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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15604, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114252

RESUMO

Our current understanding of response inhibition comes from go/no-go studies that draw conclusions based on the overt movement of single limbs (i.e., a single finger pushing a button). In general, go/no-go paradigms have found that an individual's ability to correctly inhibit the motor system is indicative of a healthy central nervous system. However, measuring inhibition by an overt behavioral response may lack the sensitivity to conclude whether the motor system is completely inhibited. Therefore, our goal was to use behavioral and neurophysiological measures to investigate inhibition of the motor system during a full-body reaching task. When directly comparing neurophysiological and behavioral measures, we found that neurophysiological measures were associated with a greater number of errors during no-go trials and faster onset times during go trials. Further analyses revealed a negative correlation between errors and onset times, such that the muscles that activated the earliest during go trials also had the greatest number of errors during no-go trials. Together, our observations show that the absence of an overt behavioral response does not always translate to total inhibition of the motor system.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Movimento , Dedos , Movimento/fisiologia , Neurofisiologia
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 3563-3567, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086657

RESUMO

Understanding neural function often requires multiple modalities of data, including electrophysiogical data, imaging techniques, and demographic surveys. In this paper, we introduce a novel neurophysiological model to tackle major challenges in modeling multimodal data. First, we avoid non-alignment issues between raw signals and extracted, frequency-domain features by addressing the issue of variable sampling rates. Second, we encode modalities through "cross-attention" with other modalities. Lastly, we utilize properties of our parent transformer architecture to model long-range dependencies between segments across modalities and assess intermediary weights to better understand how source signals affect prediction. We apply our Multimodal Neurophysiological Transformer (MNT) to predict valence and arousal in an existing open-source dataset. Experiments on non-aligned multimodal time-series show that our model performs similarly and, in some cases, outperforms existing methods in classification tasks. In addition, qualitative analysis suggests that MNT is able to model neural influences on autonomic activity in predicting arousal. Our architecture has the potential to be fine-tuned to a variety of downstream tasks, including for BCI systems.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Atenção , Emoções/fisiologia , Endoscopia , Neurofisiologia
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 203-207, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086209

RESUMO

Improving user performances is one of the major issues for Motor Imagery (MI) - based BCI control. MI-BCIs exploit the modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) over the motor and sensorimotor cortices to discriminate several mental states and enable user interaction. Such modulations are known as Event-Related Desynchronization (ERD) and Synchronization (ERS), coming from the mu (7-13 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) frequency bands. This kind of BCI opens up promising fields, particularly to control assistive technologies, for sport training or even for post-stroke motor rehabilitation. However, MI - BCIs remain barely used outside laboratories, notably due to their lack of robustness and usability (15 to 30% of users seem unable to gain control of an MI-BCI). One way to increase user performance would be to better understand the relationships between user traits and ERD/ERS modulations underlying BCI performance. Therefore, in this article we analyzed how cerebral motor patterns underlying MI tasks (i.e., ERDs and ERSs) are modulated depending (i) on nature of the task (i.e., right-hand MI and left-hand MI), (ii) the session during which the task was performed (i.e., calibration or user training) and (iii) on the characteristics of the user (e.g., age, gender, manual activity, personality traits) on a large MI-BCI data base of N=75 participants. One of the originality of this study is to combine the investigation of human factors related to the user's traits and the neurophysiological ERD modulations during the MI task. Our study revealed for the first time an association between ERD and self-control from the 16PF5 questionnaire.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagens, Psicoterapia , Neurofisiologia
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 3568-3571, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086259

RESUMO

Training assessment is usually done by evaluating information derived from instructor's supervision related to the pilot's operational performance and behavior. However, this approach lacks objective measures, especially regarding the pilots' mental states while accomplishing the flight training tasks. The study therefore aimed at developing and testing a method for gathering and analyzing in real-time pilots' brain activity and skin conductance to improve the training evaluation. In this regard, Novice pilots' neurophysiological signals were acquired throughout multi-crew training sessions. The results demonstrated how the methodology proposed was able to endow real-time pilots' mental workload and arousal assessment for i) better evaluating training progress and operational behavior during the training session, and ii) for objectively comparing different training sessions.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Carga de Trabalho , Neurofisiologia
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 2319-2323, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086266

