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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266099, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381022

RESUMO

Pueblo Bonito is the iconic pre- Columbian structure in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, a World Heritage Site in northwestern New Mexico, USA. The structure, dating to about 850-1150 Current Era, and built of quarried sandstones, wooden timbers and a mud mortar, has been the subject of archaeological investigations for over a century. The present study is based on the examination of historical photographs of Pueblo Bonito dating from 1887 to the 1920s. It is a retrospective assessment to determine if structural damages, depicted on the photographs, could be attributed to identifiable agents that might have been present at the time of Pueblo Bonito occupancy. A likely causal agent of deterioration at Pueblo Bonito was the inability of Ancestral Puebloan engineers to manage the impacts from the annual precipitation, presently measured at about 220 mm. A resulting time-dependent event was rot to wetted roof and ceiling timbers, lintels, and wall support beams which required decades of incubation by wood decay fungi to reduce wood tensile strength to levels leading to roof and wall collapse. Important time- independent events that could occur any time after construction include water action on the mud mortar which resulted in unstable gravity load paths in stone walls, ponding of water in walls which when frozen would lead to the blowout of wall segments, and the occasional flood that disrupted foundations. Pueblo Bonito may have been an occupation site for centuries but the lifetime of individually constructed rooms may have only been decades, resulting in several build- repair- or abandon cycles being part of the history of that Great House.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Parques Recreativos , Arqueologia/métodos , New Mexico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Água
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 243, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide attempt and opioid misuse continue to be major behavioral health challenges among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN). The aim of the study is to evaluate the mediating and moderating role that social support (SS) plays in their association among AI/AN high-school students in New Mexico (NM). METHODS: An aggregated NM Youth Resiliency and Risk Survey (NM-YRRS, 2009-2019: odd years) dataset was used. Multivariable logistic regression modeling and mediation analysis were conducted while adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: Overall, 12.0 and 14.0% of AI/AN students reported opioid misuse and suicide attempt, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of suicide attempt in students with high SS relative to low SS who misused opioids was 0.43 (p-value = 0.007). The effect of high SS relative to low SS among males who misused opioids was more pronounced (AOR = 0.24, p-value < 0.0001) compared to females (AOR = 0.43, p-value = 0.007). Relative to low SS, high SS was protective for suicide attempt among AI/AN students who misused opioids and attended school in off-reservation (AOR = 0.42, p-value = 0.012) communities, rural communities (AOR = 0.44, p = 0.040), and in communities that are both rural and off-reservation (AOR = 0.39, p = 0.035). Overall, 23.64, and 41.05% of the association between opioid misuse, and suicide attempt was mediated and moderated by SS, respectively. The mediation effect of SS was lowest for rural, on-reservation schools. CONCLUSION: More resources need to be allocated to rural on-reservation schools to enhance social support. The study highlights key insights into the significant role SS plays in promoting health and mitigating the association between opioid misuse and suicide attempt.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Apoio Social
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(7): 4317-4323, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317555

