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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1241: 340778, 2023 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657871

RESUMO

Endogenous peroxynitrite plays a very important role in the regulation of life activities. However, validated tools for ONOO- tests are currently insufficient. We designed a fluorescent probe TPA-F-NO2 with a low fluorescence background in water based on the D-π-A structure for the imaging of endogenous ONOO- in living cells. TPA-F-NO2 can realize the naked eye detection of ONOO- due to the obvious color change. TPA-F-NO2 has the advantages of large stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio, high selectivity and sensitivity. The quantitative detection can be achieved in the range of 0-14 µM ONOO-. Due to its solvatochromic characteristics, TPA-F-NO2 has the potential to be used in OLEDs and other fields. In addition, 4-methylumbelliferone has a wide range of anticancer effects as an inhibitor of hyaluronic acid. We prepared TPA-MU-NPs by assembling TPA-F-NO2 and 4-methylumbelliferone. It also endows TPA-MU-NPs with ONOO- imaging function and anti-proliferation effect on breast cancer cells and other cells. This 'probe-drug' assembly strategy provides ideas for the design and optimization of dual-functional probes.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Ácido Peroxinitroso , Humanos , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ácido Peroxinitroso/química , Himecromona , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Imagem Óptica
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679728

RESUMO

The generation of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser-induced dielectric breakdown (LIDB) in mixtures of air with noble gases Ar, He, Kr, and Xe is investigated using OES and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and absorption spectrophotometry. It is shown that the formation of NO and NO2 noticeably depends on the type of inert gas; the more complex electronic configuration and the lower ionization potential of the inert gas led to increased production of NO and NO2. The formation of ozone occurs mainly due to the photolytic reaction outside the gas discharge zone. Equilibrium thermodynamic analysis showed that the formation of NO in mixtures of air with inert gases does not depend on the choice of an inert gas, while the equilibrium concentration of the NO+ ion decreases with increasing complexity of the electronic configuration of an inert gas.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ozônio , Nitrogênio/análise , Gases Nobres/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Lasers
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 266, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602617

