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1.
Neurol India ; 70(3): 1032-1040, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864635

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) due to Taenia Solium is a major public health problem. Our objective was to study patients with disseminated cysticercosis (DCC) who had NCC in the brain along with an additional site in the body and assess their clinical, radiological profile, and response to therapy. Materials and Methods: A chart review of DCC with a high lesion load of NCC ≥20 (DNCC) in the brain was performed. Results: Sixteen (M:F = 13:3) patients were diagnosed with DNCC with a mean age of presentation of 35.1 ± 14.2 years. Headache was the predominant symptom, followed by seizures (93.75%), vomiting (43.75%), behavioral disturbances (31.25%), fever (12.5%), encephalopathy (12.5%), visual disturbances (6.25%), and muscle pain and limb weakness (6.25%). CT brain showed multiple active parenchymal cysts in all, and calcifications in 68.75%. MRI brain revealed involvement of cortex and subcortical structures in all, followed by cerebellum (81.25%) and brainstem (75%). Intramedullary spinal lesion was observed in 12.5% cases. Albendazole with steroids was used in 15 patients. In 93.3% patients, there was complete improvement in seizures; 12.5% subjects had persistent memory and behavioral abnormalities. One subject required decompressive craniectomy; mortality was observed in two subjects. Conclusions: We hereby report one of the largest case series on disseminated cysticercosis with a high lesion load of NCC in the brain. A comprehensive clinical, imaging, therapeutic response with repeat imaging and long-term follow-up has given us a better understanding of this difficult-to-treat neurological disorder. We suggest cautious use of anti-parasitic therapy under the cover of corticosteroids to prevent irreversible neurological sequelae.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Cistos , Neurocisticercose , Taenia solium , Adulto , Animais , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões , Adulto Jovem
2.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 8(1): 70, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882852

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cysticercosis, caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, is one of the common parasitic diseases that can affect the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis, NCC). Isolated involvement of cysticercosis of the spine, without the involvement of the brain, has been very rarely reported. CASE PRESENTATION: This report presented a case, who was presenting with low back pain with radiation and cauda equina syndrome (CES). On MRI, the patient was found to have a subarachnoid cystic lesion at the level of lumbosacral vertebrae. Under neurosurgery, the patient underwent L5/S1 laminectomy, decompression, and excision of the cyst. On histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed of having Cysticercosis. Immediately after surgery, the patient had neurological deterioration. However, at the end of 1 year, the patient had significant improvement both neurologically and functionally. DISCUSSION: Spinal NCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a patient, who presents with a cystic lesion in the spinal subarachnoid space. Surgical exploration and excision of the cysts should be conducted not only to establish the diagnosis but also to decompress the cord and peripheral nerves.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Cauda Equina , Cisticercose , Dor Lombar , Neurocisticercose , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/etiologia , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/cirurgia , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(7): e0010567, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is the most significant global foodborne parasite and the leading cause of preventable human epilepsy in low and middle-income countries in the form of neurocysticercosis. OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aimed to examine the methodology of peer-reviewed studies that estimate the burden of T. solium using disability-adjusted life years. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies must have calculated disability-adjusted life years relating to T. solium. CHARTING METHODS: The review process was managed by a single reviewer using Rayyan. Published data relating to disease models, data sources, disability-adjusted life years, sensitivity, uncertainty, missing data, and key limitations were collected. RESULTS: 15 studies were included for review, with seven global and eight national or sub-national estimates. Studies primarily employed attributional disease models that relied on measuring the occurrence of epilepsy before applying an attributable fraction to estimate the occurrence of neurocysticercosis-associated epilepsy. This method relies heavily on the extrapolation of observational studies across populations and time periods; however, it is currently required due to the difficulties in diagnosing neurocysticercosis. Studies discussed that a lack of data was a key limitation and their results likely underestimate the true burden of T. solium. Methods to calculate disability-adjusted life years varied across studies with differences in approaches to time discounting, age weighting, years of life lost, and years of life lived with disability. Such differences limit the ability to compare estimates between studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review illustrates the complexities associated with T. solium burden of disease studies and highlights the potential need for a burden of disease reporting framework. The burden of T. solium is likely underestimated due to the challenges in diagnosing neurocysticercosis and a lack of available data. Advancement in diagnostics, further observational studies, and new approaches to parameterising disease models are required if estimates are to improve.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Epilepsia , Neurocisticercose , Taenia solium , Animais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Epilepsia/parasitologia , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia
4.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(2): 220-225, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infection with the pork tapeworm can result in neurocysticercosis caused by infestation of central nervous system tissues by the parasite cysts. Parenchymal brain infection can cause symptoms from mass effect that include headache, seizures, confusion, and even coma. Our objective was to describe the clinical course of neurocysticercosis infections in pregnant women. METHODS: This was a case series that described clinical findings and pregnancy outcomes of women diagnosed with neurocysticercosis from 1994 through 2016 at a single institution. Their medical records were reviewed, cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed, and the infections were classified according to the criteria of the 2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. RESULTS: Overall, 37 pregnant women with neurocysticercosis were identified. Of the 37 women, 32 were symptomatic, and 16 each had severe headaches or new-onset seizures or other neurologic sequelae. Some of these women had multiple symptoms. Others were diagnosed when neuroimaging was done for a history of neurocysticercosis or evaluation of a preexisting seizure disorder. The most common treatment was with anthelmintics-albendazole, praziquantel, or both-usually given with anticonvulsants and corticosteroids to decrease inflammation. There were eight women in whom invasive neurosurgical procedures were performed, usually for hydrocephaly. Overall, 32 healthy neonates were born at term, and there was one preterm delivery at 34 weeks of gestation. The four pregnancy losses included two molar pregnancies, one anembryonic miscarriage, and a 23-week stillbirth of a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia with severe features. CONCLUSION: Neurocysticercosis in pregnant women may be asymptomatic or result in headaches, seizures, confusion, nausea and vomiting, altered mental status, or obtundation. Anthelmintic treatment is usually successful, but in some women neurosurgical procedures are necessary to relieve obstructive hydrocephaly.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Hidrocefalia , Neurocisticercose , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/complicações , Hidrocefalia/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Gravidez
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271232, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be studied using several animal species in experimental models which contributes to the understanding of the human form of the disease. Experimental infections of Taenia spp. are vital in explaining the modes of transmission of the parasite and helps the understanding of transmission of the parasite in humans and thus may be useful in designing therapeutic and immune-prophylactic studies to combat the disease. Thus, this systematic review aims to explore the existing experimental animal models to the understanding of cysticercosis in both humans and animals and elucidate the risk factors of cysticercosis and identify the Taenia spp. used in these models. METHODOLOGY: We systematically identified all publications from the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Pubmed regarding experimental animal models using Taenia spp. that cause cysticercosis in both humans and animals. 58 studies were identified for eligibility. Of these, only 48 studies met the inclusion criteria from which data extraction was done and presented descriptively. RESULTS: Pigs, cattle, gerbils, mice, rats, voles, monkeys, cats, dogs, and goats were used in which T. solium, T. saginata, T. saginata asiatica, T. crassiceps and T. asiatica were studied. The routes used to induce disease were; oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intraarterial, intracranial, intraduodenal, and surgical routes using eggs, oncospheres, and proglottids. Besides, the establishment of infection using eggs and oncospheres was affected by the route used to induce infection in the experimental animals. The cysticerci recovery rate in all the experimental studies was low and the number of animals used in these experiments varied from 1 to 84. Although not analysed statistically, sex, age, and breed of animals influenced the cysticerci recovery rate. Additionally, the cysticerci recovery rate and antibody-antigen levels were shown to increase with an increase in the dose of oncospheres and eggs inoculated in the animals. Contrasting results were reported in which the cysticerci recovery rate decreased with an increase in the dose of eggs inoculated. CONCLUSION: This review describes the various animal experiments using Taenia species that cause cysticercosis highlighting the animals used, age and their breed, the routes of infection used to induce disease and the sample size used, and the cysticerci recovery rate in these animal models.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Neurocisticercose , Taenia solium , Taenia , Animais , Bovinos , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cysticercus , Cães , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Suínos
6.