RESUMO

Limiting emissions of climate-warming methane from oil and gas (O&G) is a major opportunity for short-term climate benefits. We deploy a basin-wide airborne survey of O&G extraction and transportation activities in the New Mexico Permian Basin, spanning 35 923 km2, 26 292 active wells, and over 15 000 km of natural gas pipelines using an independently validated hyperspectral methane point source detection and quantification system. The airborne survey repeatedly visited over 90% of the active wells in the survey region throughout October 2018 to January 2020, totaling approximately 98 000 well site visits. We estimate total O&G methane emissions in this area at 194 (+72/-68, 95% CI) metric tonnes per hour (t/h), or 9.4% (+3.5%/-3.3%) of gross gas production. 50% of observed emissions come from large emission sources with persistence-averaged emission rates over 308 kg/h. The fact that a large sample size is required to characterize the heavy tail of the distribution emphasizes the importance of capturing low-probability, high-consequence events through basin-wide surveys when estimating regional O&G methane emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metano/análise , Gás Natural/análise , New Mexico , Poços de Água
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 370, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth face stark inequities in opioid misuse, social support, and suicide attempt. This study examined trends in these behavioral measures among AI/AN students in New Mexico (NM). METHODS: Using the NM oversampled Youth Resiliency and Risk Survey (NM-YRRS, 2009 - 2019: odd years), prevalence estimates of opioid misuse, social support (SS), and suicide attempt for AI/AN high school students were generated. Trends over time were assessed via linear regression of weighted proportions according to Peter Armitage. Stratified trends by demographics were also employed. RESULTS: While the prevalence of suicide attempt did not change significantly over time, it was consistently higher among females (2011-2019), those who misused opioids, received low social support, had a mother with less than high school education, had a C, D, or F for academic performance, and non-straight students relative to their counterparts. In particular, the prevalence of suicide attempt among AI/AN students who reported opioid misuse in 2009 was significantly higher by 25.4% than their counterparts who did not report opioid misuse (35.8% vs. 10.4%.) A significant decreasing trend over time (2009-2017) was observed for opioid misuse (16.1%↓8.8%, p-value = 0.0033), including when stratifying by sex (males: 15.9%↓9%, p-value = 0.002; females: 16.2%↓8.6%, p-value = 0.012). Youth with high maternal education exhibited significant decline in opioid misuse (13.5%↓6.7%, p-value = 0.019; 2011-2017.) Opioid misuse increased significantly from 2017 to 2019 (8.8%↑12.9%, p-value < 0.0001.) For instance, in 2019 among AI/AN students who reported low social support, opioid misuse was roughly doubled (18.9% vs. 8.5%, p < 0.0001), and suicide attempt was tripled (21.3% vs. 7.0%, p < 0.0001) compared to students with high social support. CONCLUSION: No significant trend was observed for suicide attempt. We observed a significant decreasing trend in opioid misuse between 2009 through 2017 but a significant increase from 2017 to 2019. A higher level of maternal education (college or above), and an A or B school grade performance were protective against both opioid misuse and suicide attempt.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Índios Norte-Americanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Apoio Social , Estudantes , Tentativa de Suicídio
5.
Science ; 375(6577): eabm4678, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025634

RESUMO

Bennett et al. (Reports, 24 September 2021, p. 1528) report human footprints from Lake Otero, New Mexico, USA ~22,000 years ago. Critical assessment suggests that their radiocarbon chronology may be inaccurate. Reservoir effects may have caused radiocarbon ages to appear thousands of years too old. Independent verification of the ages of the footprint horizons is imperative and is possible through other means.


Assuntos
Lagos , Humanos , New Mexico , América do Norte
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 167: 106573, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085857

