus) roots were collected from contaminated sediments which were artificially adding different concentrations of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to investigate the effect of concentration on the accumulation characteristics and chiral signatures of PCBs in lotus root during its growth period of 150 days. Under high PCB exposure concentration, the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) of PCBs 91, 95, and 136 in the lotus root were up to 0.25-0.46 and 8.10-10.5 times higher than those under low-exposure concentration (0.024-0.052). The BSAFs of PCBs 149, 176, and 183 under high-exposure concentration were up to 0.24-0.44, while they were undetected at low concentration. The significant difference observed in the BSAFs based on different concentrations indicates that the lotus root accumulation efficiency toward chiral PCBs increases with the contaminate concentration. Although the (-)-enantiomers of PCBs 91, 95, and 136 were all preferentially accumulated in lotus root under two exposure concentrations, the extent of the preferential accumulation of (-)-PCB 95 decreased with increasing exposure concentration throughout the whole growth period (30-150 days). In addition, the (-)-enantiomers of PCBs 91 and 136 also showed the same tendency during most of the growth period. Conclusively, the exposure concentrations are an important influence factor on the enantioselective accumulation of chiral PCBs in lotus root.


Assuntos
Nelumbo , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Sedimentos Geológicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Estereoisomerismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113511, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148434

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nelumbo nucifera are used in folk medicine for anti-depressant, anti-convulsant, neuroprotective, and many other purposes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work evaluated the sleep potentiating effects of water extract from lotus seed in rat, and the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying these effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pentobarbital-induced sleep test and electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis were applied to investigate sleep latency, duration, total sleeping time and sleep quality of Lotus extract. In addition, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. RESULTS: We found that the amounts of the possible active compounds GABA (2.33 mg/g) and L-tryptophan (2.00 mg/g) were higher than quinidine (0.55 mg/g) and neferine (0.16 mg/g) in lotus seed extract. High dose (160 mg/kg) administration of lotus extract led to a tendency towards decreased sleep latency time and an increase in sleep duration time compared to the control group in a pentobarbital-induced sleep model (p < 0.05). After high dose administration, total sleep and NREM were significantly increased compared to control, while wake time and REM were significantly decreased. Lotus extract-treated rats showed significantly reduced wake time and increased sleep time in a caffeine-induced model of arousal. The transcription level of GABAA receptor, GABAB receptor, and serotonin receptor tended to increase with dose, and lotus extract showed a strong dose-dependent binding capacity to the GABAA receptor. CONCLUSION: The above results strongly suggest that GABA contained in lotus seed extract acts as a sleep potentiating compound, and that sleep-potentiating activity involves GABAA receptor binding.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Nelumbo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/farmacologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Nelumbo/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/isolamento & purificação , Latência do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/isolamento & purificação
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 158: 518-523, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272791

RESUMO

Lotus is an important aquatic ornamental plant, whose flower color is one of the key horticultural traits that determines its ornamental value. Previous studies revealed that anthocyanins largely determined the red color of lotus flower, which are also the main component that has beneficial effects on human health. However, the regulation mechanism of flower pigmentation in lotus flower remains unclear. In the present study, in order to further understand the regulatory mechanism underlying the anthocyanin biosynthesis, a bHLH gene NnTT8 was characterized to be phylogenetically close to AtTT8 and the bHLH proteins from other plant species that have been indicated to be involved in the positive regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Complementation analysis in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant showed that NnTT8 could function similarly to AtTT8 in regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanin biosynthesis. An MYB transcription factor capable of interacting with NnTT8 was also characterized from lotus. The identification of a bHLH transcription factor playing regulatory roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis is crucial, as it might help to obtain more in-depth insight into the coloration of lotus and help in breeding high anthocyanin content lotus variety that can be explored for lotus flower beverages.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Nelumbo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nelumbo/genética , Nelumbo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
20.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(2): 379-394, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918633

RESUMO

Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) is a key molecular target for controlling smooth muscle (SM) contraction in asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, hypertension. Embryos of lotus seed (Nelumbo nucifera) are traditional folk herbs widely used in treating various diseases which are closely related to SM contraction. With the aim of explaining the mechanism of embryos of lotus seed, 27 isoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from the embryos of lotus seed, the inhibitory activity of these alkaloids against ROCK1 were virtual screened via molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The docking results indicated that 5 bisbenzylisoquinolines (BBIs) and 1 tribenzylisoquinoline (TBI) were potent inhibitors with high binding affinity for both A and B chains of ROCK1 (AcRock and BcRock). The MD results also revealed that neoliensinine (28) was the most potent inhibitor, which was corresponding to the irreversible relaxation effect of neoliensinine on SM. Moreover, through the MD simulation, it also indicated that neoliensinine (28) interacted in its stretched conformation through polar solvation interactions and van der Waal forces. Finally, with the best calculation results, the inhibition effect of neoliensinine (28) on the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and ROCK1 was also confirmed by several biological tests.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Nelumbo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Quinases Associadas a rho
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