Rev Neurol ; 74(12): 383-391, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698433

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic disease in the central nervous system of humans. OBJECTIVE: to establish the correlation between clinical and tomographic variables in patients with neurocysticercosis in the neurology consultation of Hospital San Vicente de Paul and Hospital IESS Ibarra, during the year 2020. PATIENTS AND METHODS: descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional research. POPULATION AND SAMPLE: 93 patients. The information was collected in the neurology consultation. Clinical and imaging criteria were used for diagnosis. Odds Ratio (OR; 95% CI) was calculated. For multivariate analysis, binary logistic regression models were used. Statistical significance was considered when the value of p <0.05. SYMPTOMS: headache (77.4%), epilepsy (41.9%). Tomographic findings: size < 1 cm (67.7%), single lesion (54.8%), supratentorial (93.5%). There were several clinical / tomographic correlations in the bivariate analysis, the presence of epilepsy was associated with lesions of size >1 cm (OR: 9.65; 95% CI: 3.48-26.7), the vesicular + ventricular colloidal stage + nodular (OR: 3.90; 95% CI: 1.64-9.28) and parenchymal topography (OR: 5.03; 95% CI: 2.03-12.4) (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, epilepsy was not associated with tomographic aspects such as the size, stage and topography of the cysticerci (p < 0.05). Headache and reduced muscle strength were associated with parenchymal topography and stage of lesions respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite having a wide clinical spectrum, the presence of epilepsy, headache, and reduced muscle strength seem to be the most representative manifestations, so their inclusion in the development of prognostic scores should be evaluated, which allow evaluating the approach diagnostic and evolutionary in subsequent research.


TITLE: Correlación entre variables clínicas y tomográficas en pacientes con neurocisticercosis. Estudio en una cohorte de pacientes de la Sierra Norte ecuatoriana entre 2019 y 2020.Introducción. La neurocisticercosis es la enfermedad parasitaria más frecuente en el sistema nervioso central de los humanos. Objetivo. Establecer la correlación entre variables clínicas y tomográficas en pacientes con neurocisticercosis en la consulta de neurología del Hospital San Vicente de Paúl y el Hospital Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social de Ibarra durante 2020. Pacientes y métodos. Investigación descriptiva, correlacional y transversal. Población y muestra: 93 pacientes. La información se recolectó en la consulta de neurología. Para el diagnóstico se utilizaron criterios clínicos e imagenológicos. Se calculó la odds ratio (OR) ­intervalo de confianza al 95% (IC 95%)­. Para el análisis multivariado, se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística binaria. Se consideró significación estadística cuando p menor de 0,05. Resultados. Síntomas: cefalea (77,4%) y crisis epilépticas (41,9%). Hallazgos tomográficos: tamaño menor de 1 cm (67,7%), lesión única (54,8%) y lesión supratentorial (93,5%). Hubo varias correlaciones clinicotomográficas en el análisis bivariado: la presencia de crisis epilépticas se asoció con lesiones de tamaño > 1 cm (OR: 9,65; IC 95%: 3,48-26,7), el estadio vesicular + ventricular coloidal + nodular (OR: 3,9; IC 95%: 1,64-9,28) y la topografía parenquimatosa (OR: 5,03; IC 95%: 2,03-12,4) (p menor de 0,05). La cefalea y la reducción de la fuerza muscular se asociaron con topografía parenquimatosa y estadio de las lesiones, respectivamente (p menor de 0,05). Conclusiones. A pesar de cursar con un amplio espectro clínico, la presencia de crisis epilépticas, cefalea y reducción de la fuerza muscular parece ser la manifestación más representativa, por lo que debería evaluarse su inclusión en el desarrollo de puntuaciones pronósticas que permitan evaluar el enfoque diagnóstico y evolutivo por estudio de imagen en investigaciones posteriores.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Neurocisticercose , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/etiologia , Cefaleia/complicações , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia
7.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(3): 246-254, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665719

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide, including imported cases in nonendemic countries. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update information on diagnosis, management, and prevention of neurocysticercosis. RECENT FINDINGS: WHO and Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene guidelines emphasize the importance of corticosteroids and antiparasitic drugs for viable parenchymal disease and single enhancing lesions. Subarachnoid NCC is associated with a high fatality rate unless optimally treated. Advances in subarachnoid NCC include use of prolonged antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory courses and the increasing use of antigen-detection and quantitative PCR assays in diagnosis and follow-up. Emerging data support the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in ventricular cases. Calcified neurocysticercosis continues to be associated with a high burden of disease. Field studies are demonstrating the feasibility of eradication using a combination of mass chemotherapy for human tapeworms and vaccination/treatment of porcine cysticercosis. SUMMARY: NCC remains an important and challenging cause of neurological disease with significant morbidity despite advances in treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Higiene , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Neurocisticercose/prevenção & controle , Espaço Subaracnóideo/patologia , Suínos
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010449, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the infection of the human central nervous system (CNS) by Taenia solium larvae that cause significant neurological morbidity. Studies on NCC pathophysiology, host-parasite interactions or therapeutic agents are limited by the lack of suitable animal models. We have previously reported that carotid injection of activated T. solium oncospheres directs parasites into the CNS and consistently reproduces NCC. This study assessed the minimal dose required to consistently obtain NCC by intracarotid oncosphere injection and compared antigen and antibody response profiles by dose-group. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three groups of pigs were infected with either 2500 (n = 10), 5000 (n = 11), or 10000 (n = 10) oncospheres. Two pigs died during the study. Necropsy exam at day 150 post-infection (PI) demonstrated viable NCC in 21/29 pigs (72.4%), with higher NCC rates with increasing oncosphere doses (4/9 [44.4%], 9/11 [81.8%] and 8/9 [88.9%] for 2500, 5000, and 10000 oncospheres respectively, P for trend = 0.035). CNS cyst burden was also higher in pigs with increasing doses (P for trend = 0.008). Viable and degenerated muscle cysticerci were also found in all pigs, with degenerated cysticerci more frequent in the 2500 oncosphere dose-group. All pigs were positive for circulating parasite antigens on ELISA (Ag-ELISA) from day 14 PI; circulating antigens markedly increased at day 30 PI and remained high with plateau levels in pigs infected with either 5000 or 10000 oncospheres, but not in pigs infected with 2500 oncospheres. Specific antibodies appeared at day 30 PI and were not different between dose-groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Intracarotid injection of 5000 or more oncospheres produces high NCC rates in pigs with CNS cyst burdens like those usually found in human NCC, making this model appropriate for studies on the pathogenesis of NCC and the effects of antiparasitic treatment.


