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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(1): 25, 2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513915

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few reports on opioid withdrawal (OW) due to opioid tapering in cancer patients have been published. The incidence of and risk factors for OW after neurolytic splanchnic nerve block (NSNB) are unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the incidence of and risk factors for OW among cancer patients who could have reduced opioid doses after NSNB. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. We reviewed the medical charts of patients who underwent NSNB for intractable cancer pain at four tertiary hospitals in Yokohama City from April 2005 to October 2020. We included patients whose opioid dose was reduced by > 5 mg/day (equivalent oral morphine dose) within 14 days after NSNB. We classified the patients into two groups according to the presence or absence of OW symptoms and compared them. RESULTS: Of the 50 patients who underwent NSNB, 24 were included in the study. OW was observed in five (20.8%) patients. Pain and opioid use duration were significantly longer in OW patients than in non-OW patients (median pain duration 689 vs. 195 days; P < 0.043 and median opioid use duration 486 vs. 136 days; P < 0.030). The opioid tapering dose was significantly larger in patients with OW than in those without OW (median opioid tapering dose 75 vs. 40 mg; P < 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: OW was observed in 20.8% of the patients in the study. A longer pain and opioid use duration and a larger opioid tapering dose may predispose patients to OW.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/complicações , Dor/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36295520

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: To describe preliminary results upon the application of the "Cube Navigation System" (CNS) for computed tomography (CT)-guided splanchnic nerve radiofrequency neurolysis. Materials and Methods: CT-guided splanchnic nerve neurolysis was performed in five patients; in all cases, neurolysis was performed under CT guidance using the CNS. The mean patient age was 71.6 years (range 54-81 years; male/female: 5/0). Technical success, parameters of the neurolysis session and complications were evaluated. Technical success was defined as a needle position on the defined target. Session parameters included procedure time and number of scans. The CIRSE reporting system was used for complications' classification and grading. Results: Technical success was obtained in all cases; in 1/5 patients, a slight correction in needle orientation was necessary. Mean procedure time was 12.4 min (range 8-19 min); an average of four CT scans was recorded in the five neurolysis sessions. There were no complications or material failures reported in the present study. Conclusions: Preliminary results of the present study show that computed tomography (CT)-guided splanchnic nerve radiofrequency neurolysis using the CNS is an accurate and time-efficient percutaneous procedure. More prospective and comparative studies with larger patient samples are necessary for verification of this system as well as for drawing broader conclusions.


Assuntos
Nervos Esplâncnicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Nervos Esplâncnicos/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Etanol
3.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(10): 744-752, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablation of the right-sided greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) can reduce excessive splanchnic vasoconstriction, potentially improving the handling of volume shifts in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess a novel catheter procedure of right-sided GSN ablation to treat HFpEF: splanchnic ablation for volume management. METHODS: This trial included 11 HFpEF patients (8 women, age 70 ± 8 years) with New York Heart Association functional class II or III symptoms, ejection fraction ≥50%, and elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at rest or with exercise. After splanchnic ablation for volume management, follow-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months included 6-minute walk test, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), and echocardiography. RESULTS: There were no device-related adverse cardiac events or clinical sequelae following right GSN ablation through 12 months. Patients experienced clinical improvements by 1 month that were sustained through 12 months. KCCQ score improved from baseline median 48 (IQR: 35-52) to 65 (IQR: 58-77) at 1 month and 80 (IQR: 77-88) at 12 months (P < 0.05). The 6-minute walk test distance increased from baseline 292 ± 82 m to 341 ± 88 m at 1 month and 359 ± 75 m at 12 months (P < 0.05). The NT-proBNP decreased from a baseline mean of 1,292 ± 1,186 pg/mL to 1,202 ± 797 pg/mL (P = 0.585) at 1 month, to 472 ± 226 pg/mL (P = 0.028) at 6 months, and to 379 ± 165 pg/mL (P = 0.039) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: In this open-label, single-arm feasibility study, right-sided GSN ablation was safe and improved mostly subjective clinical metrics in patients with HFpEF over 12 months. (Endovascular GSN Ablation in Subjects With HFpEF; NCT04287946).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Volume Sistólico , Teste de Caminhada
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 380, 2022 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, with an estimated incidence of about 0.6 cases per 100.000 person/year. Overall, 3-8% of them are malignant. These tumors are characterized by a classic triad of symptoms (headaches, palpitations, profuse sweating) due to hypersecretion of catecholamines. Despite several advantages of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for PGL debulking, the surgical approach is not standardized yet. In this scenario, we aimed to report a case of a multiple recurrent PGL with metastatic retroperitoneal localization involving the pelvic sidewall, excised with MIS. CASE PRESENTATION: We performed complete laparoscopic-assisted neuronavigation (LANN technique) with isolation of the sacral routes and the sciatic nerve to obtain complete exposure of the main anatomic landmarks. Robotic surgery was used to perform neurolysis of sacral plexus, and partial resection of left splanchnic nerves was needed. After the resection of the first mass, extensive neurolysis of all sacral routes, obturator nerve, pudendal nerve till the entrance of the pudendal (Alcock) canal, and sciatic nerve was performed. Finally, the mass was identified after trans gluteal incision and dissection of the maximum gluteal muscle, and a partial resection of the superior gluteal nerve and slicing of the sciatic nerve were needed to obtain a radical excision of the mass. Then neurorrhaphy of the sectioned nerve fibers of the superior gluteal nerve was performed, and nerve protection was obtained using a collagen nerve wrap. After 18 months of follow-up, the patient is free of disease at the MRI imaging and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive gynecological surgery with neuropelveological approach could be considered as a feasible option in case of multifocal pelvic retroperitoneal malignant paraganglioma of the pelvic side wall.


