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1.
Can J Surg ; 65(5): E661-E664, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223934

RESUMO

Media coverage affects policy and debates around organ donation and transplantation. We performed a content analysis of stories in the Canadian popular press with a focus on organ donation and transplantation. We built a data set of articles published between Jan. 1, 2000, and May 7, 2019, that included 2082 articles, and we assessed their headlines and lead paragraphs to determine the stories' focus and tone. The most common topics were recipients and donors (46.4%), policy (31.6%) and raising awareness/funds (26.6%). The tone of the articles was positive in 39.1%, neutral in 34.4%, and negative in 26.5%. The strong focus on patients in the reporting may be clouding critical policy discussions. Health communicators and policy-makers should continually assess how to create engaging messaging that remains accurate.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Canadá , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Jornais como Assunto , Doadores de Tecidos
2.
F1000Res ; 11: 249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128555

RESUMO

Background: In the history of Indonesian independence, newspapers not only functioned as a medium of information but also as a tool for the struggle for independence. This is because of the role of newspapers in bringing out the spirit of nationalism and the concept of "nation" to the Indonesian people through various writings and reports in each edition. This study aims to describe the form of Indonesia's struggle for independence in newspapers published in North Sumatra in 1916-1925. Methods: This research uses the critical discourse analysis method. The research data are in the form of texts published in thirteen indigenous newspapers published in North Sumatra in 1916-1925. Data analysis used three structures of Teun A. van Dijk's discourse analysis model, namely: macrostructure, superstructure, and microstructure. Results: From 1910-1925 there were 24 indigenous newspapers published in North Sumatra. Of these, there were 13 newspapers demanding Indonesian independence:  Soeara Djawa, Pewarta Deli, Benih Merdeka, Perempoean Bergerak, Soeara Bondjol, Sinar Zaman, Orgaan Bataksche Studiefonds, Andalas, Mandailing, Warta Timur, Al Moektabas, Tjermin Karo, Soeara Batak. These newspapers published articles that fought for Indonesian independence by demanding Indonesian independence openly, criticizing various policies of the Dutch Colonial Government, and building awareness of Indonesian nationalism. Conclusion: The role of newspapers in the struggle for Indonesian independence in North Sumatra in 1916-1925 can be seen from the findings of 51 articles demanding Indonesia's independence from Dutch colonialism, criticizing the policies of the Dutch colonial government, and building the spirit of nationalism to encourage the Indonesian people to fight for their independence.


Assuntos
Jornais como Assunto , Política , Humanos , Indonésia , Publicações
3.
Pharm. care Esp ; 24(2): 4-5, abr. 15, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204750
4.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 109, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347145

RESUMO

Mass media plays an important role in the construction and circulation of risk perception associated with animals. Widely feared groups such as spiders frequently end up in the spotlight of traditional and social media. We compiled an expert-curated global database on the online newspaper coverage of human-spider encounters over the past ten years (2010-2020). This database includes information about the location of each human-spider encounter reported in the news article and a quantitative characterisation of the content-location, presence of photographs of spiders and bites, number and type of errors, consultation of experts, and a subjective assessment of sensationalism. In total, we collected 5348 unique news articles from 81 countries in 40 languages. The database refers to 211 identified and unidentified spider species and 2644 unique human-spider encounters (1121 bites and 147 as deadly bites). To facilitate data reuse, we explain the main caveats that need to be made when analysing this database and discuss research ideas and questions that can be explored with it.


Assuntos
Picaduras de Aranhas , Venenos de Aranha , Aranhas , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Idioma , Jornais como Assunto
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264115, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176107

RESUMO

This paper aims to analyze the divergent perspectives of Indian and Pakistani English print media on opening the Kartarpur corridor. It is a four-kilometer-long cordoned-off strip from the Indo-Pak international border to the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur located in Pakistan. The basic purpose of establishing this corridor is to give easy access to the Indian Sikh community. The initiative was taken into account in August 2018, which resulted in the appearance of a vast quantity of contemplations in the national print media of both countries, especially until the opening of the corridor in November 2019. Print media plays a key role in building knowledge and framing the general public's opinion through interpreting an issue. The data were taken from Dawn, The News International (Pakistan), The Times of India, and Hindustan Times (India) from August 2018 to March 2020 using Lexus Nexus Library. The corpus analysis was carried out by applying the lexical study of Natural Language Processing (NLP) through its Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) tool to find out the general patterns or topics in the print media of both countries. It was found that Pakistani print media terms the Kartarpur corridor as a sign of regional peace, religious tourism, mediation, and diplomatic efforts. In contrast, Indian print media focuses on apprehensions related to traveling modalities, pilgrimage facilities, and tensions between the two states.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Idioma , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Jornais como Assunto , Política , Religião e Psicologia , Humanos , Índia , Paquistão
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113914