Assuntos
Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central , Neurocisticercose , Doenças dos Suínos , Taenia solium , Animais , Cysticercus , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
9.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 39: 88-95, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an unusual cause of seizures in high income settings. It typically presents as an afebrile seizure in a previously well child and can occur years after migration or travel. METHODS: Children diagnosed with neurocysticercosis from 01 July 2005 to 30 June 2020 were identified from the electronic medical records of a tertiary children's hospital in Australia. Additionally, a 10-year compilation of case reports of paediatric NCC in high income settings was performed by medline search (publication years 2011-2021). Diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis were reviewed with reference to diagnostic criteria of Del Brutto et al., and the 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America treatment guidelines. RESULTS: Over a fifteen-year period, eight children were diagnosed with NCC at our hospital in Sydney, Australia. Seizures and history of travel to or migration from South Asia were the two most frequently occurring findings. Children diagnosed after 2016 all received antiparasitic therapy. Outcomes were generally favorable, though long-term epilepsy resulted in some cases. Compiled case reports from high income settings revealed migration and travel exposures commensurate with local demographic patterns, and treatment approaches conforming with 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of NCC as a differential diagnosis in children from endemic areas presenting with unprovoked seizures as misdiagnosis can occur. Expert review of neuroimaging facilitates diagnosis and can avert unnecessary neurosurgery. In Australia, India was a key exposure country for NCC, reflecting its endemic burden of disease and local travel and migration patterns.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Neurocisticercose , Criança , Países Desenvolvidos , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neuroimagem , Convulsões/complicações
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(5): e1010118, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Taenia solium tapeworm is responsible for cysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease presenting as larvae in the body of a host following taenia egg ingestion. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the name of the disease when it affects the human central nervous system, is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries, and can also cause intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalus and death. Simulation models can help identify the most cost-effective interventions before their implementation. Modelling NCC should enable the comparison of a broad range of interventions, from treatment of human taeniasis (presence of an adult taenia worm in the human intestine) to NCC mitigation. It also allows a focus on the actual impact of the disease, rather than using proxies as is the case for other models. METHODS: This agent-based model is the first model that simulates human NCC and associated pathologies. It uses the output of another model, CystiAgent, which simulates the evolution of pig cysticercosis and human taeniasis, adding human and cyst agents, including a model of cyst location and stage, human symptoms, and treatment. CystiHuman also accounts for delays in the appearance of NCC-related symptoms. It comprises three modules detailing cyst development, seizure probability and timing, and intracranial hypertension/hydrocephalus, respectively. It has been implemented in Java MASON and calibrated in three endemic villages in Peru, then applied to another village (Rica Playa) to compare simulation results with field data in that village. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Despite limitations in available field data, parameter values found through calibration are plausible and simulated outcomes in Rica Playa are close to actual values for NCC prevalence and the way it increases with age and cases with single lesions. Initial simulations further suggest that short-term interventions followed by a rapid increase in taeniasis prevalence back to original levels may have limited impacts on NCC prevalence.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Cistos , Hidrocefalia , Hipertensão Intracraniana , Neurocisticercose , Teníase , Animais , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Suínos , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010442, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antigen tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring in some types of neurocysticercosis (NCC) are useful but access to testing has been limited by availability of proprietary reagents and/or kits. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three previously identified IgM-secreting hybridomas whose IgM products demonstrated specificity to Taenia solium underwent variable heavy and light chain sequencing and isotype conversion to mouse IgG. Screening of these recombinantly expressed IgG anti-Ts hybridomas, identified one (TsG10) with the highest affinity to crude Taenia antigen. TsG10 was then used as a capture antibody in a sandwich antigen detection immunoassay in combination with either a high titer polyclonal anti-Ts antibody or with biotinylated TsG10 (termed TsG10*bt). Using serum, plasma, and CSF samples from patients with active NCC and those from NCC-uninfected patients, ROC curve analyses demonstrated that the TsG10-TsG10-*bt assay achieved a 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity in detecting samples known to be antigen positive and outperformed the polyclonal based assay (sensitivity of 93% with 100% specificity). By comparing levels of Ts antigen (Ag) in paired CSF (n = 10) or plasma/serum (n = 19) samples from well-characterized patients with extra-parenchymal NCC early in infection and at the time of definitive cure, all but 2 (1 from CSF and 1 from plasma) became undetectable. There was a high degree of correlation (r = 0.98) between the Ag levels detected by this new assay and levels found by a commercial assay. Pilot studies indicate that this antigen can be detected in the urine of patients with active NCC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A newly developed recombinant monoclonal antibody-based Ts Ag detection immunoassay is extremely sensitive in the detection of extra-parenchymal NCC and can be used to monitor the success of treatment in the CSF, serum/plasma and urine. The ability to produce recombinant TsG10 at scale should enable use of this antigen detection immunoassay wherever NCC is endemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00001205 - & NCT00001645.