Assuntos
Paraganglioma , Pelve , Catecolaminas , Humanos , Plexo Lombossacral/cirurgia , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Paraganglioma/cirurgia , Pelve/cirurgia , Nervos Esplâncnicos/cirurgia
5.
J Physiol ; 600(20): 4521-4536, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056471

RESUMO

The efferent branches of the splanchnic sympathetic nerves that enhance interleukin-10 (IL-10) and suppress tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) levels in the reflex response to systemic immune challenge were investigated in anaesthetized, ventilated rats. Plasma levels of TNF and IL-10 were measured 90 min after intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 60 µg/kg). Splanchnic nerve section, ganglionic blockade with pentolinium tartrate or ß2 adrenoreceptor antagonism with ICI 118551 all blocked IL-10 responses. Restoring plasma adrenaline after splanchnic denervation rescued IL-10 responses. TNF responses were disinhibited by splanchnic denervation or pentolinium treatment, but not by ICI 118551. Splanchnic nerve branches were cut individually or in combination in vagotomized rats, ruling out any vagal influence on results. Distal splanchnic denervation, sparing the adrenal nerves, disinhibited TNF but did not reduce IL-10 responses. Selective adrenal denervation depressed IL-10 but did not disinhibit TNF responses. Selective denervation of either spleen or liver did not affect IL-10 or TNF responses, but combined splenic and adrenal denervation did so. Finally, combined section of the cervical and lumbar sympathetic nerves did not affect cytokine responses to LPS. Together, these results show that the endogenous anti-inflammatory reflex is mediated by sympathetic efferent fibres that run in the splanchnic, but not other sympathetic nerves, nor the vagus. Within the splanchnic nerves, divergent pathways control these two cytokine responses: neurally driven adrenaline, acting via ß2 adrenoreceptors, regulates IL-10, while TNF is restrained by sympathetic nerves to abdominal organs including the spleen, where non-ß2 adrenoreceptor mechanisms are dominant. KEY POINTS: An endogenous neural reflex, mediated by the splanchnic, but not other sympathetic nerves, moderates the cytokine response to systemic inflammatory challenge. This reflex suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF), while enhancing levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). The reflex enhancement of IL-10 depends on the splanchnic nerve supply to the adrenal gland and on ß2 adrenoreceptors, consistent with mediation by circulating adrenaline. After splanchnic nerve section it can be rescued by restoring circulating adrenaline. The reflex suppression of TNF depends on splanchnic nerve branches that innervate abdominal tissues including, but not restricted to, spleen: it is not blocked by adrenal denervation or ß2 adrenoreceptor antagonism. Distinct sympathetic efferent pathways are thus responsible for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine components of the reflex regulating inflammation.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia , Interleucina-10 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Animais , Citocinas , Epinefrina/sangue , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Tartarato de Pentolínio/farmacologia , Propanolaminas , Ratos , Reflexo/fisiologia , Nervos Esplâncnicos/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 875865, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795145

