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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19893, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400923

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are valuable species, but their geographic distributions may be limited or exposed to extinction by climate change. Therefore, research on medicinal plants in the face of climate change is fundamental for developing conservation strategies. Distributional patterns for a semi-endemic medicinal plant species, Nepeta glomerulosa, distributed in southwestern and central Asia was determined based on a maximum-entropy algorithm. We evaluated potential geographic shifts in suitability patterns for this species under two Shared Socioeconomic Pathways scenarios (SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5) of climate change for 2060. Our models based on climatic features indicate that the species occupies montane areas under current conditions; transfer of the model to future climate scenarios indicated that suitable areas for the species will increase in general, and the species will likely track its favored set of climate conditions. But the types and degrees of these changes differ among areas. Our findings can be used to inform conservation management programs for medicinal, endemic, and endangered species that probably respond similarly to climate change in southwestern and central Asia.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Nepeta , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Ásia
2.
Planta ; 256(5): 99, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222913

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Using virus-induced gene silencing, we demonstrated that the enzymes GES, ISY, and MLPL are responsible for nepetalactone biosynthesis in Nepeta cataria. Nepetalactone is the main iridoid that is found in the Nepeta genus and is well-known for its psychoactive effect on house cats. Moreover, there is a burgeoning interest into the effect of nepetalactone on insects. Although the enzymes for nepetalactone biosynthesis have been biochemically assayed in vitro, validation of the role that these enzymes have in planta has not been demonstrated. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a silencing method that relies on transient transformation and is an approach that has been particularly successful when applied to a variety of non-model plants. Here, we use a recently designed visual-marker dependent VIGS system to demonstrate that the nepetalactone biosynthetic enzymes GES, ISY, and MLPL impact nepetalactone biosynthesis in Nepeta cataria.


Assuntos
Nepeta , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos , Iridoides , Nepeta/química , Nepeta/genética , Pironas/química , Pironas/farmacologia
3.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296649

RESUMO

Catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) is of scientific interest largely due to the production of nepetalactones, volatile iridoid terpenes with strong arthropod repellent activity. However, the plant can also produce other bioactive volatile iridoids, such as nepetalic acid (NA), nepetalactam (NT) and dihydronepetalactone (DHNL) that have not been studied extensively. Germplasm studies on plants that can produce such compounds are scarce. The present study evaluated the chemical diversity of catnip genotypes with a focus on NA, NT and DHNL. A total of 34 genotypes were harvested at different times over two years. The ethanolic extract of the plants was screened for iridoids by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. CR9 × CR3 genotype had the highest value for biomass yield, while cultivar CR9 had the highest value for accumulated NA. Genotype UK.2 had the highest value for accumulated NT yield and CR5 had the highest value for accumulated DHNL. Overall, patented cultivars and elite selections performed better than other less studied genotypes. Harvest time influenced the accumulation of secondary metabolites differentially for the genotypes. This is the first germplasm study with a focus on these iridoid compounds, yet more studies are necessary as genotype characterization is essential for breeding and standardization of products for industry.


Assuntos
Nepeta , Óleos Voláteis , Nepeta/genética , Nepeta/química , Terpenos , Iridoides , Melhoramento Vegetal , Extratos Vegetais/química , Genótipo , Óleos Voláteis/química
4.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 192, 2022 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been known for centuries that cats respond euphorically to Nepeta cataria (catnip). Recently, we have shown that Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle), Actinidia polygama (silver vine), and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) can also elicit this "catnip response". The aim of this study was to learn if the behavior seen in response to these plants is similar to the response to catnip. Furthermore, we studied if these responses are fixed or if there are differences between cats. While nepetalactone was identified decades ago as the molecule responsible for the "catnip response", we know that this volatile is found almost exclusively in catnip. Therefore, we also aimed to identify other compounds in these alternative plants that can elicit the blissful behavior in cats. Bioassays with 6 cats were performed in a low-stress environment, where 5 plants and 13 single compounds were each tested for at least 100 and 17 h, respectively. All responses were video recorded and BORIS software was used to analyze the cats' behavior. RESULTS: Both response duration and behavior differed significantly between the cats. While individual cats had preferences for particular plants, the behavior of individual cats was consistent among all plants. About half a dozen lactones similar in structure to nepetalactone were able to elicit the "catnip response", as were the structurally more distinct molecules actinidine and dihydroactinidiolide. Most cats did not respond to actinidine, whereas those who did, responded longer to this volatile than any of the other secondary plant metabolites, and different behavior was observed. Interestingly, dihydroactinidiolide was also found in excretions and secretions of the red fox, making this the first report of a compound produced by a mammal that can elicit the "catnip response". A range of different cat-attracting compounds was detected by chemical analysis of plant materials but differences in cat behavior could not be directly related to differences in chemical composition of the plants. Together with results of, among others, habituation / dishabituation experiments, this indicates that additional cat-attracting compounds may be present in the plant materials that remain to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that both the personality of the cat and genetic variation in the genes encoding olfactory receptors may play a role in how cats respond to cat-attracting plants. Furthermore, the data suggest a potential distinct mechanism of action for actinidine.