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose , Taenia solium , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Antígenos de Helmintos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Camundongos , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Proteínas Recombinantes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Taenia solium/genética
12.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(3)2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In newly diagnosed neurocysticercosis (NCC) with seizures, the choice of anti-seizure medication (ASM) seems to be arbitrary due to a lack of comparative studies. Although oxcarbazepine (OXC) is often considered efficacious for focal seizures in NCC, due to adverse effects, newer ASMs like levetiracetam (LCM) and lacosamide are also being explored. METHODS: This study was performed by case record review of children with newly diagnosed solitary viable parenchymal NCC aged 4-18years who received lacosamide and OXC at least for 12 weeks between August 2019 and April 2021, from a prospective registry of a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India. Seizure control, electroencephalographic abnormalities, resolution of inflammatory granulomas and adverse effects were compared between two arms at 12 and 24 weeks. RESULTS: Total 31 (8.3 ± 4.7 years, 19 boys) and 72 (8.6 ± 4.2 years, 43 boys) completed at least 12 weeks follow-up in LCM and OXC groups, out of which 2 and 51 completed at least 24 weeks follow-up in LCM and OXC groups, respectively. The occurrence of breakthrough seizure was comparable in both arms at 12 and 24 weeks (1/31 and 2/22 in lacosamide group vs. 2/72 and 4/51 in OXC group, p = 0.66 and 0.59, respectively). Patients receiving OXC had more frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (p = 0.0001) and four patients required discontinuation due to severe adverse events (SAEs), while none in the lacosamide group had SAEs. CONCLUSIONS: Lacosamide appears to be efficacious and safe for achieving seizure freedom in patients with solitary viable parenchymal neurocysticercosis.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais , Neurocisticercose , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Epilepsias Parciais/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lacosamida/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Neurocisticercose/induzido quimicamente , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Oxcarbazepina/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 131(Pt A): 108668, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common cause of late-onset epilepsy worldwide, but there is still minimal information regarding its impact on a patient's quality of life. This study evaluated quality of life in a series of patients with epilepsy secondary to NCC using the QOLIE (Quality of Life in Epilepsy)-31 questionnaire. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study included 155 Peruvian patients between 16 and 70 years of age with epilepsy due to viable intraparenchymal NCC, who enrolled in two trials of anti-parasitic treatment during the period 2006-2011. The QOLIE-31 questionnaire was applied before the onset of anti-parasitic treatment. The associations between QOLIE-31 scores, sociodemographic characteristics, clinical, and neuroimaging data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test and generalized linear models (GLM). RESULTS: The average QOLIE-31 score was 55.8 (SD ±â€¯7.6), with 119 individuals (76.8%) scoring in the poor quality-of-life category. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures and secondarily generalized epileptic seizures were associated with a lower QOLIE-31, as well as a low level of education with a value of p = 0.05. There were no associations between QOLIE-31 scores and other variables such as sex, age, antiepileptic medication, number of parasitic cysts, and number of compromised brain regions. On multivariate analysis, a greater number of generalized epileptic seizures maintained a statistically significant association with detrimental QOLIE-31 scores. CONCLUSION: Quality of life is affected in NCC, mainly in relation to the number of prior generalized epileptic seizures.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Neurocisticercose , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 22(4): 285-291, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332514

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been well recognized as a leading cause of epilepsy. More recently, studies of other parasitic diseases such as cerebral malaria (CM) and onchocerciasis are yielding novel insights into the pathogenesis of parasite-associated epilepsy. We compare the clinical and electrophysiological findings in epilepsy associated with these highly prevalent parasites and discuss the mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Electrophysiological and imaging biomarkers continue to emerge, and individuals who are at-risk of developing parasite-associated epilepsies are being identified with greater reliability. While both Taenia solium and Plasmodium falciparum directly affect the brain parenchyma, Onchocerca volvulus is not known to invade the central nervous system. Thus, the causal association between O. volvulus and epilepsy remains controversial. Both NCC and CM have a well-defined acute phase when the parasites directly or indirectly invade the brain parenchyma and lead to local inflammatory changes. This is followed by a chronic phase marked by recurrent seizures. However, these stages of epileptogenic process have not been identified in the case of O. volvulus.