RESUMO

Brain activity differs vastly between sleep, cognitive tasks, and action. Information theory is an appropriate concept to analytically quantify these brain states. Based on neurophysiological recordings, this concept can handle complex data sets, is free of any requirements about the data structure, and can infer the present underlying brain mechanisms. Specifically, by utilizing algorithmic information theory, it is possible to estimate the absolute information contained in brain responses. While current approaches that apply this theory to neurophysiological recordings can discriminate between different brain states, they are limited in directly quantifying the degree of similarity or encoded information between brain responses. Here, we propose a method grounded in algorithmic information theory that affords direct statements about responses' similarity by estimating the encoded information through a compression-based scheme. We validated this method by applying it to both synthetic and real neurophysiological data and compared its efficiency to the mutual information measure. This proposed procedure is especially suited for task paradigms contrasting different event types because it can precisely quantify the similarity of neuronal responses.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Neurofisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sono
6.
J Vis Exp ; (185)2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913135

RESUMO

Ex vivo preparations enable the study of many neurophysiological processes in isolation from the rest of the body while preserving local tissue structure. This work describes the preparation of rat sciatic nerves for ex vivo neurophysiology, including buffer preparation, animal procedures, equipment setup and neurophysiological recording. This work provides an overview of the different types of experiments possible with this method. The outlined method aims to provide 6 h of stimulation and recording on extracted peripheral nerve tissue in tightly controlled conditions for optimal consistency in results. Results obtained using this method are A-fibre compound action potentials (CAP) with peak-to-peak amplitudes in the millivolt range over the entire duration of the experiment. CAP amplitudes and shapes are consistent and reliable, making them useful to test and compare new electrodes to existing models, or the effects of interventions on the tissue, such as the use of chemicals, surgical alterations, or neuromodulatory stimulation techniques. Both conventional commercially available cuff electrodes with platinum-iridium contacts and custom-made conductive elastomer electrodes were tested and gave similar results in terms of nerve stimulus strength-duration response.


Assuntos
Neurofisiologia , Nervo Isquiático , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Condutividade Elétrica , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Eletrodos , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Ratos , Nervo Isquiático/fisiologia
7.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 100(8): 712-715, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968859

RESUMO

The role of afferent feedback and central motor drive in muscle activation has a profound impact on our understanding of movement control in health and disease. Dr. Richard B. Stein was a pioneer who made major contributions to the field. In addition to fundamental discoveries using animal models, he translated this to the clinic to benefit patients with spinal cord and other neurological injuries. Along the way, he inspired a generation of scientists around the world.


Assuntos
Neurofisiologia , Medula Espinal , Animais , Neurofisiologia/história
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14703, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038570

RESUMO

Attention allows us to selectively enhance processing of specific locations or features in our external environment while filtering out irrelevant information. It is currently hypothesized that this is achieved through boosting of relevant sensory signals which biases the competition between neural representations. Recent neurophysiological and behavioral studies revealed that attention is a fundamentally rhythmic process, tightly linked to neural oscillations in frontoparietal networks. Instead of continuously highlighting a single object or location, attention rhythmically alternates between multiple relevant representations at a frequency of 3-8 Hz. However, attention cannot only be directed towards the external world but also towards internal visual working memory (VWM) representations, e.g. when selecting one of several search templates to find corresponding objects in the external world. Two recent studies demonstrate that single-feature objects in VWM are attended in a similar rhythmic fashion as perceived objects. Here we add to the literature by showing that non-spatial retro-cues initiate comparable theta-rhythmic sampling of multi-feature objects in VWM. Our findings add to the converging body of evidence that external and internal visual representations are accessed by similar rhythmic attentional mechanisms and present a potential solution to the binding problem in working memory.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Visual , Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Neurofisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
10.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 141: 77-87, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907381

RESUMO

Sub-scalp electroencephalography (ssEEG) is emerging as a promising technology in ultra-long-term electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Given the diversity of devices available in this nascent field, uncertainty persists about its utility in epilepsy evaluation. This review critically dissects the many proposed utilities of ssEEG devices including (1) seizure quantification, (2) seizure characterization, (3) seizure lateralization, (4) seizure localization, (5) seizure alarms, (6) seizure forecasting, (7) biomarker discovery, (8) sleep medicine, and (9) responsive stimulation. The different ssEEG devices in development have individual design philosophies with unique strengths and limitations. There are devices offering primarily unilateral recordings (24/7 EEGTM SubQ, NeuroviewTM, Soenia® UltimateEEG™), bilateral recordings (Minder™, Epios™), and even those with responsive stimulation capability (EASEE®). We synthesize the current knowledge of these ssEEG systems. We review the (1) ssEEG devices, (2) use case scenarios, (3) challenges and (4) suggest a roadmap for ideal ssEEG designs.