Assuntos
Nepeta , Alcaloides , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Gatos , Mamíferos , Nepeta/química , Plantas , Piridinas , Terpenos
5.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 35(4): 1015-1021, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008897

RESUMO

As a popular medicinal plant traditionally used in Tibet of China, Nepeta angustifolia C. Y. Wu is mainly administered to treat apoplexia, cerebral haemorrhage, fainting and epilepsy and other symptoms, while its effect on hyperuricemia is still unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the improvement of the 70% ethanol extract of Nepeta angustifolia C. Y. Wu in fructose-induced hyperuricemic mice. The results revealed that Nepeta angustifolia C. Y. Wu significantly decreased blood glucose and blood lipid levels, as well as lowering the urinary levels of uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen. Meanwhile, it effectively restored the serum levels of uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen and inhibited serum and hepatic XOD activities and renal oxidative stress, while suppressing the secretions of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 in kidney. Nepeta angustifolia C. Y. Wu also attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells and reduced the production and accumulation of glycogen and collagen, while restoring the dysregulated protein expressions of renal URAT1, GLUT9, OAT1 and OAT3. In summary, our results support the idea that Nepeta angustifolia C. Y. Wu is a promising agent for treating hyperuricemia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hiperuricemia , Nepeta , Animais , Creatinina/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Rim , Camundongos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico
6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 173, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, often affect the patients' quality of life due to their serious side effects, indicating the urgent need to develop less toxic and more effective alternative treatments. Medicinal plants and their derivatives are invaluable sources for such remedies. The present study aimed to determine the chemical composition, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Nepeta mahanesis essential oil (EO). METHODS: The chemical composition of EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Cytotoxicity and apoptosis/necrosis induction of EO was analyzed by MTT assay and Flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the Bax/Bcl2 gene expression. Also, the effect of the EO on the cells' mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ROS level was assessed. DPPH assay was done to assess the free radical scavenging activity of the EO. The Antimicrobial activity, MIC, and MBC of the oil were determined via well-diffusion and broth microdilution methods. RESULTS: Based on the GC-MS analysis, 24 compounds were identified in the EO, of which 1,8-cineole (28.5%), Nepetalactone (18.8%), germacrene D (8.1%), and ß-pinene (7.2%), were the major compounds. Also, the EO showed considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7, Caco-2, SH-SY5Y, and HepG2 after 24 and 48 h treatment with IC50 values between 0.0.47 to 0.81 mg/mL. It was revealed that this compound increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in the MCF-7 cells and induced apoptosis (27%) and necrosis (18%) in the cells. Moreover, the EO treatment led to a substantial decrease in MMP, which is indicative of apoptosis induction. A significant increase in ROS level was also detected in the cells following exposure to the EO. This compound showed strong DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 30). It was also effective against Gram-positive E. faecalis (ATCC 29,212) and Gram-negative E. coli (ATCC 11,333) bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that the EO of N. mahanesis could be considered a bioactive product with biomedical applications that can be used as an alternative cancer treatment and applied in the biomedical industries.