RESUMO

Karachi, Pakistan, is a priority site for air pollution research due to high emissions of air pollutants from vehicular traffic, industrial activities, and biomass burning, as well as rapid growth in population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the levels of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, O3, HNO3, and SO2) in Karachi, to determine temporal and seasonal variations, to compare Karachi's air quality with other urban centers, to identify relationships with meteorological conditions, to identify source characterization, and to perform a backward-in-time trajectory analysis and a health impact assessment. Daily samples of gaseous pollutants were collected for six consecutive weeks in each of the four seasons for a year. Daily maximum concentrations of NO (90 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)), NO2 (28.1 ppbv), O3 (57.8 ppbv), and SO2 (331 ppbv) were recorded in fall, while HNO3 (9129 parts per trillion by volume (pptv)) was recorded in spring. Seasonal average concentrations were high in winter for NO (9.47 ± 7.82 ppbv), NO2 (4.84 ± 3.35 ppbv), and O3 (8.92 ± 7.65 ppbv), while HNO3 (629 ± 1316 pptv) and SO2 (20.2 ± 39.4 ppbv) were high in spring and fall, respectively. The observed SO2 seasonal average concentration in fall (20.2 ± 39.4) was 5 times higher than that in summer (3.97 ± 2.77) with the fall 24-h average (120 ppbv) exceeding the WHO daily guideline (7.64 ppbv) by a factor of about 15.7. A health impact assessment estimated an increase of 1200 and 569 deaths due to short-term exposure to SO2 in fall and spring, respectively. Chronic daily intake estimated risk per 1000 was 0.99, 0.47, 0.45, and 0.26 for SO2 in fall, NO in winter, O3 in winter, and NO2 in spring, respectively. This study confirms the effect of poor urban air quality on public health and demonstrated the influence of photochemical reactions as well as unfavorable meteorological conditions on the formation of secondary pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Paquistão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , China
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 131(1): 17002, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are two mental disorders that are often comorbid. However, the associations of long-term air pollution exposure with depression and anxiety remain inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a cross-sectional and prospective study to examine the associations of ambient exposure to particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5), ≤10µm (PM10), and 2.5-10µm (PMcoarse), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the risk of depression and anxiety in the UK Biobank. METHODS: This study included 398,241 participants from the UK Biobank, 128,456 of whom participated the 7-y online mental health survey. A total of 345,876 individuals were free of depression and anxiety at baseline; of those, 16,185 developed incident mental disorders during a median of 8.7 y of follow-up. Depression and anxiety were assessed using hospital admission records and mental health questionnaires. Associations of air pollution with prevalent and incident mental disorders were examined using logistic regression and Cox regression models, respectively. RESULTS: Elevated levels of the five air pollutants were associated with higher odds of mental disorders at baseline. Levels of four pollutants but not PMcoarse were also associated with higher odds and risks of mental disorders during follow-up; specifically, hazard ratios [HR, 95% confidence interval (CI)] of an interquartile range increase in PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and NO2 for incident mental disorders were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05), 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05), and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.09), respectively. An air pollution index reflecting combined effects of pollutants also demonstrated a positive association with the risk of mental disorders. HR (95% CI) of incident mental disorders were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.18) in the highest quintile group in comparison with the lowest quintile of the air pollution index. We further observed that the associations between air pollution and mental disorders differed by a genetic risk score based on single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with genetic susceptibility to mental disorders in the UK Biobank cohort. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this research is one of the largest cohort studies that demonstrates an association between mental health disorders and exposure to long-term air pollution, which could be further enhanced by genetic predisposition. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10391.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ansiedade , Depressão , Exposição Ambiental , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 131(1): 17001, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a major contributor to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, has been linked with exposure to air pollution. However, the relationship between air pollutants and the five components of MetS [abdominal obesity, elevated triglyceride, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose levels], has not been clearly described. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of MetS and its components by using a longitudinal cohort in Taiwan. METHODS: The MJ Health Research Foundation is a medical institute that conducts regular physical examinations. The development of MetS, based on a health examination and the medical history of an MJ cohort of 93,771 participants who were enrolled between 2006 and 2016 and had two or more examinations, was compared with estimated exposure to air pollutants in the year prior to health examination. The exposure levels to fine particulate matter [PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5)] and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the participants' residential areas were estimated using a hybrid Kriging/land-use regression (LUR) model executed using the XGBoost algorithm and a hybrid Kriging/LUR model, respectively. Cox regression with time-dependent covariates was conducted to estimate the effects of annual air pollutant exposure on the risk of MetS and its components. RESULTS: During the average follow-up period of 3.4 y, the incidence of MetS was 38.1/1,000 person-years. After mutual adjustment and adjustments for potential covariates, the results indicated that every 10-µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 concentration was associated with an increased risk of abdominal obesity [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.14], hypertriglyceridemia (aHR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.23), low HDL-C (aHR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.17), hypertension (aHR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.21), and elevated fasting blood glucose (aHR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.20). Furthermore, PM2.5 and NO2 may increase the risk of developing MetS among people who already "have" some components of MetS. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that in apparently healthy adults undergoing physical examination, exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 might be associated with the occurrence of MetS and its components. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10611.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/induzido quimicamente , Glicemia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise
6.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 27(1): 21-29, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are the main pathways by which air pollutants cause hypertension (HTN). Vitamin C intake may reduce the risk of HTN caused by air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the association between air pollutants and pre-HTN and HTN in Korean adults and whether these associations were modified by vitamin C intake, using data from the 2013-2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study used data from the KNHANES VI (2013-2015) and VII (2016) along with the data from the annual air pollution report of the Ministry of Environment. PARTICIPANTS: We included 11,866 adults who had responded to a semi-food frequency questionnaire. MEASUREMENTS: We used survey logistic regression models to evaluate the association of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 with pre-HTN and HTN according to vitamin C intake. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential covariates, exposure to ambient PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO was significantly associated with a high prevalence of pre-HTN and HTN, whereas exposure to O3 was significantly associated with a low prevalence of pre-HTN and HTN. In particular, as the air pollutant scores increased (severe air pollution), the prevalence of pre-HTN and HTN increased in a dose-dependent manner (highest score vs. lowest score, OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.39-2.46, p for trend <.0001). However, these associations were found to be pronounced in adults with low vitamin C intake (highest score vs. lowest score, OR=2.30, 95% CI=1.50-3.54, p for trend <.0001), whereas the statistical significance disappeared for adults with high vitamin C intake (highest score vs. lowest score, OR=1.40, 95% CI=0.93-2.12, p for trend=0.007). CONCLUSION: Exposure to air pollutants such as PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO may increase the prevalence of pre-HTN and HTN among Korean adults. In addition, a high intake of vitamin C may help prevent pre-HTN and HTN caused by air pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hipertensão , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos Transversais , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 851, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646784