Assuntos
Neurofisiologia , Couro Cabeludo , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Convulsões
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 89(1): 283-297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by systemic alterations and forms an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, it has been indicated that blood-borne factors present in the systemic milieu contribute to the aging process. Exposing young mice to aged blood plasma results in impaired neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus, as well as impaired cognition. Vice versa, treating aged mice with young blood plasma rescues impairments associated with aging. OBJECTIVE: Whether blood-borne factors are sufficient to drive impairments outside the dentate gyrus, how they impact neurophysiology, and how the functional outcome compares to impairments found in mouse models for AD is still unclear. METHODS: Here, we treated adult mice with blood plasma from aged mice and assessed neurophysiological parameters in the hippocampal CA1. RESULTS: Mice treated with aged blood plasma show significantly impaired levels of long-term potentiation (LTP), similar to those present in APP/PS1 mice. These impaired levels of LTP in plasma-treated mice are associated with alterations in basic properties of glutamatergic transmission and the enhanced activity of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. CONCLUSION: Together, the data presented in this study show that blood-borne factors are sufficient to drive neurophysiological impairments in the hippocampal CA1.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Neurofisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Plasma
12.
Physiol Behav ; 255: 113918, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858672

RESUMO

The study of mental load is an emerging research topic in the field of sport sciences. In the sport of chess, there is a need to understand the mental demands of the sport of chess in order to manage training loads. The present study aimed to analyze the electrical brain pattern of an elite chess player during different chess games: 15 + 10, blindfold 15 + 10, lightning game, and problem-solving chess tasks. The participant was a male 33-year-old chess player with 2562 points of ELO and more than 26 years of chess experience, training between 3 and 4 h a day. The 15 + 10 game consisted of 15 min + 10 s increment per move. In the blindfold game, the participant cannot see the positions of the pieces and does not touch them. In the lightning game, the participant played four consecutive one minute game. In addition, two high-level, two low-level, and two medium-level chess problems were performed. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) responses were measured to assess the electrical brain pattern and autonomic modulation respectively. The participant won both games at 15 + 10 (normal and blindfold), lost three and drew one of the four lightning games, solved the two low-level and the two medium-level problems and solved one of the two high-level problems. Although in both games the player achieved victory the average player move quality measured with both pure analysis and analysis with additional limitations were lower in 15 + 10 blindfold game than in 15 + 10 game. Increments in theta and alpha power spectrums can be observed during the most demanding chess games (blindfold chess, lightning game, and the chess problem at difficult- level). Furthermore, the highest alpha power spectrum values can be observed during blindfold chess. In conclusion, this is the first study investigating the EEG pattern of a International Chess Grandmaster during a blindfold chess game. We found that in the chess games where lower performance is exhibited, theta and alpha power spectrums increased.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Eletroencefalografia , Fadiga Mental , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Passatempos , Humanos , Masculino , Neurofisiologia , Resolução de Problemas
13.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) ; 65(1): 1-7, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793502

RESUMO

This review article introduces the basic principles of infants' neurophysiology, while summarizing the core knowledge of the anatomical structure of the auditory pathway, and presents previous findings on newborns' neural speech processing and suggests their possible applications for clinical practice. In order to tap into the functioning of the auditory pathway in newborns, recent approaches have employed electrophysiological techniques that measure electrical activity of the brain. The neural processing of an incoming auditory stimulus is objectively reflected by means of auditory event-related potentials. The newborn's nervous system processes the incoming sound, and the associated electrical activity of the brain is measured and extracted as components characterized by amplitude, latency, and polarity. Based on the parameters of event-related potentials, it is possible to assess the maturity of a child's brain, or to identify a pathology that needs to be treated or mitigated. For instance, in children with a cochlear implant, auditory event-related potentials are employed to evaluate an outcome of the implantation procedure and to monitor the development of hearing. Event-related potentials turn out to be an irreplaceable part of neurodevelopmental care for high-risk children e.g., preterm babies, children with learning disabilities, autism and many other risk factors.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Neurofisiologia , Encéfalo , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
14.
Neuroimage ; 260: 119462, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872176