RESUMO

The adrenal medulla plays a critical role in mammalian homeostasis and the stress response. It is populated by clustered chromaffin cells that secrete epinephrine or norepinephrine along with peptides into the bloodstream affecting distant target organs. Despite been heavily studied, the central control of adrenal medulla and in-situ spatiotemporal responsiveness remains poorly understood. For this work, we continuously monitored the electrical activity of individual adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in the living anesthetized rat using multielectrode arrays. We measured the chromaffin cell activity under basal and physiological stress conditions and characterized the functional micro-architecture of the adrenal medulla. Under basal conditions, chromaffin cells fired action potentials with frequencies between ~0.2 and 4 Hz. Activity was almost completely driven by sympathetic inputs coming through the splanchnic nerve. Chromaffin cells were organized into independent local networks in which cells fired in a specific order, with latencies from hundreds of microseconds to a few milliseconds. Electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerve evoked almost exactly the same spatiotemporal firing patterns that occurred spontaneously. Hypoglycemic stress, induced by insulin administration resulted in increased activity of a subset of the chromaffin cells. In contrast, respiratory arrest induced by lethal anesthesia resulted in an increase in the activity of virtually all chromaffin cells before cessation of all activity. These results suggest a stressor-specific activation of adrenomedullary chromaffin cell networks and revealed a surprisingly complex electrical organization that likely reflects the dynamic nature of the adrenal medulla's neuroendocrine output during basal conditions and during different types of physiological stress.


Assuntos
Medula Suprarrenal , Células Cromafins , Medula Suprarrenal/inervação , Medula Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cromafins/metabolismo , Epinefrina , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Norepinefrina , Ratos , Nervos Esplâncnicos/metabolismo
7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 24(8): 1410-1414, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598154

RESUMO

AIMS: In heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), excessive redistribution of blood volume into the central circulation leads to elevations of intracardiac pressures with exercise limitations. Splanchnic ablation for volume management (SAVM) has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention. Here we present preliminary safety and efficacy data from the initial roll-in cohort of the REBALANCE-HF trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: The open-label (roll-in) arm of REBALANCE-HF will enrol up to 30 patients, followed by the randomized, sham-controlled portion of the trial (up to 80 additional patients). Patients with HF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%, and invasive peak exercise pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≥25 mmHg underwent SAVM. Baseline and follow-up assessments included resting and exercise PCWP, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), 6-min walk test, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Efficacy and safety were assessed at 1 and 3 months. Here we report on the first 18 patients with HFpEF that have been enrolled into the roll-in, open-label arm of the study across nine centres; 14 (78%) female; 16 (89%) in NYHA class III; and median (interquartile range) age 75.2 (68.4-81) years, LVEF 61.0 (56.0-63.2)%, and average (standard deviation) 20 W exercise PCWP 36.4 (±8.6) mmHg. All 18 patients were successfully treated. Three non-serious moderate device/procedure-related adverse events were reported. At 1-month, the mean PCWP at 20 W exercise decreased from 36.4 (±8.6) to 28.9 (±7.8) mmHg (p < 0.01), NYHA class improved by at least one class in 33% of patients (p = 0.02) and KCCQ score improved by 22.1 points (95% confidence interval 9.4-34.2) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The preliminary open-label results from the multicentre REBALANCE-HF roll-in cohort support the safety and efficacy of SAVM in HFpEF. The findings require confirmation in the ongoing randomized, sham-controlled portion of the trial.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 15(3): e009340, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290092