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Volvo Intestinal , Neurocisticercose , Doenças Parasitárias , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/patologia , Humanos , Volvo Intestinal/complicações , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/patologia , Doenças Parasitárias/complicações , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 63, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a neuroinfectious disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Isolated spinal cysticercosis is rare, with limited cases having been reported in the literature. This entity poses great diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. METHODS: This retrospective study included seven patients pathologically diagnosed with spinal cysticercosis. The clinical manifestations, radiological features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), treatment, and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: This case series consisted of four male and three female patients, with an average age of 34.9 ± 10.9 years. Clinically, six patients manifested with localization-related myelopathy. There were four solid lesions, one cystic-solid lesion, and three cystic lesions. The solid and cystic-solid lesions showed characteristic MRI features: 1) within the lesion, there was a mural nodule with isointensity on T1WI and iso- to hyperintensity on T2WI; 2) the signals at the periphery of the mural nodule were variable, ranging from hypointense to hyperintense on T2WI; and 3) ring-like or cyst wall enhancement could be present, and dot-like enhancement could be noted in the mural nodule. Complete resection of the responsible lesion was achieved in all patients, and oral albendazole was administered in a patient with one more suspected homologous lesion. After a mean follow-up period of 56.7 ± 35.1 months, the patient's symptoms mostly regressed. CONCLUSION: Spinal cysticercosis is an extremely rare cause of myelopathy. Characteristic MRI features can facilitate preoperative diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware of this entity, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Neurocisticercose , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Adulto , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Cisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/complicações , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Child Neurol ; 37(5): 366-372, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213246

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the efficacy of combined albendazole and praziquantel therapy vs albendazole monotherapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial in children with persisting neurocysticercosis. METHODS: Children with persistent neurocysticercosis were randomized into 3 groups-albendazole (n = 19), albendazole and praziquantel (n = 21), and placebo (n = 20)-for 30 days and followed up at 3 and 6 months for resolution and recurrence of seizures. RESULTS: Mean age of children was 9.3 ± 2.9 years (range 3-14). At baseline, the majority of lesions were ring-enhancing (70%), colloidal (97%), with scolex (68%) and perilesional-edema (45%), and located in the parietal (58%) lobe. One case each in albendazole and placebo groups had a recurrence of seizure in the first month of treatment. The majority (62%) of children in the combination therapy group showed complete resolution of the persisting lesion at the end of 6 months compared to the albendazole alone group (26.3%, P = .02). Percentage reduction in the lesion's mean area at 6 months was highest in the combination group compared with other groups (P = .006). Rate of calcification was identical in all 3 groups (10%). None of the patients required interruption of therapy. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of albendazole and praziquantel in combination for complete radiologic resolution in children with persistent neurocysticercosis when compared with albendazole monotherapy or placebo. The combination therapy did not result in increased seizure recurrence or adverse drug reaction compared with albendazole monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Neurocisticercose , Adolescente , Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia
20.
Int J Parasitol ; 52(6): 377-383, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182540

RESUMO

Racemose neurocysticercosis is an aggressive infection caused by the aberrant expansion of the cyst form of Taenia solium within the subarachnoid spaces of the human brain and spinal cord, resulting in the displacement of the surrounding host tissue and chronic inflammation. We previously demonstrated that the continued growth of the racemose bladder wall is associated with the presence of mitotically active cells but the nature and control of these proliferative cells are not well understood. Here, we demonstrated by immunofluorescence that the racemose cyst has an active mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling pathway that is inhibited after treatment with metformin, which reduces racemose cell proliferation in vitro, and reduces parasite growth in the murine model of Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis. Our findings indicate the importance of insulin receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK signalling pathway in the proliferation and growth of the bladder wall of the racemose cyst and its susceptibility to metformin action. The antiproliferative action of metformin may provide a new therapeutic approach against racemose neurocysticercosis.


Assuntos
Cistos , Metformina , Neurocisticercose , Taenia solium , Animais , Humanos , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Neurocisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia
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