RESUMO

The study of PM2.5 and NO2 has been emphasized in recent years due to their adverse effects on public health. To better understand these pollutants, many studies have researched the spatiotemporal distribution, trend, forecast, or influencing factors of these pollutants. However, rarely studies have combined these to generate a more holistic understanding that can be used to assess air pollution and implement more effective strategies. In this study, we analyze the spatiotemporal distribution, trend, forecast, and factors influencing PM2.5 and NO2 in Nagasaki Prefecture by using ordinary kriging, pearson's correlation, random forest, mann-kendall, auto-regressive integrated moving average and error trend and seasonal models. The results indicated that PM2.5, due to its long-range transport properties, has a more substantial spatiotemporal variation and affects larger areas in comparison to NO2, which is a local pollutant. Despite tri-national efforts, local regulations and legislation have been effective in reducing NO2 concentration but less effective in reducing PM2.5. This multi-method approach provides a holistic understanding of PM2.5 and NO2 pollution in Nagasaki prefecture, which can aid in implementing more effective pollution management strategies. It can also be implemented in other regions where studies have only focused on one of the aspects of air pollution and where a holistic understanding of air pollution is lacking.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Japão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise
8.
Ann Med ; 55(1): 325-334, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598136

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term exposure to air pollution is known to be harmful to preterm birth (PTB), but little is known about the short-term effects. This study aims to quantify the short-term effect of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on PTB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18,826 singleton PTBs were collected during the study period. Poisson regression model combined with the distributed lag non-linear model was applied to evaluate the short-term effects of PTBs and air pollutants. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to NO2 was significantly associated increased risk of PTB at Lag1 (RR: 1.025, 95%CI: 1.003-1.047). In the moving average model, maternal exposure to NO2 significantly increased the risk of PTB at Lag01 (RR: 1.029, 95%CI: 1.004-1.054). In the cumulative model, maternal exposure to NO2 significant increased the risk of PTB at Cum01 (RR:1.026, 95%CI: 1.002-1.051), Cum02 (RR: 1.030, 95%CI: 1.003-1.059), and Cum03 (RR: 1.033, 95%CI: 1.002-1.066). The effects of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 on PTB were significant and greater in the cold season than the warm season. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 before delivery has a significant risk for PTB, particularly in the cold season.Key messagesMaternal exposure to NO2 was significant associated with an increased risk of preterm birth at the day 1 before delivery.Particle matter (PM2.5 and PM10) showed a significant short-term effect on preterm birth in the cold season.The effects of air pollutants on preterm birth was greater in the cold season compared with the warm season.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , China/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 290, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629982

