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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 221, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze and map scientific literature on Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) and Serotonin Syndrome (SS) from prestigious, internationally indexed journals. The objective was to identify key topics, impactful articles, prominent journals, research output, growth patterns, hotspots, and leading countries in the field, providing valuable insights for scholars, medical students, and international funding agencies. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was implemented in the PubMed MeSH database using specific keywords for NMS and SS. The search was conducted in the Scopus database, renowned for its extensive coverage of scholarly publications. Inclusion criteria comprised articles published from 1950 to December 31st, 2022, restricted to journal research and review articles written in English. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel for descriptive analysis, and VOSviewer was employed for bibliometric mapping. RESULTS: The search yielded 1150 articles on NMS and 587 on SS, with the majority being case reports. Growth patterns revealed a surge in NMS research between 1981 and 1991, while SS research increased notably between 1993 and 1997. Active countries and journals differed between NMS and SS, with psychiatry journals predominating for NMS and pharmacology/toxicology journals for SS. Authorship analysis indicated higher multi-authored articles for NMS. Top impactful articles focused on review articles and pathogenic mechanisms. Research hotspots included antipsychotics and catatonia for NMS, while SS highlighted drug interactions and specific medications like linezolid and tramadol. CONCLUSIONS: NMS and SS represent rare but life-threatening conditions, requiring detailed clinical and scientific understanding. Differential diagnosis and management necessitate caution in prescribing medications affecting central serotonin or dopamine systems, with awareness of potential drug interactions. International diagnostic tools and genetic screening tests may aid in safe diagnosis and prevention. Reporting rare cases and utilizing bibliometric analysis enhance knowledge dissemination and research exploration in the field of rare drug-induced medical conditions.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Síndrome da Serotonina , Humanos
2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 81: 160.e1-160.e2, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575461

RESUMO

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare yet severe condition typically associated with antipsychotic medications. Here, we present a case of NMS induced by prochlorperazine in a 76-year-old male with multiple comorbidities, aiming to delineate its clinical manifestation, diagnostic complexities, and treatment approaches. Our methodology involved a thorough documentation of the patient's medical history, initial symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory results, diagnostic processes, and subsequent therapeutic interventions. The patient exhibited classic NMS symptoms, including fever, altered mental status, autonomic dysregulation, and generalized rigidity, consistent with diagnostic criteria. Notably, laboratory investigations failed to reveal the typical abnormalities often seen in NMS cases, highlighting the diverse presentation of this syndrome. Management strategies primarily focused on benzodiazepines and amantadine, leading to a gradual improvement in symptoms and eventual resolution of NMS. This underscores the critical role of early recognition and appropriate pharmacotherapy in managing prochlorperazine-induced NMS, even at standard dosage levels. The absence of characteristic laboratory findings in NMS poses challenges in diagnosis, necessitating a comprehensive clinical assessment for accurate identification. Moreover, this case emphasizes the need for further research to better understand the pathophysiology of prochlorperazine-induced NMS and optimize treatment protocols. In conclusion, our case report sheds light on the complexities surrounding NMS induced by prochlorperazine, emphasizing the importance of vigilant monitoring and tailored therapeutic strategies in mitigating its potentially life-threatening consequences.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Proclorperazina , Humanos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Masculino , Proclorperazina/uso terapêutico , Proclorperazina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos
3.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 35(1): 75-77, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556939

RESUMO

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), which most often occurs after the use of antipsychotics, is a rare but life-threatening condition. In this article, a 56-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BPD) who developed NMS after a COVID-19 infection will be presented. The patient had been brought to the emergency room with high fever, fatigue, and slowness of movements that had been going on for two days. The examination revealed tachycardia, tachypnea, lethargy and rigidity. Upon further investigation the COVID-19 test came out positive and the serum levels of creatine kinase were considerably high. He was admitted to the psychiatric ward with diagnoses of COVID-19 infection and NMS. COVID-19 infection might have been a risk factor for NMS in this patient. Especially in patients who are taking antipsychotic drugs, if COVID-19 is present, the risk of NMS should be taken into consideration. Keyword: COVID-19, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Risperidone, Antipsikotik, Enfeksiyon.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , COVID-19 , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Risperidona/efeitos adversos
4.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 35(1): 78-82, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556940