Assuntos
Nepeta , Neuroblastoma , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Necrose , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2
7.
Phytother Res ; 36(6): 2481-2494, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470926

RESUMO

Nepeta menthoides Boiss. & Buhse and Melissa officinalis are extensively used in Persian medicine for the treatment of depression. Considering the active ingredients and main phenolic compounds of these plants and possible synergistic effects, this study examined the antidepressant and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of N. menthoides (NM) and M. officinalis (MO) in reserpinized mice alone and combination. Mice were pretreated orally for 1-week with normal saline (10 ml/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), imipramine (10 mg/kg), NM (50-100-200-400 mg/kg), MO (150-350-550-750 mg/kg), and combination (NM 50 with MO 150 mg/kg). The behavioral changes were evaluated using forced swim, tail suspension, and open field tests, 24 hr after reserpine injection (4 mg/kg) on eighth day. The amounts of active components in the extracts and catalase (CAT) as a brain oxidative stress were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data showed that this combination produced a synergistic action on behaviors and a significant increase in CAT activity. High-performance liquid chromatography results showed that rosmarinic acid contents in MO and NM were 6.42 ± 1.1 and 11.03 ± 2.16 mg/g of dried extract, respectively. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of MO were higher than NM. The findings suggest that the present combination produces an antidepressant-like effect, which is possibly triggered by its antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Melissa , Nepeta , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Melissa/química , Camundongos , Nepeta/química , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reserpina
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(12): 3105-3109, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085566

RESUMO

The antihypoxic effect of the Nepeta multifida L. dry extract was studied in experiments on white Wistar rats. The life span of animals was determined against the background of acute hypoxias: hypercapnic, hemic, and histotoxic ones. Using the model of acute hypobaric hypoxia/reoxygenation there was evaluated the content of ATP, lactic and pyruvic acids, TBA-active products, reduced glutathione, catalase activity in brain tissue. On the model of acute hypobaric hypoxia/reoxygenation, the content of ATP, lactic and pyruvic acids, reduced glutathione and catalase activity in brain tissue The N. multifida dry extract demonstrated antihypoxic effect at the doses comprised between 100 and 300 mg/kg increasing lifespan of animals in hypercapnic, hemic and histotoxic hypoxias. N. multifida decreases the manifestation of free-radical oxidation processes, increases the activity of the endogenic antioxidant system, and promotes the efficacy of tissue respiration and oxidative phosphorylation coupling in the brain of white rats in hypoxia/reoxygenation.


Assuntos
Hipóxia , Nepeta , Extratos Vegetais , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase , Glutationa , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Nepeta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885973

RESUMO

Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes have been successfully used to encapsulate essential oils, improving their physicochemical properties and pharmacological effects. Besides being well-known for its effects on cats and other felines, catnip (Nepeta cataria) essential oil demonstrates repellency against blood-feeding pests such as mosquitoes. This study evaluates the tick repellency of catnip oil alone and encapsulated in ß-cyclodextrin, prepared using the co-precipitation method at a 1:1 molar ratio. The physicochemical properties of this inclusion complex were characterized using GC-FID for encapsulation efficiency and yield and SPME/GC-MS for volatile emission. Qualitative assessment of complex formation was done by UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, and SEM analyses. Catnip oil at 5% (v/v) demonstrated significant tick repellency over time, being comparable to DEET as used in commercial products. The prepared [catnip: ß-CD] inclusion complex exerted significant tick repellency at lower concentration of the essential oil (equivalent of 1% v/v). The inclusion complex showed that the release of the active ingredient was consistent after 6 h, which could improve the effective repellent duration. These results demonstrated the effective tick repellent activity of catnip essential oil and the successful synthesis of the inclusion complex, suggesting that ß-CDs are promising carriers to improve catnip oil properties and to expand its use in repellent formulations for tick management.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Nepeta/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , DEET/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 300: 109591, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678676