RESUMO

Religious responses to COVID-19 as portrayed in a major news source raise the issue of conflict or cooperation between religious bodies and public health authorities. We compared articles in the New York Times relating to religion and COVID-19 with the COVID-19 statements posted on 63 faith-based organizations' web sites, and with the guidance documents published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) specifically for religious bodies. We used computational text analysis to identify and compare sentiments and topics in the three bodies of text. Sentiment analysis showed consistent positive values for faith-based organizations' texts throughout the period. The initial negative sentiment of religion-COVID-19 coverage in the New York Times rose over the period and eventually converged with the consistently positive sentiment of faith-based documents. In our topic modelling analysis, rank order and regression analysis showed that topic prevalence was similar in the faith-based and public health sources, and both showed statistically significant differences from the New York Times. We conclude that there is evidence of both narratives and counter-narratives, and that these showed demonstrable shifts over time. Text analysis of public documents shows alignment of the interests of public health and religious bodies, which can be discerned for the benefit of communities if parties are trusted and religious messages are consistent with public health communications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Narração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Religião e Ciência , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Jornais como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261942, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041667

RESUMO

Moral panics are moments of intense and widespread public concern about a specific group, whose behaviour is deemed a moral threat to the collective. We examined public health guidelines in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canadian newspaper editorials, columns and letters to the editor, to evaluate how perceived threats to public interests were expressed and amplified through claims-making processes. Normalization of infection control behaviours has led to a moral panic about lack of compliance with preventive measures, which is expressed in opinion discourse. Following public health guidelines was construed as a moral imperative and a civic duty, while those who failed to comply with these guidelines were stigmatized, shamed as "covidiots," and discursively constructed as a threat to public health and moral order. Unlike other moral panics in which there is social consensus about what needs to be done, Canadian commentators presented a variety of possible solutions, opening a debate around infection surveillance, privacy, trust, and punishment. Public health communication messaging needs to be clear, to both facilitate compliance and provide the material conditions necessary to promote infection prevention behaviour, and reduce the stigmatization of certain groups and hostile reactions towards them.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pânico , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Jornais como Assunto
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260216, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882693

RESUMO

The announcement of Pfizer/BioNTech's COVID-19 vaccine success on November 9, 2020 led to a global stock market surge. But how did the general public respond to such good news? We leverage the unexpected vaccine announcement to assess the effect of good news on citizens' government evaluations, anxiety, beliefs and elicited behaviors in the US and the UK. While most outcomes were unaffected by the news, trust in government and elected politicians (and their competency) saw a significant decline in both countries. As the news did not concern the governments, and the governments did not have time to act on the news, our results suggest that the decline of trust is more likely explained by the psychological impact of good news on reasoning style. In particular, we suggest two possible styles of reasoning that might explain our results: a form of motivated reasoning and a reasoning heuristic of relative comparison.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Confiança , COVID-19/virologia , Governo , Humanos , Jornais como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259494, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874943

RESUMO

Nuanced public responses to droughts and other chronic environmental crises reflect today's increasingly complex communication ecosystem. At once global and infinitely customizable, this vast array of media and information channels requires existing theory to address the implications of interactions among social media, "traditional" mass media outlets, and information-seeking tools such as search engines. How do these channels intervene in public conversation? What might the agenda-setting perspective have to say? Data collected during peak years of the California drought, 2013-2015, indicate that California residents responded to worsening drought conditions Twitter first, which was the only media behavior directly stimulated by environmental stressors. Google searches stimulated newspaper coverage and Twitter activity, revealing the centrality of search behaviors in this environmental crisis. The findings suggest significant changes to the communication landscape as individual and collective users become increasingly dependent on non-mainstream media channels for information in chronic crisis situations.