RESUMO

Preload augmentation represents a critical mechanism for the cardiovascular system to increase effective circulating blood volume to increase cardiac filling pressures and, subsequently, for the heart to increase cardiac output. The splanchnic vascular compartment is the primary source of vascular capacity and thus the primary target for preload recruitment in humans. Under normal conditions, sympathetic stimulation of these primary venous vessels promotes the shift of blood from the splanchnic to the thoracic compartment and elevates preload and cardiac output. However, in heart failure, since filling pressures may be elevated at rest due to decreased venous capacitance, incremental recruitment of preload to enhance cardiac output may exacerbate congestion and limit exercise capacity. Accordingly, recent attention has focused on therapies designed to regulate splanchnic vascular redistribution to improve cardiac filling pressures and patient-centered outcomes such as quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. In this review, we discuss the relevance of splanchnic circulation as a venous reservoir, the contribution of stressed blood volume to heart failure pathogenesis, and the implications for pharmacological therapeutic interventions to prevent heart failure decompensation. Further, we review emerging device-based approaches for cardiac preload reduction such as partial/complete occlusion of the superior vena cava or the inferior vena cava.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Veia Cava Superior
10.
Neurochirurgie ; 68(2): 232-234, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771615

RESUMO

Thoracic osteophytes are a common feature of degenerative spine disease. However, it is rare that osteophytes overgrowth on the anterior surface of thoracic spine results in the compression of vital structures and causes symptoms. A 39-year old man with a two-year history of thoracic and upper abdominal pain was admitted to the neurosurgery ward after having been seen by several specialists. Thoracic spine MRI and CT scans were analyzed. Osteophytes were identified on the anterolateral right side at level T8-T9 and were indicated as a possible cause of the symptoms. After obtaining patient consent, surgery was performed with transthoracic access to the anterolateral surface of the spine. Intraoperatively, the greater splanchnic nerve was released by osteophyte removal. The patient reported improvement of the preoperative symptoms at the six-month and two-year follow-up visit. Postoperative MRI indicated complete osteophyte excision. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of symptomatic sympathetic trunk branch compression by thoracic osteophytes.


Assuntos
Osteófito , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Osteófito/complicações , Osteófito/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteófito/cirurgia , Radiografia , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Auton Neurosci ; 237: 102926, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906897

RESUMO

This short review focusses on the inflammatory reflex, which acts in negative feedback manner to moderate the inflammatory consequences of systemic microbial challenge. The historical development of the inflammatory reflex concept is reviewed, along with evidence that the endogenous reflex response to systemic inflammation is mediated by the splanchnic sympathetic nerves rather than by the vagi. We describe the coordinated nature of this reflex anti-inflammatory action: suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines coupled with enhanced levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10. The limited information on the afferent and central pathways of the reflex is noted. We describe that the efferent anti-inflammatory action of the reflex is distributed among the abdominal viscera: several organs, including the spleen, can be removed without disabling the reflex. Understanding of the effector mechanism is incomplete, but it probably involves a very local action of neurally released noradrenaline on beta2 adrenoceptors on the surface of tissue resident macrophages and other innate immune cells. Finally we speculate on the biological and clinical significance of the reflex, citing evidence of its power to influence the resolution of experimental bacteraemia.


Assuntos
Reflexo , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Citocinas , Humanos , Inflamação , Sistema Nervoso Simpático , Nervo Vago
13.
Anesthesiology ; 135(4): 686-698, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurolytic splanchnic nerve block is used to manage pancreatic cancer pain. However, its impact on survival and quality of life remains controversial. The authors' primary hypothesis was that pain relief would be better with a nerve block. Secondarily, they hypothesized that analgesic use, survival, and quality of life might be affected. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, parallel-armed trial was conducted in five Chinese centers. Eligible patients suffering from moderate to severe pain conditions were randomly assigned to receive splanchnic nerve block with either absolute alcohol (neurolysis) or normal saline (control). The primary outcome was pain relief measured on a visual analogue scale. Opioid consumption, survival, quality of life, and adverse effects were also documented. Analgesics were managed using a protocol common to all centers. Patients were followed up for 8 months or until death. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients (48 for each group) were included in the analysis. Pain relief with neurolysis was greater for the first 3 months (largest at the first month; mean difference, 0.7 [95% CI, 0.3 to 1.0]; adjusted P < 0.001) compared with placebo injection. Opioid consumption with neurolysis was lower for the first 5 months (largest at the first month; mean difference, 95.8 [95% CI, 67.4 to 124.1]; adjusted P < 0.001) compared with placebo injection. There was a significant difference in survival (hazard ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.03 to 2.35]; P = 0.036) between groups. A significant reduction in survival in neurolysis was found for stage IV patients (hazard ratio, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.29 to 2.93]; P = 0.001), but not for stage III patients (hazard ratio, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.97]; P = 0.809). No differences in quality of life were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Neurolytic splanchnic nerve block appears to be an effective option for controlling pain and reducing opioid requirements in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/terapia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Nervos Esplâncnicos/fisiologia , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor do Câncer/mortalidade , Dor do Câncer/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Nervoso/mortalidade , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Nervos Esplâncnicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
14.
Brain Behav Immun ; 97: 371-375, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333113