RESUMO

This study was carried out aiming to evaluate the repellent and acaricidal activity of major ingredient compounds from coconut oil including their methyl ester derivatives and catnip oil against nymphs and larvae of Amblyomma sculptum. Repellent candidates, coconut oil free fatty acids (coconut FFA mainly C12, C10 and C8 acid); lauric acid (C12 acid); capric acid (C10 acid); methyl laurate; methyl caprate and 10 % each of C12, C10 and C8 acid (1:1:1) in lavender oil formulation (CFA in lavender formula) and catnip oil (Nepeta cataria), were screened using a Petri dish bioassay to assess repellency. Catnip oil, methyl caprate, methyl laurate, and CFA in lavender formulation repelled ticks strongly (P < 0.05) at almost all times evaluated, with an average of 77.8-100% repellency. Some candidate repellents with consistent strong repellence observed were selected for further evaluation, with coconut CFA in lavender formula showing a repellency lasted up to 7 days, while those of catnip oil and methyl caprate were active for 4 and 3 days, respectively. For the acaricide test, five concentrations (2.5; 5; 10; 15 and 20 mg/mL) were evaluated using the larval packet test. Only CFA in lavender formula and two methyl esters showed acaricidal activity, with methyl laurate presenting the strongest toxicity at 15 mg/mL concentration, which was effective against more than 93 % of the tested larvae. Catnip oil caused no mortality of A. scultptum larvae in all concentrations tested.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Repelentes de Insetos , Nepeta , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Amblyomma , Animais , Óleo de Coco , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Ácidos Láuricos
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 31-41, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329843

RESUMO

Nepeta tenuifolia Briq. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant historically used in the East Asia region to treat cold and fever, and it is currently used as a clinically effective treatment for respiratory diseases. We previously found that monoterpenoids are the dominant volatile secondary metabolites in N. tenuifolia and their biosynthesis occurs in peltate glandular trichomes. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying monoterpenoid biosynthesis in N. tenuifolia, we conducted transcriptome sequencing and examined the expression differences in monoterpene molecular pathway-related genes in different tissues and growth stages by qRT-RCR. In total, six p-menthane monoterpene biosynthetic genes in the (+)-menthone pathway were identified and cloned successfully based on transcriptome data. Moreover, the major constituents, including (+)-limonene, (-)-pulegone and (+)-menthone showed greater accumulation in the spikes than in other organs, such as the expression levels of related key enzyme genes. Additionally, the relative expression of pulegone reductase was the highest at 84 days, showing an inverse trend from (-)-pulegone relative content and leading to (+)-menthone accumulation in peltate glandular trichomes. Finished cloning of the gene for limonene 3-hydroxylase in N. tenuifolia (NtL3OH), heterologous expression in yeast, and in vitro assays were performed for functional characterization. Our study provides an important resource for further research of secondary metabolism of monoterpenes in peltate glandular trichomes of N. tenuifolia and other homologous species.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Nepeta , Lamiaceae/genética , Monoterpenos , RNA-Seq , Tricomas/genética
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114402, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245832

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nepeta adenophyta Hedge (Lamiaceae) is an endemic therapeutic herb from Astore, Gilgit (Pakistan). This plant species has been reported among the local communities, especially for treating abdominal pain, kidney pain, menstrual pain, headache, and controlling bleeding disorders. Therefore, the scientific basis is provided for the relief of pain as it is used in various pain management among the natives, especially as ethnogynecological herbal remedy. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study investigates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanolic extract of N. adenophyta in animal models. Furthermore, the extract was also studied to determine their valuable phytoconstituents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The biological effects were determined via tail-flick, hot plate, and acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing methods. At the same time, anti-inflammatory activity was assesed via oxidative burst and antioxidant DPPH assay. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques were employed to understand the phytochemicals present in the crude ethanolic extract of Nepeta adenophyta. RESULTS: In the current study, Nepeta adenophyta extract exhibited potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on different pain models and indicated that the analgesic effect of N. adenophyta extract is mediated both in central and peripheral ways. Dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) increases were shown in pain threshold, at 45 min post-treatment, with 20 and 40 mg/kg of the extract in the tail-flick model. The effects of the extract were similar to aspirin but lower to those by morphine (2.5 mg/kg) in the same tests. The extract (20-40 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent inhibition of writhing with a significant (P < 0.001) increase protection against thermal stimuli in hot plate test as compared to control and similar to aspirin and morphine. Further, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crude in oxidative burst and DPPH assays showed significant inhibitory activity. The chemical profile analysis showed major phytochemicals, including long chain derivatives of alkane and alcohol, phenolics, naphthalene, naphthopyran, androsten phenanthrenone, nepetalactones, flavonoids etc. CONCLUSIONS: Nepeta adenophyta Hedge is suggested as a natural alternative for mild pain relief. Our findings endorse the folklore use of N. adenophyta in different pain managements which can be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, naphthalene derivatives, flavanoids and nepetalactones etc.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Nepeta/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Aspirina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfina/farmacologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9159, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911159

