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2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1319: 59-103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424513

RESUMO

The African mole-rat family (Bathyergidae) includes the first mammalian species identified as eusocial: naked mole-rats. Comparative studies of eusocial and solitary mole-rat species have identified differences in neuropeptidergic systems that may underlie the phenomenon of eusociality. These differences are found in the oxytocin, vasopressin and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) systems within the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and lateral septal nucleus. As a corollary of their eusociality, most naked mole-rats remain pre-pubertal throughout life because of the presence of the colony's only reproductive female, the queen. To elucidate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that mediate this social regulation of reproduction, research on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in naked mole-rats has identified differences between the many individuals that are reproductively suppressed and the few that are reproductively mature: the queen and her male consorts. These differences involve gonadal steroids, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1), kisspeptin, gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone/RFamide-related peptide-3 (GnIH/RFRP-3) and prolactin. The comparative findings in eusocial and solitary mole-rat species are assessed with reference to a broad range of studies on other mammals.


Assuntos
Ratos-Toupeira , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Gonadotropinas , Masculino , Sistemas Neurossecretores , Ocitocina
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26836, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial tissue plays an important role in the regulation of female fertility and there is evidence that endometrial pathology (including endometriosis) is closely related to endocrine disorders. On the other hand, various neuroendocrine changes can be significantly affected by psychosocial stress. In connection with these findings, we tested the relationship between neuroendocrine changes, sexual dysfunction, psychosocial/traumatic stress, and dissociative symptoms in women with endometriosis. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with endometriosis were included in the study. Clinical examinations were focused on the biochemical analysis of neuroendocrine markers of endometriosis (cancer antigen 125 [CA 125] and cancer antigen 19-9 [CA 19-9]), estradiol, psychometric evaluation of sexual dysfunction, psychosocial/traumatic stress, and dissociative symptoms. RESULTS: The results showed significant Spearman correlations between the values of the revised range of sexual difficulties for sexual dysfunction (Revised Female Sexual Distress Scale), psychosocial/traumatic stress (Trauma Symptoms Checklist) (R = 0.31), and dissociative symptoms (Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire) (R = 0.33). Positive correlations were also found between CA 125 and CA 19-9 (R = 0.63), and between CA 125 and the results of the values of the revised scale of sexual difficulties for sexual dysfunction (Revised Female Sexual Distress Scale) (R = 0.29). Also psychosocial/traumatic stress (Trauma Symptoms Checklist) significantly correlated with CA 125 (R = 0.38) and with CA 19-9 (R = 0.33). CONCLUSION: These results represent the first findings regarding the relationship of the neuroendocrine markers CA 125 and CA 19-9 and sexual dysfunction with trauma/stress-related symptoms and dissociative symptoms in women with endometriosis.


Assuntos
Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Endometriose , Trauma Psicológico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas , Transtornos Somatoformes , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Transtornos Dissociativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Endometriose/sangue , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Técnicas Psicológicas , Trauma Psicológico/complicações , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Trauma Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/sangue , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1156031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423030

RESUMO

Here, we report the participation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor in the mediation of cardiovascular and circulating vasopressin responses evoked by a hemorrhagic stimulus. In addition, once NMDA receptor activation is a prominent mechanism involved in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the brain, we investigated whether control of hemorrhagic shock by NMDA glutamate receptor was followed by changes in NO synthesis in brain supramedullary structures involved in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine control. Thus, we observed that intraperitoneal administration of the selective NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate (MK801, 0.3 mg/kg) delayed and reduced the magnitude of hemorrhage-induced hypotension. Besides, hemorrhage induced a tachycardia response in the posthemorrhage period (i.e., recovery period) in control animals, and systemic treatment with MK801 caused a bradycardia response during hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic stimulus increased plasma vasopressin levels during the recovery period and NMDA receptor antagonism increased concentration of this hormone during both the hemorrhage and postbleeding periods in relation to control animals. Moreover, hemorrhagic shock caused a decrease in NOx levels in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and ventral periaqueductal gray matter (vPAG). Nevertheless, treatment with MK801 did not affect these effects. Taken together, these results indicate that the NMDA glutamate receptor is involved in the hemorrhagic shock by inhibiting circulating vasopressin release. Our data also suggest a role of the NMDA receptor in tachycardia, but not in the decreased NO synthesis in the brain evoked by hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Maleato de Dizocilpina/administração & dosagem , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo , Vasopressinas/sangue , Animais , Bradicardia/sangue , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Maleato de Dizocilpina/efeitos adversos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Sistemas Neurossecretores/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
5.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440841