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and safe treatment method for many psychiatric disorders. In general medical practice, ECT may cause side effects as most other treatment methods do. Headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, confusion, anterograde amnesia are common side effects of electroconvulsive therapy. Fever; in addition to general medical conditions such as infection, malignancy, connective tissue diseases, drug treatments, malignant hyperthermia, convulsions, it can also occur due to conditions such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), serotonin syndrome, catatonia, malignant catatonia, which are frequently encountered in psychiatry clinics. In the literature, transient fever response due to electroconvulsive therapy application have been described, albeit rarely. Although there are many proposed mechanisms for the emergence of a fever response, regardless of its cause, it is still not understood why some fever responses occur. In this article, we present the differential diagnosis of the fever response, possible causes, and the mechanisms that may reveal the secondary fever response to electroconvulsive therapy in a case with a diagnosis of catatonic schizophrenia, who developed a fever response during electroconvulsive therapy sessions and no fever response was observed at times other than electroconvulsive therapy sessions. In this case, postictal benign fever response associated with electroconvulsive therapy was considered after excluding other medical conditions that may cause a fever response after electroconvulsive therapy. Keywords: ECT, Fever, Catatonia, NMS.


Assuntos
Catatonia , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia Catatônica/complicações , Esquizofrenia Catatônica/terapia , Catatonia/etiologia , Catatonia/terapia , Catatonia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/efeitos adversos , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/complicações , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 190, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant elevation of creatine kinase levels (above three digits) and leucocytosis in the absence of muscle rigidity, tremors, or autonomic dysfunction can pose a real challenge in the context of antipsychotic treatment as an early herald of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We present here two cases of adult male patients of Black British heritage, ages 51 years and 28 years, respectively. Both received a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder and presented with massive increase of creatine kinase blood level after aripiprazole depot administration, one with pernicious increase associated with silent neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and the second with asymptomatic benign enzyme elevation. CONCLUSION: Though aripiprazole use is less likely to cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome, on rare occasions it can produce massive symptomatic or asymptomatic increase in serum creatine kinase enzyme levels, raising the need for close monitoring, especially at the initial doses of the drug.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Aripiprazol , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Creatina Quinase
6.
CNS Drugs ; 38(4): 239-254, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502289

RESUMO

Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) are associated with use of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs), including antipsychotics. The most common forms are drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP), dystonia, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia (TD). Although rare, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially life-threatening consequence of DRBA exposure. Recommendations for anticholinergic use in patients with DIMDs were developed on the basis of a roundtable discussion with healthcare professionals with extensive expertise in DIMD management, along with a comprehensive literature review. The roundtable agreed that "extrapyramidal symptoms" is a non-specific term that encompasses a range of abnormal movements. As such, it contributes to a misconception that all DIMDs can be treated in the same way, potentially leading to the misuse and overprescribing of anticholinergics. DIMDs are neurobiologically and clinically distinct, with different treatment paradigms and varying levels of evidence for anticholinergic use. Whereas evidence indicates anticholinergics can be effective for DIP and dystonia, they are not recommended for TD, akathisia, or NMS; nor are they supported for preventing DIMDs except in individuals at high risk for acute dystonia. Anticholinergics may induce serious peripheral adverse effects (e.g., urinary retention) and central effects (e.g., impaired cognition), all of which can be highly concerning especially in older adults. Appropriate use of anticholinergics therefore requires careful consideration of the evidence for efficacy (e.g., supportive for DIP but not TD) and the risks for serious adverse events. If used, anticholinergic medications should be prescribed at the lowest effective dose and for limited periods of time. When discontinued, they should be tapered gradually.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Distonia , Distúrbios Distônicos , Transtornos dos Movimentos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Discinesia Tardia , Humanos , Idoso , Distonia/induzido quimicamente , Distonia/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos dos Movimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos dos Movimentos/etiologia , Discinesia Tardia/induzido quimicamente , Discinesia Tardia/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(2)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320820

RESUMO

An incarcerated male patient with a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder presented to the emergency department with muscle rigidity and mutism after receiving a 150 mg haloperidol decanoate injection. At the peak of his illness, symptoms included muscular rigidity, mutism, excessive drooling, an altered level of consciousness, tachycardia, diaphoresis and tremors. Atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) was diagnosed after discrediting similar illnesses through clinical reasoning, laboratory and imaging studies. He was successfully treated during a 40-day hospitalisation with lorazepam, amantadine, methocarbamol and supportive care. This case represents an atypical presentation of NMS due to the patient's lack of fever development. Nonetheless, he satisfied many other criteria, most notably rapid symptom onset after receiving a first-generation antipsychotic medication. The case also provides an opportunity to discuss the prevalence of psychiatric illness among the US incarcerated population and incarceration as a risk factor for developing NMS.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Mutismo , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Prisioneiros , Masculino , Humanos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Demografia
8.
Schizophr Res ; 263: 169-177, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36966063