RESUMO

Endemic plants of the Khorassan-Kopet Dagh (KK) floristic province in northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, and northwestern Afghanistan are often rare and range-restricted. Because of these ranges, plants in the KK are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Species distribution modelling (SDM) can be used to assess the vulnerability of species under climate change. Here, we evaluated range size changes for three (critically) endangered endemic species that grow at various elevations (Nepeta binaloudensis, Phlomoides binaludensis, and Euphorbia ferdowsiana) using species distribution modelling. Using the HadGEM2-ES general circulation model and two Representative Concentration Pathways Scenarios (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5), we predicted potential current and future (2050 and 2070) suitable habitats for each species. The ensemble model of nine algorithms was used to perform this prediction. Our results indicate that while two of species investigated would benefit from range expansion in the future, P. binaludensis will experience range contraction. The range of E. ferdowsiana will remain limited to the Binalood mountains, but the other species will have suitable habitats in mountain ranges across the KK. Using management efforts (such as fencing) with a focus on providing elevational migration routes at local scales in the KK is necessary to conserve these species. Additionally, assisted migration among different mountains in the KK would be beneficial to conserve these plants. For E. ferdowsiana, genetic diversity storage employing seed banks and botanical garden preservation should be considered.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Euphorbia , Lamiaceae , Afeganistão , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Biológicos , Nepeta , Turcomenistão
14.
Curr Biol ; 31(9): 1988-1994.e5, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667373

RESUMO

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is a common garden herb well known for its euphoric and hallucinogenic effects on domestic cats,1-3 for its medicinal properties,4,5 as well as for its powerful repellent action on insects.6,7 Catnip extracts have been proposed as a natural alternative to synthetic insect repellents, such as N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET),8,9 but how catnip triggers aversion in insects is not known. Here, we show that, both in Drosophila melanogaster flies and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the major mediator of catnip repellency is the widely conserved chemical irritant receptor TRPA1. In vitro, both catnip extract and its active ingredient nepetalactone can directly activate fly and mosquito TRPA1. In vivo, D. melanogaster and Ae. aegypti TRPA1 mutants are no longer repelled by catnip and nepetalactone. Interestingly, our data show that some, but not all, fly and mosquito TRPA1 variants are catnip targets. Moreover, unlike the broad TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (an active ingredient of tear gas and wasabi), catnip does not activate human TRPA1. Our results support the use of catnip and nepetalactone as insect-selective irritants and suggest that, despite TRPA1's broad conservation, insect TRPA1 can be targeted for the development of safe repellents.


Assuntos
Aedes , Repelentes de Insetos , Nepeta , Aedes/genética , Animais , Gatos , DEET/farmacologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Irritantes
15.
Molecules ; 26(1)2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The red-complex bacteria are one of the most significant complexes found simultaneously in subgingival plaque next to the periodontal pocket. The current antibacterial treatment is not adequate, and multidrug resistance to it is developing. Henceforth, the antibacterial effect of the ethanolic extract of Nepeta deflersiana was put to test against red-complex bacteria in patients with chronic periodontitis. METHODS: Well diffusion and micro broth dilution procedure by Alamar blue were applied to assess the zone of inhibition (ZOI), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Anti-virulence efficacies of the plant extract that comprise of adherence and formation of biofilms were examined by the process of adherence and biofilm production assay. RESULTS: The crude extract of Nepeta deflersiana exhibited significant inhibitory outcome against periodontopathic bacteria with noteworthy MIC (0.78-3.12 mg/mL), inhibitory zone (12-20 mm), as well as MBC (3.12-12.50 mg/mL). The N. deflersiana extract inhibited bacterial adhesion ranging from 41% to 52%, 53% to 66%, and 60% to 79% at the given MIC × 0.5, MIC × 1, and MIC × 2 in succession. Substantial suppression was also developed in the biofilm production of the investigated periodontopathic strains following exposure to numerous concentrations of N. deflersianan extract for a period of 24 and 48 h. CONCLUSION: These outcomes divulge a new concept that N. deflersiana extract can be utilized to manufacture valuable antibacterial compounds to treat chronic and acute periodontitis. This identifies N. deflersiana as an essential natural source for future drug development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nepeta/química , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(22): 4596-4599, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746237