RESUMO

Fatty liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are global health disparities, particularly in the United States, as a result of cultural eating habits and lifestyle. Pathological studies on NAFLD have been mostly focused on hepatocytes and other inflammatory cell types; however, the impact of other biliary epithelial cells (i.e., cholangiocytes) in the promotion of NAFLD is growing. This review article will discuss how cholestatic injury and cholangiocyte activity/ductular reaction influence NAFLD progression. Furthermore, this review will provide informative details regarding the fundamental properties of cholangiocytes and bile acid signaling that can influence NAFLD. Lastly, studies relating to the pathogenesis of NAFLD, cholangiopathies, and ductular reaction will be analyzed to help gain insight for potential therapies.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Colestase/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/citologia , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Colestase/etiologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
Adv Pharmacol ; 92: 101-150, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452685

RESUMO

Hundreds of anthropogenic chemicals occupy our bodies, a situation that threatens the health of present and future generations. This chapter focuses on endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), both naturally occurring and man-made, that affect the neuroendocrine system to adversely impact health, with an emphasis on reproductive and metabolic pathways. The neuroendocrine system is highly sexually dimorphic and essential for maintaining homeostasis and appropriately responding to the environment. Comprising both neural and endocrine components, the neuroendocrine system is hormone sensitive throughout life and touches every organ system in the body. The integrative nature of the neuroendocrine system means that EDCs can have multi-system effects. Additionally, because gonadal hormones are essential for the sex-specific organization of numerous neuroendocrine pathways, endocrine disruption of this programming can lead to permanent deficits. Included in this review is a brief history of the neuroendocrine disruption field and a thorough discussion of the most common and less well understood neuroendocrine disruption modes of action. Also provided are extensive examples of how EDCs are likely contributing to neuroendocrine disorders such as obesity, and evidence that they have the potential for multi-generational effects.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Androgênios/farmacologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas Neurossecretores , Glândula Tireoide
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201099

RESUMO

Astrocytes are a type of glial cell anatomically and functionally integrated into the neuronal regulatory circuits for the neuroendocrine control of metabolism. Being functional integral compounds of synapses, astrocytes are actively involved in the physiological regulatory aspects of metabolic control, but also in the pathological processes that link neuronal dysfunction and obesity. Between brain areas, the hypothalamus harbors specialized functional circuits that seem selectively vulnerable to metabolic damage, undergoing early cellular rearrangements which are thought to be at the core of the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. Such changes in the hypothalamic brain region consist of a rise in proinflammatory cytokines, the presence of a reactive phenotype in astrocytes and microglia, alterations in the cytoarchitecture and synaptology of hypothalamic circuits, and angiogenesis, a phenomenon that cannot be found elsewhere in the brain. Increasing evidence points to the direct involvement of hypothalamic astrocytes in such early metabolic disturbances, thus moving the study of these glial cells to the forefront of obesity research. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the most relevant findings of molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms by which hypothalamic astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Hipotálamo/patologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
8.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 180: 45-63, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225948

RESUMO

A major function of the nervous system is to maintain a relatively constant internal environment. The distinction between our external environment (i.e., the environment that we live in and that is subject to major changes, such as temperature, humidity, and food availability) and our internal environment (i.e., the environment formed by the fluids surrounding our bodily tissues and that has a very stable composition) was pointed out in 1878 by Claude Bernard (1814-1878). Later on, it was indicated by Walter Cannon (1871-1945) that the internal environment is not really constant, but rather shows limited variability. Cannon named the mechanism maintaining this limited variability homeostasis. Claude Bernard envisioned that, for optimal health, all physiologic processes in the body needed to maintain homeostasis and should be in perfect harmony with each other. This is illustrated by the fact that, for instance, during the sleep-wake cycle important elements of our physiology such as body temperature, circulating glucose, and cortisol levels show important variations but are in perfect synchrony with each other. These variations are driven by the biologic clock in interaction with hypothalamic target areas, among which is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), a core brain structure that controls the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems and thus is key for integrating central and peripheral information and implementing homeostasis. This chapter focuses on the anatomic connections between the biologic clock and the PVN to modulate homeostasis according to the daily sleep-wake rhythm. Experimental studies have revealed a highly specialized organization of the connections between the clock neurons and neuroendocrine system as well as preautonomic neurons in the PVN. These complex connections ensure a logical coordination between behavioral, endocrine, and metabolic functions that helps the organism maintain homeostasis throughout the day.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Humanos , Neurônios , Sistemas Neurossecretores
9.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 181: 337-350, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238469