RESUMO

The splanchnic anti-inflammatory pathway, the efferent arm of the endogenous inflammatory reflex, has been shown to suppress the acute inflammatory response of rats to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we show for the first time that this applies also to mice, and that the reflex may be engaged by a range of inflammatory stimuli. Experiments were performed on mice under deep anaesthesia. Half the animals were subjected to bilateral section of the splanchnic sympathetic nerves, to disconnect the splanchnic anti-inflammatory pathway, while the remainder underwent a sham operation. Mice were then challenged intravenously with one of three inflammatory stimuli: the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 agonist, LPS (60 µg/kg), the TLR-3 agonist Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C, 1 mg/kg) or the TLR-2 and -6 agonist dipalmitoyl-S-glyceryl cysteine (Pam2cys, 34 µg/kg). Ninety minutes later, blood was sampled by cardiac puncture for serum cytokine analysis. The splanchnic anti-inflammatory reflex action was assessed by comparing cytokine levels between animals with cut versus those with intact splanchnic nerves. A consistent pattern emerged: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in response to all three challenges were raised by prior splanchnic nerve section, while levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) were reduced. The raised TNF:IL-10 ratio after splanchnic nerve section indicates an enhanced inflammatory state when the reflex is disabled. These findings show for the first time that the inflammatory reflex drives a coordinated anti-inflammatory action also in mice, and demonstrate that its anti-inflammatory action is engaged, in similar fashion, by inflammatory stimuli mimicking a range of bacterial and viral infections.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Animais , Citocinas , Camundongos , Ratos , Reflexo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
15.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 321(3): H580-H591, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355986

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes to increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in cardiovascular disease models, but mechanisms are incompletely understood. As previously reported, bilateral PVN TNFα (0.6 pmol, 50 nL) induced acute ramping of splanchnic SNA (SSNA) that averaged +64 ± 7% after 60 min and +109 ± 17% after 120 min (P < 0.0001, n = 10). Given that TNFα can rapidly strengthen glutamatergic transmission, we hypothesized that progressive activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors is critically involved. When compared with that of vehicle (n = 5), prior blockade of PVN AMPA or NMDA receptors in anesthetized (urethane/α-chloralose) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats dose-dependently (ED50: 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), 2.48 nmol; D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), 12.33 nmol), but incompletely (Emax: NBQX, 64%; APV, 41%), attenuated TNFα-induced SSNA ramping (n = 5/dose). By contrast, combined receptor blockade prevented ramping (1.3 ± 2.1%, P < 0.0001, n = 5). Whereas separate blockade of PVN AMPA or NMDA receptors (n = 5/group) had little effect on continued SSNA ramping when performed 60 min after TNFα injection, combined blockade (n = 5) or PVN inhibition with the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (n = 5) effectively stalled, without reversing, the SSNA ramp. Notably, PVN TNFα increased local TNFα immunofluorescence after 120, but not 60 min. Findings indicate that AMPA and NMDA receptors each contribute to SSNA ramping to PVN TNFα, and that their collective availability and ongoing activity are required to initiate and sustain the ramping response. We conclude that acute sympathetic activation by PVN TNFα involves progressive local glutamatergic excitation that recruits downstream neurons capable of maintaining heightened SSNA, but incapable of sustaining SSNA ramping.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The proinflammatory cytokine TNFα contributes to heightened SNA in cardiovascular disease models, but mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that TNFα injection into the hypothalamic PVN triggers SNA ramping by mechanisms dependent on local ionotropic glutamate receptor availability, but largely independent of TNFα autoinduction. Continued SNA ramping depends on ionotropic glutamate receptor and neuronal activity in PVN, indicating that strengthening and/or increased efficacy of glutamatergic transmission is necessary for acute sympathoexcitation by PVN TNFα.