RESUMO

Decoding of high temporal resolution, stimulus-evoked neurophysiological data is increasingly used to test theories about how the brain processes information. However, a fundamental relationship between the frequency spectra of the neural signal and the subsequent decoding accuracy timecourse is not widely recognised. We show that, in commonly used instantaneous signal decoding paradigms, each sinusoidal component of the evoked response is translated to double its original frequency in the subsequent decoding accuracy timecourses. We therefore recommend, where researchers use instantaneous signal decoding paradigms, that more aggressive low pass filtering is applied with a cut-off at one quarter of the sampling rate, to eliminate representational alias artefacts. However, this does not negate the accompanying interpretational challenges. We show that these can be resolved by decoding paradigms that utilise both a signal's instantaneous magnitude and its local gradient information as features for decoding. On a publicly available MEG dataset, this results in decoding accuracy metrics that are higher, more stable over time, and free of the technical and interpretational challenges previously characterised. We anticipate that a broader awareness of these fundamental relationships will enable stronger interpretations of decoding results by linking them more clearly to the underlying signal characteristics that drive them.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Humanos , Neurofisiologia
15.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 224: 107011, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Operator's capability for accurately comprehending verbal commands is critically important to maintain the performance of human-machine interaction. It can be evaluated by human mental workload measured with electroencephalography (EEG). However, the time duration of different workload conditions within a task session is unequal due to varied psychophysiological processes across individuals. It leads to data imbalance of the EEG for training workload classifiers. METHODS: In this study, we propose an EEG feature oversampling technique, Gaussian-SMOTE based feature ensemble (GSMOTE-FE), for workload recognition with imbalanced classes. First, artificial EEG instances are drawn from a Gaussian distribution in the margin between the minority and majority workload classes. Tomek links are detected as clues to remove redundant feature vectors. Then, we embed a feature selection module based on the GINI importance while an ensemble classifier committee with bootstrap aggregating is used to further enhance classification performance. RESULTS: We validate the GSMOTE-FE framework based on an experiment that simulates operators to understand the correct meaning of the instructions in the Chinese language. Participants' EEG signals and reaction time data were both recorded to validate the proposed workload classifier. Workload classification accuracy and Macro-F1 values are 0.6553 and 0.5862, respectively. Corresponding G-mean and AUC achieve at 0.5757 and 0.5958, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the GSMOTE-FE is demonstrated to be comparable with the advanced oversampling techniques. The workload classifier has the capability to indicate low and high levels of the task demand of the Chinese language understanding task.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Carga de Trabalho , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Neurofisiologia , Psicofisiologia
16.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(3)2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863774

RESUMO

At the Walton Centre we conduct a relatively large number of complex and lengthy elective (booked) spinal operations. Recently, we have had a particular problem with half or more of these sessions finishing late, resulting in staff discontent and greater use of on-call staff.These operations require patient monitoring by neurophysiology clinical scientists. Before the surgeon can start the operation, in-theatre neurophysiological measurements are required to establish a baseline. We reasoned that reducing this set-up time would reduce the risk of surgery starting late, and so the whole session finishing later than expected.In this project we redesigned the neurophysiology parts of in-theatre patient preparation. We conducted five Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles over 3 months, reducing the duration of pre-surgery preparation from a mean of 70 min to around 50 min. We saw improvements in surgical start times and session finish times (both earlier by roughly comparable amounts). The ultimately impact is that we saw on-time session finishes improve from around 50% to 100%. Following this project, we have managed to sustain the changes and the improved performance.The most impactful change was to conduct in-theatre neurophysiology patient preparation simultaneously with anaesthesia, rather than waiting for this to finish; when we performed this with a pair of clinical scientists, we were able to complete neurophysiology patient preparation by the time the anaesthetist was finished, therefore not introducing delays to the start of surgery. A final change was to remove a superfluous preparatory patient-baseline measurement.This is a very challenging and complex environment, with powerful stakeholders and many factors and unpredictable events affecting sessions. Nevertheless, we have shown that we can make improvements within our span of influence that improve the wider process. While using pairs of staff requires greater resource, we found the benefit to be worthwhile.