RESUMO

Between 2009 and 2019, pedestrian fatalities in the U.S. increased 51.0% while all other traffic fatalities increased 0.4%. To mitigate pedestrian safety issues, practitioners increasingly use police-reported data to identify and treat locations that experience either serious or fatal injuries. We investigated how many and which types of pedestrian injuries were misclassified by police-reported data in New Mexico between 2014 and 2018 by matching pedestrian-vehicle crash victims reported in New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) crash data to patients treated at University of New Mexico Health-Science Center, an American College of Surgeons-certified level 1 trauma center (n = 3097 pedestrians in NMDOT data; n = 512 matched pedestrians). Findings suggest that injuries involving older pedestrians, males, alcohol, more serious injuries, and those that occur at night are more likely to match to the hospital data. Of the non-fatally injured pedestrians who police estimated as seriously-injured (n = 207), 21.7% were no more than minorly-injured (n = 45) (KABCO A and ISS < 9). Of pedestrians who police estimated as minorly-injured (n = 239), 55.6% were seriously-injured (n = 133) (KABCO B,C,O and ISS ≥ 9). Of pedestrians with true serious injuries (n = 295) (ISS ≥ 9), 45.1% were under-estimated by police (n = 133) (KABCO B,C,O and ISS ≥ 9) whereas 29.8% of pedestrians with true minor injuries (n = 151) (ISS < 9) were over-estimated by police (n = 45) (KABCO A and ISS < 9). Minorly-injured pedestrians who were over-estimated by police (KABCO A and ISS < 9) were more likely to have lower extremity injuries (62.2% vs 42.5%, p-value = 0.013) compared to minorly-injured pedestrians whose injury severities were estimated correctly (KABCO B,C,O and ISS < 9). Seriously-injured pedestrians who were under-estimated (KABCO B,C,O and ISS ≥ 9) were less likely to have injuries to the head (39.8% vs. 55.6%, p-value = 0.003), spine (30.1% vs. 50.0%, p-value < 0.001), thorax (53.4% vs. 66.7%, p-value = 0.0139), or abdomen (18.8% vs. 32.1%, p-value = 0.005) compared to seriously-injured pedestrians whose injury severities were estimated correctly (KABCO A and ISS ≥ 9). This research illustrates the importance of linking police and health outcome databases to provide a more complete understanding of traffic safety.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Masculino , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Polícia , Transportes , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
7.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 4, 2022 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The USA is experiencing increases in methamphetamine use and methamphetamine-related or attributed deaths. In the current study, we explore qualitative narratives of methamphetamine overdose and strategies used by people who use drugs to reduce the undesirable effects associated with methamphetamine use. METHODS: We conducted 21 qualitative interviews with people over the age of 18 who reported using methamphetamine in the previous 3 months in Nevada and New Mexico. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Respondents described a constellation of psychological and physical symptoms that they characterized as "overamping," experienced on a continuum from less to more severe. Reports of acute, fatal methamphetamine overdose were rare. Few reported seeking medical attention for undesirable effects (usually related to psychological effects). General self-care strategies such as sleeping and staying hydrated were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: When asked directly, our respondents claimed that acute, fatal methamphetamine overdose is rare or even impossible. However, they described a number of undesirable symptoms associated with overconsumption of methamphetamine and had few clinical or harm reduction strategies at their disposal. Addressing this current wave of drug-related deaths will require attention to the multiple factors that structure experiences of methamphetamine "overdose," and a collaborative effort with PWUDs to devise effective harm reduction and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Metanfetamina , Adulto , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico
8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 76: 102092, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-II (sTNF-R2), a pro-inflammatory biomarker, is associated with obesity and breast cancer (BC). The association between sTNF-R2 and risk of mortality after BC has not been studied, specifically among Hispanic women, an at-risk population due to their high prevalence of obesity and poor prognosis. We examined the association between sTNF-R2 and mortality among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) BC survivors. METHODS: A total of 397 invasive BC survivors (96 Hispanic, 301 NHW) contributed baseline interview data and blood samples. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for clinical factors including body mass index. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 13 years, 133 deaths occurred. The association between high vs low levels of plasma sTNF-R2 and mortality was not statistically significant overall (HR, 1.32; 95% CI 0.89-1.98). However, when stratified the mortality risk among Hispanic women was nearly 3-fold (HR, 2.83; 95% CI 1.21-6.63), while risk among NHW women was attenuated (HR, 0.99; 95% CI 0.61-1.61) (p-interaction=0.10). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest Hispanic BC survivors with high sTNF-R2 levels may have increased risk of mortality and could inform targeted interventions to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco
9.
Science ; 375(6577): eabm6987, 2022 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025662

RESUMO

Madsen et al. question the reliability of calibrated radiocarbon ages associated with human footprints discovered recently in White Sands National Park, New Mexico, USA. On the basis of the geologic, hydrologic, stratigraphic, and chronologic evidence, we maintain that the ages are robust and conclude that the footprints date to between ~23,000 and 21,000 years ago. Madsen et al. (1) question the veracity of calibrated radiocarbon ages used to constrain the antiquity of human trackways discovered recently at White Sands National Park (WHSA) Locality 2, New Mexico, USA (2). The ages were derived from seeds of the aquatic plant Ruppia cirrhosa, which they suggest may suffer from hard-water (or reservoir) effects, making them too old, potentially by thousands of years. We were well aware of this possibility, investigated it, and presented several lines of evidence that argued against such a problem. Here we respond to each of their four primary points.