Assuntos
Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Nervos Esplâncnicos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , 2-Amino-5-fosfonovalerato/farmacologia , Animais , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Masculino , Muscimol/farmacologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/fisiologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Nervos Esplâncnicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervos Esplâncnicos/fisiologia
16.
Life Sci ; 283: 119841, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298036

RESUMO

Sympathetic vasomotor overactivity is a major feature leading to the cardiovascular dysfunction related to obesity. Considering that the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) is an important fat visceral depot and receives intense sympathetic and afferent innervations, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects evoked by bilateral rWAT denervation in obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HFD for 8 consecutive weeks and rWAT denervation was performed at the 6th week. Arterial pressure, splanchnic and renal sympathetic vasomotor nerve activities were assessed and inflammation and the components of the renin -angiotensin system were evaluated in different white adipose tissue depots. HFD animals presented higher serum levels of leptin and glucose, an increase in arterial pressure and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity; rWAT denervation, normalized these parameters. Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were significantly increased, as well as RAAS gene expression in WAT of HFD animals; rWAT denervation significantly attenuated these changes. In conclusion, HFD promotes vasomotor sympathetic overactivation and inflammation with repercussions on the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the neural communication between WAT and the brain is fundamental to trigger sympathetic vasomotor activation and this pathway is a possible new therapeutic target to treat obesity-associated cardiovascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Denervação , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Obesidade , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/inervação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Nervos Esplâncnicos/metabolismo , Nervos Esplâncnicos/patologia , Nervos Esplâncnicos/fisiopatologia
17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(7): 1134-1143, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932262

RESUMO

AIMS: Inappropriate control of blood volume redistribution may be a mechanism responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We propose to address this underlying pathophysiology with selective blockade of sympathetic signalling to the splanchnic circulation by surgical ablation of the right greater splanchnic nerve (GSN). METHODS AND RESULTS: In a single-arm, prospective, two-centre trial, 10 patients with HFpEF (50% male, mean age 70 ± 3 years) all with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III, left ventricular ejection fraction >40%, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≥15 mmHg at rest or ≥25 mmHg with supine cycle ergometry, underwent ablation of the right GSN via thoracoscopic surgery. Patients were evaluated at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure. The primary endpoint was a reduction in exercise PCWP at 3 months. There were no adverse events related to the blockade of the nerve during 12-month follow-up but three patients had significant peri-procedural adverse events related to the surgical procedure itself. At 3 months post-GSN ablation, patients demonstrated a reduction in 20 W exercise PCWP when compared to baseline [-4.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval, CI -14 to -2); P = 0.0059], which carried over to peak exercise [-5 mmHg (95% CI -11 to 0; P = 0.016). At 12 months, improvements were seen in NYHA class [3 (3) vs. 2 (1, 2); P = 0.0039] and quality of life assessed with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire [60 (51, 71) vs. 22 (16, 27); P = 0.0039]. CONCLUSION: In this first-in-human study, GSN ablation in HFpEF proved to be feasible, with a suggestion of reduced cardiac filling pressure during exercise, improved quality of life and exercise capacity.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Nervos Esplâncnicos/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
18.
Acad Radiol ; 28 Suppl 1: S244-S249, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840601