RESUMO

Catatonia occurs secondary to both primary psychiatric and neuromedical etiologies. Emerging evidence suggests possible linkages between causes of catatonia and neuroinflammation. These include obvious infectious and inflammatory etiologies, common neuromedical illnesses such as delirium, and psychiatric entities such as depression and autism-spectrum disorders. Symptoms of sickness behavior, thought to be a downstream effect of the cytokine response, are common in many of these etiologies and overlap significantly with symptoms of catatonia. Furthermore, there are syndromes that overlap with catatonia that some would consider variants, including neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and akinetic mutism, which may also have neuroinflammatory underpinnings. Low serum iron, a common finding in NMS and malignant catatonia, may be caused by the acute phase response. Cellular hits involving either pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) danger signals or the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) danger signals of severe psychosocial stress may set the stage for a common pathway immunoactivation state that could lower the threshold for a catatonic state in susceptible individuals. Immunoactivation leading to dysfunction in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/mid-cingulate cortex (MCC)/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/paralimbic cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, involved in motivation and movement, may be particularly important in generating the motor and behavioral symptoms of catatonia.


Assuntos
Catatonia , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Humanos , Catatonia/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia
9.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 47(1): 22-25, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare life-threatening condition that providers should be cognizant of when prescribing dopamine-receptor antagonists. Atypical antipsychotic agents were initially considered to have a lower risk of inducing the development of NMS compared with conventional antipsychotic. Considerable evidence, however, has suggested that atypical antipsychotics are associated with NMS, including the partial dopamine agonist, aripiprazole. There is growing evidence that other psychotropics, including lithium, cause this condition. Here, the authors present a case of a patient who developed NMS from lithium and aripiprazole and provide a literature review of reported NMS cases with either psychotropic. METHOD AND RESULTS: The authors report the case of 60-year-old male patient who developed NMS over a hospital course during which both aripiprazole and lithium were prescribed. In addition, a literature review was performed and a summary of cases of NMS induced by either lithium and/or aripiprazole is provided. CONCLUSIONS: This case adds to the growing body of literature of aripiprazole and lithium-induced NMS. Only 2 other cases are reported where concomitant aripiprazole and lithium use lead to NMS. Interestingly, our patient did develop lithium toxicity during hospitalization, but the NMS diagnosis occurred after lithium toxicity resolved. This varies from the other 2 cases where NMS developed despite lithium levels always being therapeutic. Unfortunately, there are more questions than answers surrounding this rare complication involving these 2 psychotropics and clinical vigilance is warranted when using these psychotropics especially in cases where aripiprazole and lithium are used in combination.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aripiprazol/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/tratamento farmacológico , Lítio , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Dopamina
11.
J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry ; 65(3): 222-230, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (ANMDARE) is a neuroimmunological disorder that frequently improves with immunotherapy. Symptomatic treatment with antipsychotics is common in the early stages when psychiatric symptoms predominate, and their use has been associated with serious side effects including neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). The observation of an adverse response to antipsychotics, raising the suspicion of NMS, has been included as a criterion for possible autoimmune psychosis. METHODS: This case-control study included patients who received antipsychotics before referral to the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico, where they were diagnosed as having definite ANMDARE, and patients with ANMDARE who did not receive antipsychotics before referral. The neurologic and systemic features that are used to measure an adverse response to antipsychotics, raising the suspicion of NMS, were measured in both groups, including akinesia, autonomic instability, generalized rigidity, elevated concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, and hyperthermia. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the previous use of antipsychotics and the occurrence of NMS-like reactions. RESULTS: A total sample of 112 patients with definite ANMDARE were included in the study. Fifty patients received antipsychotics before being referred to our institution. In this group, thirty-six patients (72%) were initially classified as having an adverse response, raising the suspicion of NMS, with the following features: akinesia (64%), autonomic instability (58%), generalized rigidity (52%), elevated concentrations of creatine phosphokinase (50%), and hyperthermia (14%). Six patients fulfilled the criteria for NMS (12%). The comparison with patients who did not receive antipsychotics before the clinical assessment did not show a significant difference between groups regarding the frequency of akinesia, autonomic instability, generalized rigidity, elevated concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, or hyperthermia. Among different antipsychotics, only haloperidol was significantly associated with generalized rigidity as compared to patients who did not receive antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports previous observations about the high frequency of autonomic dysfunction, hyperthermia, tachycardia, rigidity, and elevated creatine phosphokinase levels in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis following the administration of antipsychotic medications. Nevertheless, our study does not suggest a causal link between atypical antipsychotics and the onset of these neurological symptoms, as they were equally frequent among the group of patients who did not receive antipsychotic treatment.