Assuntos
Geologia , Humanos , New Mexico , América do Norte , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 77(4): 263-267, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583358

RESUMO

Small pneumoconiotic opacities in coal miners are usually described as rounded, regular, and upper zone predominant. We aim to characterize chest radiographic patterns in New Mexico coal miners in comparison with other miners. Of the 330 chest radiographs reviewed, small pneumoconiotic opacities in New Mexico miners were almost always irregularly shaped, and lower lung zone predominant, consistent with diffuse dust-related pulmonary fibrosis. There was no significant difference in patterns of opacities between miners with exposure to coal mine dust exclusively, mixed coal and noncoal mine dust, and no coal dust. Our findings indicate that New Mexico coal miners demonstrate a different pattern of small pneumoconiotic opacities than the classic nodular pneumoconiosis described in the literature, predominantly from Appalachian miners. This may indicate differences in racial/ethnic characteristics or in the silica/silicate content of dust between the Appalachian and Mountain West regions.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Fibrose Pulmonar , Carvão Mineral , Poeira , Humanos , New Mexico
11.
J Burn Care Res ; 43(1): 281-286, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358305

RESUMO

This study focused on patients treated at the University of New Mexico Burn Center who sustained burn injuries from contact with environmentally heated pavement. We report on our patient demographics and outcomes as well as describe our institutional staged surgical approach to treatment. We provide a comparison of our results with other case reports as well as other findings. A retrospective review of patients admitted to the University of New Mexico Burn Center with injuries suffered from contact with hot pavement was performed. Patients were stratified on the presence or absence of altered mental status (AMS) and additional inciting factors. A total of six patients were reviewed from 2018 to 2019. We looked at patient demographics and comorbidities, time of contact with hot pavement, inciting factors, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, location of areas burned, depth of burn injury at the time of presentation and at the time of initial operative debridement, percentage of autograft take, complications, length of stay (LOS), and final disposition. The patients in our study had a mean TBSA of 9.82% corresponding to pressure points of the body. All patients had nearly 100% conversion to full-thickness burns at the time of initial operative debridement. With staged excision and split-thickness autografting, our patients had nearly 100% take of their skin grafts with minimal graft loss or related complications. At the time of presentation, 100% of patients had AMS and 66% (4/6) had a drug- or alcohol-related inciting event. Finally, the average LOS was 19.5 days in comparison to 7 to 9 days for uncomplicated burns of equivalent size at our burn center. Despite an initial appearance of a partial-thickness burn, pavement burns had a high propensity to convert to full-thickness burns. Patients with AMS contributed to our patient population being found with pavement burns. Patients with pavement burns had a distinct anatomic pattern corresponding to pressure points of the body which were often areas at high risk for skin and wound breakdown and complications. Staged excision and split-thickness autografting in the treatment of pavement burns yielded excellent results. Finally, our data showed that providers must be prepared for an extended LOS for patients with pavement burns.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Queimaduras/terapia , Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Superfície Corporal , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Luz Solar
12.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 116-123, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936404

RESUMO

Arguing for the importance of robust public participation and meaningful Tribal consultation to address the cumulative impacts of federal projects, we bridge interdisciplinary perspectives across law, public health, and Indigenous studies. We focus on openings in existing federal law to involve Tribes and publics more meaningfully in resource management planning, while recognizing the limits of this involvement when only the federal government dictates the terms of participation and analysis. We first discuss challenges and opportunities for addressing cumulative impacts and environmental justice through 2 US federal statutes: the National Environmental Policy Act and the National Historic Preservation Act. Focusing on a major federal planning process involving fracking in the Greater Chaco region of northwestern New Mexico, we examine how the Department of the Interior attempted Tribal consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also highlight local efforts to monitor Diné health and well-being. For Diné people, human health is inseparable from the health of the land. But in applying the primary legal tools for analyzing the effects of extraction across the Greater Chaco region, federal agencies fragment categories of impact that Diné people view holistically. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):116-123. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306562).