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Celiac plexus and retrocrural splanchnic nerve (CP/RSN) blocks are widely used for cancer-related abdominal pain, but there is limited literature on their efficacy for non-cancer related pain. Our aim was to determine the indications and effectiveness of CT-guided CP/RSN blocks performed on patients with abdominal pain from non-cancer related sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT-guided CP/RSN blocks for non-cancer related abdominal pain from 2011-2020 were retrospectively reviewed for patient demographics, procedure details, duration of pain relief, and complications. Effective blocks were defined as patient-reported pain relief or decrease in opioid use lasting 2 or more days for temporary blocks and 14 or more days for permanent blocks. RESULTS: Of 72 CT-guided CP/RSN blocks for non-cancer related abdominal pain, 48 (67%) were effective for a mean of 51 days (median 14, range 2-700). Of the 18 permanent blocks, 9 (50%) were effective for a mean of 111 days (median 90, range 14-390). Of the 54 temporary blocks, 39 (72%) were effective for a mean of 37 days (median 9, range 2-700). Indications included postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome/dysautonomia (77% effective, 20/26), pancreatitis (86% effective, 12/14), postsurgical pain (62% effective, 8/13), median arcuate ligament syndrome (70% effective, 7/10), chronic pain syndrome (20% effective, 1/5), gastroparesis (80% effective, 4/5), and renal cystic disease (33% effective, 1/3). For postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome /dysautonomia, pancreatitis, post-surgical pain, and MALS, there were no statistically significant differences in effectiveness between celiac vs. splanchnic blocks in groups matched by indication and intended duration (temporary/permanent). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided CP/RSN blocks can effectively manage non-cancer related abdominal pain, though there is discrepancy in efficacy between temporary and permanent blocks.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Plexo Celíaco , Dor Abdominal , Plexo Celíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nervos Esplâncnicos/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(7): 1076-1084, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886137

RESUMO

Volume recruitment from the splanchnic compartment is an important physiological response to stressors such as physical activity and blood loss. In the setting of heart failure (HF), excess fluid redistribution from this compartment leads to increased cardiac filling pressures with limitation in exercise capacity. Recent evidence suggests that blocking neural activity of the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) could have significant benefits in some patients with HF by reducing cardiac filling pressures and improving exercise capacity. However, to date the long-term safety of splanchnic nerve modulation (SNM) in the setting of HF is unknown. SNM is currently used in clinical practice to alleviate some forms of chronic abdominal pain. A systematic review of the series where permanent SNM was used as a treatment for chronic abdominal pain indicates that permanent SNM is well tolerated, with side-effects limited to transient diarrhoea or abdominal colic and transient hypotension. The pathophysiological role of the GSN in volume redistribution, the encouraging findings of acute and chronic pilot SNM studies and the safety profile from permanent SNM for pain provides a strong basis for continued efforts to study this therapeutic target in HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipotensão , Exercício Físico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Nervos Esplâncnicos
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859641

RESUMO

Neuromodulation of the immune system has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. We recently demonstrated that stimulation of near-organ autonomic nerves to the spleen can be harnessed to modulate the inflammatory response in an anesthetized pig model. The development of neuromodulation therapy for the clinic requires chronic efficacy and safety testing in a large animal model. This manuscript describes the effects of longitudinal conscious splenic nerve neuromodulation in chronically-implanted pigs. Firstly, clinically-relevant stimulation parameters were refined to efficiently activate the splenic nerve while reducing changes in cardiovascular parameters. Subsequently, pigs were implanted with a circumferential cuff electrode around the splenic neurovascular bundle connected to an implantable pulse generator, using a minimally-invasive laparoscopic procedure. Tolerability of stimulation was demonstrated in freely-behaving pigs using the refined stimulation parameters. Longitudinal stimulation significantly reduced circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha levels induced by systemic endotoxemia. This effect was accompanied by reduced peripheral monocytopenia as well as a lower systemic accumulation of CD16+CD14high pro-inflammatory monocytes. Further, lipid mediator profiling analysis demonstrated an increased concentration of specialized pro-resolving mediators in peripheral plasma of stimulated animals, with a concomitant reduction of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids including prostaglandins. Terminal electrophysiological and physiological measurements and histopathological assessment demonstrated integrity of the splenic nerves up to 70 days post implantation. These chronic translational experiments demonstrate that daily splenic nerve neuromodulation, via implanted electronics and clinically-relevant stimulation parameters, is well tolerated and is able to prime the immune system toward a less inflammatory, pro-resolving phenotype.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Endotoxemia/terapia , Neuroimunomodulação/fisiologia , Nervos Esplâncnicos/fisiologia , Baço/inervação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Eletrodos Implantados , Endotoxemia/imunologia , Feminino , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/terapia , Baço/imunologia , Sus scrofa
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