Assuntos
Salas Cirúrgicas , Cirurgiões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Neurofisiologia , Duração da Cirurgia
18.
Metas enferm ; 25(5): 70-78, Jun 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-206873

RESUMO

Las dificultades socio-comunicativas que presentan los/as niños/as con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), y las barreras del entorno sanitario, pueden complicar las pruebas diagnósticas y las intervenciones sanitarias hasta el punto de no poder realizarse. Pueden darse momentos muy complicados para estos niños/as y sus familias, que son vividos con gran ansiedad generándoles gran hostilidad hacia el entorno sanitario. A su vez, los profesionales se ven desbordados e impotentes ante estas situaciones, aumentando los recursos humanos y el tiempo necesarios para atenderles. El personal de Enfermería tiene un papel fundamental en la identificación de las dificultades y barreras, tanto las que presentan los/as niños/as y sus familias, como las del propio personal sanitario implicado, pudiendo actuar como facilitadores desde el primer momento.El Servicio de Neurofisiología realiza electroencefalogramas (EEG) a pacientes con TEA, ya que la epilepsia es un problema frecuentemente asociado al mismo. Las dificultades para efectuar con éxito la prueba han llevado a la creación del programa ADAPTATEA, cuyo objetivo general es mejorar la calidad de la atención y conseguir realizar el EEG en las mejores condiciones posibles, llevando a cabo las adaptaciones sanitarias necesarias. Se basa en el empleo de pictogramas y material audiovisual cuyo objetivo es anticipar al niño o niña y familia lo que se les va a hacer, transformando la prueba en algo más cercano y cotidiano para ellos. Además, propone recomendaciones para la preparación, ejecución de la prueba, y para el mejor manejo de las conductas desadaptativas del niño/a cuando acude al hospital.(AU)


The socio-communicative difficulties presented by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the healthcare environment barriers can complicate diagnostic tests and healthcare interventions even to the point where these cannot be performed. These can lead to very difficult times for these children and their families, experienced with high anxiety and generating major hostility towards the healthcare environment. At the same time, professionals will feel overwhelmed and powerless when faced with these situations, which require an increase in human resources and time. The Nursing staff plays an essential role in the detection of these difficulties and barriers, presented both by children and their families and by the healthcare staff involved, and they can act as facilitators since the first minute.The Neurophysiology Unit performs electroencephalograms (EEG) to ASD patients, because epilepsy is a problem often associated with this disorder. The difficulties to perform this test successfully have led to the creation of the ADAPTATEA program, with the overall objective to improve the quality of care and being able to perform the EEG in the best possible conditions, by conducting the healthcare adaptations required. This is based on the use of pictograms and audiovisual materials targeted to explaining the child and his/her family what will be done and transforming the test into something closer and more common to them. Besides, it proposes recommendations for the preparation and performance of the test, and for the best management of the maladaptive behaviours of the child when attending hospital.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Planos e Programas de Saúde , Eletroencefalografia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Neurofisiologia , Saúde da Criança , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Cuidado da Criança , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem
19.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(6): 11-12, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702849
20.
J Hist Biol ; 55(2): 321-347, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678929

RESUMO

In the interwar period, biologists employed a diverse set of holistic approaches that were connected to different research methodologies. Against this background, this article explores attempts in the 1920s and 1930s to negotiate quantitative and qualitative methods in the field of neurophysiology. It focuses on the work of two scientists on different sides of the Atlantic: the Dutch animal psychologist and physiologist Frederik J.J. Buytendijk and the American neuropsychologist Karl S. Lashley, specifically analyzing their critical correspondence, 1929-1932, on the problems surrounding the term intelligence. It discusses the inexplicable anomalies in neurophysiology as well as the reliability of quantitative and qualitative methods. While in his laboratory work Lashley adhered to a strictly analytic approach, Buytendijk tried to combine quantitative methods with phenomenological and hermeneutical approaches. The starting point of their discussion is Lashley's monograph on Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence (1929) and the rat experiments discussed therein. Buytendijk questioned the viability of the maze-learning method and the use of statistics to test intelligence in animals; he reproduced Lashley's experiments and then confronted Lashley with his critical findings. In addition to elucidating this exchange, this paper will, more generally, shed light on the nature of the disagreements and shared assumptions prevalent among interwar neurophysiologists. In turn, it contributes to historiographical debates on localization and functionalism and the discrepancy between analytic (quantitative) and interpretative (qualitative) approaches.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Neurofisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo , Inteligência , Masculino , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
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