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Tomada de Decisões , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraturamento Hidráulico/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Federal , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , New Mexico/etnologia , Saúde Pública
13.
J Prof Nurs ; 37(5): 928-934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742524

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic created an upheaval for nursing faculty teaching students in both didactic and clinical settings. From the intense disruption, opportunities for creative endeavors emerged. Program directors from a consortium of 12 nursing schools met remotely for problem-solving and support. Rich text from minutes of nine program director meetings were analyzed. Aims of our project included identifying challenges that nurse educators encountered during the pandemic, demonstrating benefits of a university and community college partnership model, and informing nurse educators of innovative outcomes that originated from our project. Thematic analysis of meeting minutes revealed four categories: timing and urgency; collaboration, preparation, and teaching; altruism; and what we learned. Further themes were identified from each of the categories. Innovative outcomes were identified from the text including creation of website teaching resources and development of a computer based clinical checklist. Implications for future nursing education included that computer- based simulation will continue to be embedded in nursing curricula. Also, the need for nursing faculty to remain technologically savvy to deliver trailblazing online pedagogies will prominently continue. We conclude that the synergistic collaboration of nursing program directors can have momentous outcomes for support and success of nursing programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Computadores , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , New Mexico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258369, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705852

RESUMO

The Ancestral Puebloans occupied Chaco Canyon, in what is now the southwestern USA, for more than a millennium and harvested useful timber and fuel from the trees of distant forests as well as local woodlands, especially juniper and pinyon pine. These pinyon juniper woodland products were an essential part of the resource base from Late Archaic times (3000-100 BC) to the Bonito phase (AD 800-1140) during the great florescence of Chacoan culture. During this vast expanse of time, the availability of portions of the woodland declined. We posit, based on pollen and macrobotanical remains, that the Chaco Canyon woodlands were substantially impacted during Late Archaic to Basketmaker II times (100 BC-AD 500) when agriculture became a major means of food production and the manufacture of pottery was introduced into the canyon. By the time of the Bonito phase, the local woodlands, especially the juniper component, had been decimated by centuries of continuous extraction of a slow-growing resource. The destabilizing impact resulting from recurrent woodland harvesting likely contributed to the environmental unpredictability and difficulty in procuring essential resources suffered by the Ancestral Puebloans prior to their ultimate departure from Chaco Canyon.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , New Mexico , Árvores
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637483

RESUMO

In this study we present new evidence from phytolith studies for the presence of Sabal sp. (likely minor), an allochthonous plant, around Tesuque Creek in northern New Mexico during the early part of the Late Holocene, in the vicinity of known Late Archaic hunter-gatherer communities using the area at that time. We analyzed phytoliths from sediments taken from an alluvial section on the east side of Tesuque Creek dating to c. 3600-2400 cal. BP. The phytoliths demonstrated a change over time from a succulent dominated landscape to a shrubby one, with the later introduction of high densities of palmetto phytoliths associated with marshy deposits and adjacent burn levels. This evidence suggests a more diverse resource landscape available to local hunter-gatherer groups than previously understood, and may have implications for the early management of microenvironments, plant communities. This evidence demonstrates the value of phytolith analysis from alluvial sections for understanding human land and plant use practices over time. Our study provides a new perspective on what resources and land use areas were available for Archaic peoples inhabiting the area, and how they may have experimented with managing lesser known types of wild plant resources before the establishment of the triad of crops from Mesoamerica. This opens up new avenues for understanding the landscapes, land use practices, and environmental impacts of pre-agricultural communities in the northern Rio Grande and in other semi-arid environments worldwide.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Solo , Geografia , New Mexico , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639736

RESUMO

Suicide is a leading cause of adolescent death and has increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that relationships with adults at home and in the community had on the probability of suicide attempts of Hispanic teenagers in New Mexico. Data from the 2019 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey were analyzed to identify the ways in which relationships with adults influenced suicide attempts among Hispanic adolescent students. The examined factors included: relationships with adults in the home and in the community and with same-age friends, and participation in hobbies or organizations outside of school. The resiliency factors were similar for male and female Hispanic students. As positive relationships with adults at home or in the community increased, the probability of suicide attempts decreased by 37-54%. Positive relationships with same-age friends were also associated with reduced suicide attempts. Community organization involvement and hobbies affected males and females differently. Adults at home and in the community can decrease the risk of suicide for Hispanic teenagers through supportive relationships. Hybrid programs focusing on adolescent health, positive communication, and academic support, which integrate adults from home and community environments, show promise in reducing suicidal thoughts and other risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Estudantes
17.
Science ; 373(6562): 1528-1531, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554787