Assuntos
Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Antipsicóticos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Humanos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Masculino , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/complicações , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , México/epidemiologia
13.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 142(3): e2022401, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38055420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a neurologic emergency potentially fatal. This rare side effect is most commonly associated with first-generation antipsychotics and less frequently with atypical or second-generation antipsychotics. The diagnosis relies on both clinical and laboratory criteria, with other organic and psychiatric conditions being ruled out. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old female patient, who is institutionalized and completely dependent, has a medical history of recurrent urinary infections and colonization by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Her regular medication regimen included sertraline, valproic acid, quetiapine, risperidone, lorazepam, diazepam, haloperidol, baclofen, and fentanyl. The patient began experiencing dyspnea. Upon physical examination, she exhibited hypotension and a diminished vesicular murmur at the right base during pulmonary auscultation. Initially, after hospitalization, she developed high febrile peaks associated with hemodynamic instability, prompting the initiation of antibiotic treatment. Despite this, her fever persisted without an increase in blood inflammatory parameters, and she developed purulent sputum, necessitating antibiotherapy escalation. The seventh day of hospitalization showed no improvement in symptoms, suggesting NNMS as a differential diagnosis. All antipsychotic and sedative drugs, as well as antibiotherapy, were discontinued, after which the patient showed significant clinical improvement. CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic agents are commonly employed to manage behavioral changes linked to various disorders. However, their severe side effects necessitate a high degree of vigilance, the cessation of all medications, and the implementation of supportive care measures. A prompt and accurate diagnosis of NMS is crucial to alleviating the severe, prolonged morbidity and potential mortality associated with this syndrome.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Haloperidol/efeitos adversos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/efeitos adversos , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia
14.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 46(6): 209-213, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37962307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening condition that occurs as an adverse reaction to antipsychotic and antiemetic agents or sudden withdrawal of dopaminergic medications. Given the metabolic and functional reserves and the comorbidities in older adults, NMS may show an atypical course. METHODS: The medical records of patients with neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia between 2013 and 2020 were reviewed for the diagnosis of NMS. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were obtained from the records of laboratory parameters, management, and length of stay. RESULTS: Fifteen older adults (19 episodes) diagnosed with NMS were included. The median age was 76 years, and 5 were female. Ten of 15 NMS patients were atypical. Most of them had an infection accompanying NMS. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome was caused by antidopaminergic agents (5 antipsychotics, 1 metoclopramide) in 6 episodes and discontinuation of a dopaminergic agent, l -DOPA, in 12 episodes. In 1 patient, it was associated with simultaneous use of domperidone and amantadine withdrawal. Rigidity in NMS due to l -DOPA discontinuation was higher than in those due to antipsychotic use ( P = 0.027). Two of our patients needed intensive care, and 1 died. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the high frequency of atypical NMS and the importance of early recognition of this potentially fatal syndrome, which can accompany neurodegenerative diseases and infections in older adults.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Demência , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Demência/complicações , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/uso terapêutico
15.
CMAJ ; 195(43): E1481, 2023 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931952
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 18459, 2023 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37891209

RESUMO

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but serious and sometimes fatal complication in patients taking antipsychotic drugs, and its underlying mechanism still remains unclear. The pharmacotherapy for psychotic disorders is complicated and often involves a combination of two or more drugs, including drugs other than antipsychotics. In the present study, we used the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database to broadly investigate the drugs associated with NMS, following their related pathways, as well as the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in NMS. All analyses were performed using data from the JADER database from April 2004 to May 2022. Single-drug signals were evaluated using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and proportional reporting ratio (PRR), and drug pathways were investigated using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). DDIs were evaluated using the Ω shrinkage measure and Chi-square statistics models. All drugs associated with 20 or more NMS cases in the JADER database exhibited signals for NMS, including non-antipsychotics. Pathways associated with the drugs included the dopaminergic or serotonergic synapses related to antipsychotics. DDIs leading to NMS were confirmed for several drug combinations exhibiting single-drug signals. This study confirmed the significant association of various drugs, including non-psychotics, with NMS and suggested that various pathways related to these drugs may be involved in the progression of NMS. In addition, several combinations of these drugs were found to interact (DDI), increasing the risk of NMS, which suggests that appropriate caution should be taken when administering these drugs.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Interações Medicamentosas
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