Assuntos
Secas , California , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Jornais como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Ferramenta de Busca , Mídias Sociais
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916287

RESUMO

The surge of post-truth political argumentation suggests that we are living in a special historical period when it comes to the balance between emotion and reasoning. To explore if this is indeed the case, we analyze language in millions of books covering the period from 1850 to 2019 represented in Google nGram data. We show that the use of words associated with rationality, such as "determine" and "conclusion," rose systematically after 1850, while words related to human experience such as "feel" and "believe" declined. This pattern reversed over the past decades, paralleled by a shift from a collectivistic to an individualistic focus as reflected, among other things, by the ratio of singular to plural pronouns such as "I"/"we" and "he"/"they." Interpreting this synchronous sea change in book language remains challenging. However, as we show, the nature of this reversal occurs in fiction as well as nonfiction. Moreover, the pattern of change in the ratio between sentiment and rationality flag words since 1850 also occurs in New York Times articles, suggesting that it is not an artifact of the book corpora we analyzed. Finally, we show that word trends in books parallel trends in corresponding Google search terms, supporting the idea that changes in book language do in part reflect changes in interest. All in all, our results suggest that over the past decades, there has been a marked shift in public interest from the collective to the individual, and from rationality toward emotion.


Assuntos
Idioma , Livros/história , Emoções , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Individualidade , Idioma/história , Bibliotecas Digitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Linguística/história , Linguística/tendências , Jornais como Assunto/história , Jornais como Assunto/tendências , Análise de Componente Principal
11.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(12): 855-858, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846354

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To better understand the relationship between faith and LGBTQ+ identity, we conducted a qualitative analysis of 86 respondents to a general question posed through the Dear Abby column. Responses were anonymized and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Analysis revealed six themes, reflecting a diversity of lived experience from community rejection to acceptance, and self-rejection to feelings of acceptance by God. Despite frequent media portrayals of conflict between faith and LGBTQ+ identity, the reality is more complex, and faith and LGBTQ+ identity development can be complementary.


Assuntos
Religião e Psicologia , Autoimagem , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Identificação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Jornais como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ideação Suicida
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618837

RESUMO

A politics of resentment has shaped a low-dialogue political environment in the United States, feeding into populism, and characterized by perceived distributive injustice, detachment between politicians and "the people", and political polarization. In this political environment, independent of editorial lines, news can spread based on populist content features and drive the political divide even further. However, we still do not understand well, how the forces of political disconnect as well as potentially unifying elements such as political knowledge and the willingness to connect with the other (political) side predict audience interest in populist news featuring people-centrism, anti-elitism, restoring popular sovereignty, and the exclusion of others. To better understand what drives (dis-)interest in populist news features, we combined self-report data from a non-student US sample (N = 440) on political attitudes with unobtrusively measured data on their selective exposure to populist news. We analyzed the data using zero-inflated negative binomial regression models, in which we simultaneously modeled selective exposure to and avoidance of populist news. The findings indicate that especially the will to connect with others explained exposure to news about anti-elitism, especially among Democrats, while Republicans' news avoidance seems to be specifically geared toward people-centrism. Populist communication features promoting "us" vs. "them" dichotomies seem to not automatically resonate with the views of resentful voters and their motivated reasoning.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cultura , Hostilidade , Jornais como Assunto , Política , Justiça Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(4): 442-453, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497253

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess public awareness and policy challenges faced by practicing nurses. METHODS: After collecting nurse-related news articles published before and after 'the Thanks to You Challenge' campaign (between December 31, 2019, and July 15, 2020), keywords were extracted via preprocessing. A three-step method keyword analysis, latent Dirichlet allocation topic modeling, and keyword network analysis was used to examine the text and the structure of the selected news articles. RESULTS: Top 30 keywords with similar occurrences were collected before and after the campaign. The five dominant topics before the campaign were: pandemic, infection of medical staff, local transmission, medical resources, and return of overseas Koreans. After the campaign, the topics 'infection of medical staff' and 'return of overseas Koreans' disappeared, but 'the Thanks to You Challenge' emerged as a dominant topic. A keyword network analysis revealed that the word of nurse was linked with keywords like thanks and campaign, through the word of sacrifice. These words formed interrelated domains of 'the Thanks to You Challenge' topic. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study can provide useful information for understanding various issues and social perspectives on COVID-19 nursing. The major themes of news reports lagged behind the real problems faced by nurses in COVID-19 crisis. While the press tends to focus on heroism and whole society, issues and policies mutually beneficial to public and nursing need to be further explored and enhanced by nurses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Jornais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Análise de Rede Social , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525115

RESUMO

What makes written text appealing? In this registered report protocol, we propose to study the linguistic characteristics of news headline success using a large-scale dataset of field experiments (A/B tests) conducted on the popular website Upworthy comparing multiple headline variants for the same news articles. This unique setup allows us to control for factors that can have crucial confounding effects on headline success. Based on prior literature and a pilot partition of the data, we formulate hypotheses about the linguistic features that are associated with statistically superior headlines. We will test our hypotheses on a much larger partition of the data that will become available after the publication of this registered report protocol. Our results will contribute to resolving competing hypotheses about the linguistic features that affect the success of text and will provide avenues for research into the psychological mechanisms that are activated by those features.