RESUMO

Archaeologists and researchers in allied fields have long sought to understand human colonization of North America. Questions remain about when and how people migrated, where they originated, and how their arrival affected the established fauna and landscape. Here, we present evidence from excavated surfaces in White Sands National Park (New Mexico, United States), where multiple in situ human footprints are stratigraphically constrained and bracketed by seed layers that yield calibrated radiocarbon ages between ~23 and 21 thousand years ago. These findings confirm the presence of humans in North America during the Last Glacial Maximum, adding evidence to the antiquity of human colonization of the Americas and providing a temporal range extension for the coexistence of early inhabitants and Pleistocene megafauna.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Migração Humana , Mudança Climática , , Sedimentos Geológicos , História Antiga , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , New Mexico , América do Norte
18.
Ecology ; 102(12): e03530, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496064

RESUMO

The data set covers a 101-yr period (1915-2016) of quadrat-based plant sampling at the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. At each sampling event, a pantograph was used to record the location and perimeter of living plants within permanent quadrats. Basal area was recorded for perennial grass species, canopy cover area was recorded for shrub species, and all other perennial species were recorded as point data. The data set includes 122 1 × 1 m permanent quadrats, although not all quadrats were sampled in each year of the study and there is a gap in monitoring from 1980 to 1995. These data provide a unique opportunity to investigate changes in the plant community over 100 yr of variation in precipitation and other environmental conditions. We provide the following data and data formats: (1) the digitized maps in shapefile format; (2) a data table containing coordinates (x, y) of perennial species within quadrats, including cover area for grasses and shrubs; (3) a data table of counts of annual plant individuals per quadrat; (4) a species list indicating growth form and habit of recorded species; (5) a table of dates when each quadrat was sampled; (6) a table of the pasture each quadrat was located within (note that pasture boundaries have changed over time); (7) a table of depth to petrocalcic layer measurements taken at quadrat locations; (8) a table of particle size analysis of soil samples taken at quadrat locations; (9) a table of topographic characteristics of quadrat locations (e.g., concave or convex topography). Pantograph sampling is currently conducted at 5-yr intervals by USDA-ARS staff, and new data will be added periodically to the EDI Data Portal Repository (see section V.E.2). This information is released under the Creative Commons license-Attribution-CC BY and the consumer of these data is required to cite it appropriately in any publication that results from its use.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Pradaria , Ecossistema , Humanos , New Mexico , Poaceae
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403430

RESUMO

To assess trends in life expectancy and the contribution of specific causes of death to Native American-White longevity gaps in the Four Corners states, we used death records from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau from 1999-2017 to generate period life tables and decompose racial gaps in life expectancy. Native American-White life expectancy gaps narrowed between 2001 and 2012 but widened thereafter, reaching 4.92 years among males and 2.06 years among females in 2015. The life expectancy disadvantage among Native American males was primarily attributable to motor vehicle accidents (0.96 years), liver disease (1.22 years), and diabetes (0.78 years). These causes of deaths were also primary contributors to the gap among females, forming three successive waves of mortality that occurred in young adulthood, midlife, and late adulthood, respectively, among Native American males and females. Interventions to reduce motor vehicle accidents in early adulthood, alcohol-related mortality in midlife, and diabetes complications at older ages could reduce Native American-White longevity disparities in the Four Corners states.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , /etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Arizona/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colorado/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Utah/epidemiologia
20.
Ground Water ; 59(6): 925-934, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460954

RESUMO

A thousand years ago, a population of Ancestral Puebloans occupied a high desert canyon in northwestern New Mexico, USA, where precipitation was limited and surface water scarce. Geological conditions, however, seem favorable for the production of a large Hypocrene springs system near the south canyon walls sufficient to have produced a groundwater ecosystem favorable for agriculture, tree growth, and human occupancy. A human-induced ecological impact is suggested as contributing to the dewatering of the springs, eventually reducing local agricultural production and, presumably, the suitability of Chaco Canyon for human occupancy.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Nascentes Naturais , Agricultura , Ecossistema , Humanos , New Mexico
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