RESUMO

The hypothalamus, which is part of the brain of all vertebrate animals, is considered the link between the central nervous system (CNS) and (i) the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and (ii) with our organs via the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and releases neurohormones, which in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of other hormones within the CNS, and sends and receives signals to and from the peripheral nervous and endocrine systems. As the brain region responsible for energy homeostasis, the hypothalamus is the key regulator of thermoregulation, hunger and satiety, circadian rhythms, sleep and fatigue, memory and learning, arousal and reproductive cycling, blood pressure, and heart rate and thus orchestrates complex physiological responses in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis. These critical roles implicate the hypothalamus in neuroendocrine disorders such as obesity, diabetes, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and others. In this chapter, we focus on the use of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and their differentiation into hypothalamic neurons in order to model neuroendocrine disorders such as extreme obesity in a dish. To do so, we discuss important steps of human hypothalamus development, neuroendocrine diseases related to the hypothalamus, multiple protocols to differentiate hiPSCs into hypothalamic neurons, and severe obesity modeling in vitro using hiPSCs-derived hypothalamic neurons.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Animais , Humanos , Hipotálamo , Neurogênese , Neurônios , Sistemas Neurossecretores
10.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 182: 417-431, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266609

RESUMO

Following the onset of any life-threatening illness that requires intensive medical care, alterations within the neuroendocrine axes occur which are thought to be essential for survival, as they postpone energy-consuming anabolism, activate energy-producing catabolic pathways, and optimize immunological and cardiovascular functions. The hormonal changes present in the acute phase of critical illness at least partially resemble those of the fasting state, and recent evidence suggests that they are part of a beneficial, evolutionary-conserved adaptive stress response. However, a fraction of patients who survive the acute phase of critical illness remain dependent on vital organ support and enter the prolonged phase of critical illness. In these patients, the hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axes are functionally suppressed, which may have negative consequences by which recovery may be hampered and the risk of morbidity and mortality in the long-term increased. Most randomized controlled trials of critically ill patients that investigated the impact on the outcome of treatment with peripheral hormones did not reveal a robust morbidity or mortality benefit. In contrast, small studies of patients in the prolonged phase of critical illness documented promising results with the infusion of hypothalamic-releasing hormones. The currently available data corroborate the need for well-designed and adequately powered RCTs to further investigate the impact of these releasing factors on patient-centered outcomes.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados Críticos , Hormônios , Humanos , Sistemas Neurossecretores
11.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 182: 433-446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266610

RESUMO

Some patients who have been diagnosed as "dead by neurologic criteria" continue to exhibit certain brain functions, most commonly, neuroendocrine functions. In this chapter, we review the pathophysiology of brain death that can lead either to neuroendocrine failure or to preserved neuroendocrine functioning. We review the evidence on continued hypothalamic functioning in patients who have been declared "brain dead," examine potential mechanisms that would explain these findings, and discuss how these findings create additional confounds for brain death testing. We conclude by reviewing the evidence for the management of hypothalamic-pituitary failure in the setting of brain death and organ transplantation.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica , Transplante de Órgãos , Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipotálamo , Sistemas Neurossecretores
12.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 17(9): 549-559, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262156

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery induces sustained weight loss and metabolic benefits via notable effects on the gut-brain axis that lead to alterations in the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and glycaemia. However, in a subset of patients, bariatric surgery is associated with adverse effects on mental health, including increased risk of suicide or self-harm as well as the emergence of depression and substance use disorders. The contributing factors behind these adverse effects are not well understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that there are important links between gut-derived hormones, microbial and bile acid profiles, and disorders of mood and substance use, which warrant further exploration in the context of changes in gut-brain signalling after bariatric surgery. Understanding the basis of these adverse effects is essential in order to optimize the health and well-being of people undergoing treatment for obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 179: 7-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225985