Assuntos
Jornais como Assunto , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Dicionários como Assunto , Internet , Linguística , Análise de Regressão
16.
J Public Health Policy ; 42(3): 359-372, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341478

RESUMO

We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess how the top 3 highest circulation newspapers from 25 countries are comparing and presenting COVID-19 epidemiological data to their readers. Of 75 newspapers evaluated, 51(68%) presented at their websites at least one comparison of cases and/or deaths between regions of their country and/or between countries. Quality assessment of the comparisons showed that only a minority of newspapers adjusted the data for population size in case comparisons between regions (37.2%) and between countries (25.6%), and the same was true for death comparisons between regions (27.3%) and between countries (27%). Of those making comparisons, only 13.7% explained the difference in the interpretation of cases and deaths. Of 17 that presented a logarithmic curve, only 29.4% explained its meaning. Although the press plays a key role in conveying correct medical information to the general public, we identified inconsistencies in the reporting of COVID-19 epidemiological data.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Global , Jornais como Assunto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Jornais como Assunto/normas , Jornais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375356

RESUMO

Like other disease outbreaks, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid generation and dissemination of misinformation and fake news. We investigated whether subscribers to a fact checking newsletter (n = 1397) were willing to share possible misinformation, and whether predictors of possible misinformation sharing are the same as for general samples. We also investigated predictors of willingness to have a COVID-19 vaccine and found that although vaccine acceptance was high on average, it decreased as a function of lower belief in science and higher conspiracy mentality. We found that 24% of participants had shared possible misinformation and that this was predicted by a lower belief in science. Like general samples, our participants were typically motivated to share possible misinformation due to interest in the information, or to seek a second opinion about claim veracity. However, even if information is shared in good faith and not for the purpose of deceiving or misleading others, the spread of misinformation is nevertheless highly problematic. Exposure to misinformation engenders faulty beliefs in others and undermines efforts to curtail the spread of COVID-19 by reducing adherence to social distancing measures and increasing vaccine hesitancy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Comunicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Jornais como Assunto , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(7): 965-974, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383512

RESUMO

As the result of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), individuals have been inundated with constant negative news related to the pandemic. However, limited research examines how such news consumption impacts employees' work lives, including their ability to remain engaged with their work. Integrating conservation of resources theory and insights from the media psychology literature with research on occupational calling, we propose that weekly COVID-related news consumption heightens employees' anxiety levels, thereby frustrating their ability to remain engaged with work and that this process is differentially moderated by different facets of occupational calling. Specifically, we postulate that those who are called to their work primarily because it gives them personal meaning and purpose (i.e., higher in purposeful work) will remain more engaged with work in the face of the anxiety that arises from consuming COVID-related news, as their work may facilitate resource replenishment for these individuals. Conversely, we postulate that those who are drawn to their work primarily because it allows them to help others (i.e., higher in prosocial orientation) will experience the opposite effect, such that their inability to help others during the pandemic will strengthen the negative effect of anxiety on work engagement. Results from an 8-week weekly diary study with a sample of 281 Canadian employees during the pandemic provided support for our hypotheses. Implications are discussed for maintaining employee work engagement during the pandemic era, and beyond. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Jornais como Assunto , Engajamento no Trabalho , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(3): 1-24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287202

RESUMO

India's nationwide lockdown to curtail the transmission of Covid-19 has given rise to concerns over the health system's response to maternal and child health (MCH) services. This paper aims to understand the challenges faced by pregnant women seeking institutional care during the lockdown. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 54 online news reports, published in English and Hindi, between 25 March 2020 and 31 May 2020. They covered cases across 17 states in India and 16 maternal deaths. Three broad thematic categories of challenges for pregnant women emerged from the analysis: 1) physical access to health facilities, 2) admission to health facilities, and 3) lack of respectful maternity care during the lockdown. In conclusion, strengthening health systems and incorporating MCH into the Covid-19 response is imperative. Failure to provide quality MCH services during the lockdown has implications for the continuum of women's care, maternal mortality, and human rights.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Internet , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Jornais como Assunto , Gestantes , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2
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