RESUMO

In recent years, scientific interest in natural products has burgeoned. The genus Nepeta is one of the most important medicinal plants belongs to family Lamiaceae. In this study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant potential and distribution of individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-MS/MS were determined in native Nepeta fissa Benth species. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity (by DPPH and FRAP assays) values were measured in N. fissa as 43.07 mg GAE/g dw, 3.77 mg q/g dw, 197.85 µg/mL (IC50 value) and 1.15 µmol Fe++/g dw, respectively. The most abundant flavonoid, phenolic acid, and anthraquinone in the analyzed N. fissa extracts were rutin, ferulic acid, and chrysophanol, respectively. As a conclusion, results of present study showed that N. fissa was rich in some phenolic compounds and exhibited antioxidant activity. The obtained results can provide new safe resources to the development of new products for the pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Nepeta , Flavonoides , Irã (Geográfico) , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17352, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462447

RESUMO

Human-designed landscapes can host diverse pollinator communities, and the availability of floral resources is central to supporting insect biodiversity in highly modified environments. However, some urban landscapes have relatively few pollinator-attractive plant species and management in urban environments rarely considers the function of these plants in generating and supporting a stable ecological community. Evaluations of 25 cultivars within five commercially popular herbaceous perennial ornamental plant genera (Agastache, Echinacea, Nepeta, Rudbeckia, and Salvia) revealed variation in the total and proportional abundance of visitors attracted. These varieties supported multiple pollinator functional groups, however bees were the primary visitors to in this system. Cultivars were assessed according to their function within a plant-pollinator network. Comparisons of artificial networks created with the six most attractive and six least attractive cultivars demonstrated that a planting scheme using the most attractive cultivars would attract nearly four times as many bee species, including several specialists and rare species. Plant diversity in the landscape was correlated with abundance and diversity of pollinator visitors, demonstrating that community context shapes a plant's relative attractiveness to pollinators. We conclude that herbaceous perennial cultivars can support an abundance and diversity of pollinator visitors, however, planting schemes should take into consideration the effects of cultivar, landscape plant diversity, floral phenology, floral area, and contribution to a stable ecological community.


Assuntos
Agastache/fisiologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Echinacea/fisiologia , Nepeta/fisiologia , Pólen/química , Polinização/fisiologia , Rudbeckia/fisiologia , Salvia/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Ecologia , Entomologia , Flores , Plantas
18.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577074

RESUMO

Nepeta bracteata Benth. is used clinically to treat tracheal inflammation, coughs, asthma, colds, fevers, adverse urination, and other symptoms, along with functions in clearing heat and removing dampness. However, there have been few studies characterizing the material basis of its efficacy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen for compounds with anti-inflammatory activities in N. bracteata Benth. Using silica gel, ODS C18, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, as well as semipreparative HPLC, 10 compounds were separated from N. bracteata Benth. extract, including four new diterpenoids (1-4), one amide alkaloid (5), and five known diterpenoids (6-10). The structures of all the isolates were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, NMR, and CD analyses. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1-10. It is worth noting that all were able to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values < 50 µM and little effect on RAW 264.7 macrophage viability. Compounds 2 and 4 displayed remarkable inhibition with IC50 values of 19.2 and 18.8 µM, respectively. Meanwhile, screening on HCT-8 cells demonstrated that compounds 2 and 4 also had moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 36.3 and 41.4 µM, respectively, which is related to their anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Nepeta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7
19.
Steroids ; 165: 108770, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227319