RESUMO

The central brain region of interest for neuroendocrinology is the hypothalamus, a name coined by Wilhelm His in 1893. Neuroendocrinology is the discipline that studies hormone production by neurons, the sensitivity of neurons for hormones, as well as the dynamic, bidirectional interactions between neurons and endocrine glands. These interactions do not only occur through hormones, but are also partly accomplished by the autonomic nervous system that is regulated by the hypothalamus and that innervates the endocrine glands. A special characteristic of the hypothalamus is that it contains neuroendocrine neurons projecting either to the neurohypophysis or to the portal vessels of the anterior lobe of the pituitary in the median eminence, where they release their neuropeptides or other neuroactive compounds into the bloodstream, which subsequently act as neurohormones. In the 1970s it was found that vasopressin and oxytocin not only are released as hormones in the circulation but that their neurons project to other neurons within and outside the hypothalamus and function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that regulate central functions, including the autonomic innervation of all our body organs. Recently magnocellular oxytocin neurons were shown to send not only an axon to the neurohypophysis, but also axon collaterals of the same neuroendocrine neuron to a multitude of brain areas. In this way, the hypothalamus acts as a central integrator for endocrine, autonomic, and higher brain functions. The history of neuroendocrinology is described in this chapter from the descriptions in De humani corporis fabrica by Vesalius (1537) to the present, with a timeline of the scientists and their findings.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo , Neuroendocrinologia/história , Ocitocina , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neurônios , Sistemas Neurossecretores , Hipófise
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068698

RESUMO

Immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic nervous system dysregulation in anorexia nervosa lead to cardiovascular complications that can potentially result in increased morbidity and mortality. It is suggested that a complex non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular autonomic regulation-cardiac vagal control, sympathetic vascular activity, and cardiovascular reflex control-could represent a promising tool for early diagnosis, personalized therapy, and monitoring of therapeutic interventions in anorexia nervosa particularly at a vulnerable adolescent age. In this view, we recommend to consider in the diagnostic route, at least in the subset of patients with peripheral microvascular symptoms, a nailfold video-capillaroscopy as an easy not invasive tool for the early assessing of possible cardiovascular involvement.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/patologia , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/imunologia , Anorexia Nervosa/metabolismo , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/complicações , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Sistemas Neurossecretores/patologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/complicações , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/imunologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/patologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26412, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a kind of cardiovascular syndrome with the main clinical manifestation of continuous increase of systemic arterial blood pressure. Hypertension coexists with other cardiovascular risk factors and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Acupuncture is an important part of Traditional Chinese Medicine intervention. The antihypertensive effect of acupuncture on hypertension is based on the neuroendocrine system, characterized by multichannel and multitarget. This study aims to provide latest and updated proof of systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for hypertension. METHODS: We will systematically search 9 databases from their inceptions to February 2021. Only randomized controlled trials of acupuncture combined with western medicine in the treatment of hypertension will meet the inclusion criteria. The main outcome measures we focus on include clinical efficacy, syndrome efficacy, Traditional Chinese Medicine syndrome score, diastolic and systolic blood pressure changes, blood pressure variability, heart rate variability, pulse rate variability, and adverse reactions. The research screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment will be employed by 2 reviewers independently, and disagreement will be decided by a third senior reviewer. The Revman 5.3 software will be used for meta-analysis. The confidence of proof will be rated adopting grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation tool and methodological quality of this research will be assessed using assessment of multiple systematic reviews-2 and risk of bias in systematic reviews. The publication quality will be evaluated by preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). RESULTS: This systematic review (SR) will provide evidence-based medical evidence for hypertension therapy by acupuncture combined with western medicine and we will submit the findings of this SR for peer-review publication. CONCLUSIONS: This SR will provide latest and updated summary proof for assessing the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for hypertension. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY 202150047.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Sistemas Neurossecretores/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Elife ; 102021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085637

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine systems in animals maintain organismal homeostasis and regulate stress response. Although a great deal of work has been done on the neuropeptides and hormones that are released and act on target organs in the periphery, the synaptic inputs onto these neuroendocrine outputs in the brain are less well understood. Here, we use the transmission electron microscopy reconstruction of a whole central nervous system in the Drosophila larva to elucidate the sensory pathways and the interneurons that provide synaptic input to the neurosecretory cells projecting to the endocrine organs. Predicted by network modeling, we also identify a new carbon dioxide-responsive network that acts on a specific set of neurosecretory cells and that includes those expressing corazonin (Crz) and diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44) neuropeptides. Our analysis reveals a neuronal network architecture for combinatorial action based on sensory and interneuronal pathways that converge onto distinct combinations of neuroendocrine outputs.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Drosophila melanogaster/ultraestrutura , Interneurônios/ultraestrutura , Sistemas Neurossecretores/ultraestrutura , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/ultraestrutura , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Hormônios de Inseto/genética , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
19.
Compr Physiol ; 11(3): 2097-2134, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107062

RESUMO

As our understanding of respiratory control evolves, we appreciate how the basic neurobiological principles of plasticity discovered in other systems shape the development and function of the respiratory control system. While breathing is a robust homeostatic function, there is growing evidence that stress disrupts respiratory control in ways that predispose to disease. Neonatal stress (in the form of maternal separation) affects "classical" respiratory control structures such as the peripheral O2 sensors (carotid bodies) and the medulla (e.g., nucleus of the solitary tract). Furthermore, early life stress disrupts the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), a structure that has emerged as a primary determinant of the intensity of the ventilatory response to hypoxia. Although underestimated, the PVH's influence on respiratory function is a logical extension of the hypothalamic control of metabolic demand and supply. In this article, we review the functional and anatomical links between the stress neuroendocrine axis and the medullary network regulating breathing. We then present the persistent and sex-specific effects of neonatal stress on respiratory control in adult rats. The similarities between the respiratory phenotype of stressed rats and clinical manifestations of respiratory control disorders such as sleep-disordered breathing and panic attacks are remarkable. These observations are in line with the scientific consensus that the origins of adult disease are often found among developmental and biological disruptions occurring during early life. These observations bring a different perspective on the structural hierarchy of respiratory homeostasis and point to new directions in our understanding of the etiology of respiratory control disorders. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:1-38, 2021.


Assuntos
Privação Materna , Respiração , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Hipóxia , Masculino , Sistemas Neurossecretores , Ratos
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12421, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127717

RESUMO

Social contact is known to impact the partners' physiology and behavior but the mechanisms underpinning such inter-partner influences are far from clear. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we examined how social dialogue shapes the partners' multi-system endocrine response as mediated by behavioral synchrony. To address sex-specific, hormone-specific, attachment-specific mechanisms, we recruited 82 man-woman pairs (N = 164 participants) in three attachment groups; long-term couples (n = 29), best friends (n = 26), and ingroup strangers (n = 27). We used salivary measures of oxytocin (OT), cortisol (CT), testosterone (T), and secretory immuglobolinA (s-IgA), biomarker of the immune system, before and after a 30-min social dialogue. Dialogue increased oxytocin and reduced cortisol and testosterone. Cross-person cross-hormone influences indicated that dialogue carries distinct effects on women and men as mediated by social behavior and attachment status. Men's baseline stress-related biomarkers showed both direct hormone-to-hormone associations and, via attachment status and behavioral synchrony, impacted women's post-dialogue biomarkers of stress, affiliation, and immunity. In contrast, women's baseline stress biomarkers linked with men's stress response only through the mediating role of behavioral synchrony. As to affiliation biomarkers, men's initial OT impacted women's OT response only through behavioral synchrony, whereas women's baseline OT was directly related to men's post-dialogue OT levels. Findings pinpoint the neuroendocrine advantage of social dialogue, suggest that women are more sensitive to signs of men's initial stress and social status, and describe behavior-based mechanisms by which human attachments create a coupled biology toward greater well-being and resilience.


Assuntos
Amigos/psicologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Interação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/análise , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Masculino , Ocitocina/análise , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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