RESUMO

Atherogenic dyslipidemia is a condition and responsible for the induction of major cardiovascular diseases. Traditionally, Nepeta hindostana a medicinal plant commonly used as cardioprotective in Indo-Pak regions has gained importance because of its therapeutic active flavonoid Nepitrin-7-O-glucoside. Flavonoid-glycosides are steroids having the ability to exert specific, decisive action on the cardiac muscle. In the present research work flavonoid, Nepitrin-7-O-glucoside was isolated from methanolic extract via chromatographic techniques. The structure was elucidated and confirmed by different spectral techniques like Mass and 1H NMR spectrometry. Various preclinical atherosclerosis parameters such as lipid levels, SGOT/SGPT, body weight, histology of aorta and heart were estimated and beneficial effect of Nepitrin in high-fat diet (HFD) induced atherosclerosis for six weeks were observed. Outcomes of the preclinical results showed and proved that Nepitrin significantly improved dyslipidemia at an effective dose of 50 mg/kg as compared with HFD control and Simvastatin. Molecular docking showed significant binding affinity towards the target PPAR-α receptor (PDB: 2P54). Further the docked ligands with PDB: 2P54 were exposed to molecular dynamics studies to confirm the dynamic behaviour of PPAR-α receptor. Outcomes of the results of the in-vivo study and molecular dynamics study were in correlation with each-others. Further, it can be concluded that Nepitrin has a potent antiatherogenic agent and act by reducing the lipid levels via acting on PPAR-α receptor and regenerating the damaged cells.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Luteolina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nepeta , PPAR alfa
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113679, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307050

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nepeta is a multiregional genus of the "Lamiaceae" (Labiatae or Mint) family. Species of Nepeta are a valuable part of traditional medicine and used extensively, particularly in the Himalayan region of India (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Leh-Ladakh), Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwaand Pakistani Kashmir), Nepal (Baglund district), also in China and hilly regions of Turkey and Iran. Nepeta species are extensively used as a remedy against a variety of ailments and conditions like chicken pox, tuberculosis, malaria, pneumonia, influenza, measles, stomach disorders, eye complaints, respiratory disorders, asthma, colds, coughs etc. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The main aim of this review is to present a comprehensive and detailed study on traditional uses, pharmacology, phytochemistry, toxicology of Nepeta species and suggest future direction on the design and conduct of various preparations, either alone or in blends with prevailing conventional remedies. The review also emphasizes encouraging researchers towards the wide range of pharmaceutical applications of the various species of Nepeta for their better use and exploration in the future. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the relevant data and information on different species of Nepeta were assembled using different databases, such as Science Direct, Springer, PubMed, Taylor and Francis imprints, Chemspider, Google scholar, review and research articles from peer-reviewed journals and unpublished data. Some select 'grey literature' sources viz. ethnobotanical books, chapters, Wikipedia and webpages were also studied. RESULTS: A variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and nutraceuticals has been isolated from various species of Nepeta. These bioactive compounds belong to different classes of secondary metabolites, such as phenolic acids and their glycosides (rosmarinic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid), flavonoids and their glycosides (cirsimaritin, salvigenin, luteolin, apigenin), iridoids (nepetalactones and their derivatives), terpenoids (1,8-cineole, linalool, ß-caryophyllene, germacrene D, parnapimaro, ß-amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid), steroids (ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol), lignans, amino acids, carbohydrates, volatile oils, etc. The species of the genus Nepeta possess a variety of pharmacological activities namely anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anti-alzheimer, anticancer and cytotoxic, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal and along with other biological activities. CONCLUSION: The species of the genus Nepeta contains a rich source of various bioactive compounds, which are well tolerated as traditional medicines. In fact, different species of Nepeta are widely used in a variety of traditional medicinal systems all around the world. Owing to the variety of pharmacological properties of Nepeta species, more comprehensive and inclusive clinical trials are necessary for the utilization of different Nepeta species against the treatment of a wide range of ailments. There are also various other uses such as food, cosmetic and agriculture that can be investigated or explored in future. Some of the major domains that can be explored within this genus are the investigation of different species for their unexplored biological potential, isolation and characterization of new bioactive constituents and finally, investigation of new applications and possible commercialization of these bioactive leads. No doubt, there are various viable research domains outside those discussed above, but presently for the purposes of this review we will only emphasize the activities herein.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Nepeta , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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