RESUMO

Buildings are the main component of urban, and their three-dimensional spatial patterns affect meteorological conditions and consequently, the spatial distribution of gaseous pollutants (CO, NO, NO2, and SO2). This study uses the Jinan Central District as the study area and constructs a building spatial distribution index system based on DEM, urban road network, and building big data. ANOVA and spatial regression models were used to study the effects of building spatial distribution indicators on the distribution of gaseous pollutants along with their spatial heterogeneity. The results showed that (1) the effects of most of spatial distribution indexes of building on the concentration distribution of the four gaseous pollutants were significant, with one-way ANOVA outcomes reaching a significance level of 0.01 or more. The DEM mean, building altitude, and their interaction with other building spatial distribution indicators are important factors affecting the distribution of gaseous pollutants; The interaction of other three-factor indicators did not have a significant effect on the distribution of gaseous pollutant concentrations. (2) The spatial distribution of CO and NO2 is mainly influenced by the indicators of the spatial distribution of buildings in this study unit, and the effects of CO and NO2 concentrations in adjacent study units are the result of the action of stochastic factors. The NO and SO2 concentrations are influenced by the spatial distribution index of buildings in this study unit, the neighborhood homogeneity index, and NO and SO2 concentrations. (3) Spatial heterogeneity was observed in the effects of building spatial distribution indicators on the concentrations of different pollutants. The GWR models constructed using CO and NO concentrations and building spatial distribution indicators were well fitted globally and locally. The CO and NO concentrations were negatively correlated with the mean topographic elevation and NO concentrations were correlated with building density.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/análise
10.
Environ Health ; 22(1): 6, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few studies on the effects of air pollutants on acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in children. Here, we investigated the relationship of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the daily number of hospitalizations for ALRI in children in Sichuan Province, China, and to estimate the economic burden of disease due to exposure to air pollutants. METHODS: We collected records of 192,079 cases of childhood ALRI hospitalization between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2018 from nine municipal/prefecture medical institutions as well as the simultaneous meteorological and air pollution data from 183 monitoring sites in Sichuan Province. A time series-generalized additive model was used to analyze exposure responses and lagged effects while assessing the economic burden caused by air pollutant exposure after controlling for long-term trends, seasonality, day of the week, and meteorological factors. RESULTS: Our single-pollutant model shows that for each 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutant concentration (1 µg/m3 for SO2), the effect estimates of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 for pneumonia reached their maximum at lag4, lag010, lag010, and lag07, respectively, with relative risk (RR) values of 1.0064 (95% CI, 1.0004-1.0124), 1.0168(95% CI 1.0089-1.0248), 1.0278 (95% CI 1.0157-1.0400), and 1.0378 (95% CI, 1.0072-1.0692). By contrast, the effect estimates of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 for bronchitis all reached their maximum at lag010, with RRs of 1.0133 (95% CI 1.0025-1.0242), 1.0161(95% CI 1.0085-1.0238), 1.0135 (95% CI 1.0025-1.0247), and 1.1133(95% CI 1.0739-1.1541). In addition, children aged 5-14 years were more vulnerable to air pollutants than those aged 0-4 years (p < 0.05). According to the World Health Organization's air quality guidelines, the number of ALRI hospitalizations attributed to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 pollution during the study period was 7551, 10,151, and 7575, respectively, while the incurring economic burden was CNY 2847.06, 3827.27, and 2855.91 million. CONCLUSION: This study shows that in Sichuan Province, elevated daily average concentrations of four air pollutants lead to increases in numbers of childhood ALRI hospitalizations and cause a serious economic burden.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estresse Financeiro , Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , China/epidemiologia
11.
PeerJ ; 11: e14489, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643637

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease has affected the entire population worldwide in terms of physical and environmental consequences. Therefore, the current study demonstrates the changes in the concentration of gaseous pollutants and their health effects during the COVID-19 pandemic in Delhi, the national capital city of India. Methodology: In the present study, secondary data on gaseous pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3) were collected from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on a daily basis. Data were collected from January 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020, to determine the relative changes (%) in gaseous pollutants for pre-lockdown, lockdown, and unlockdown stages of COVID-19. Results: The current findings for gaseous pollutants reveal that concentration declined in the range of 51%-83% (NO), 40%-69% (NOx), 31%-60% (NO2), and 25%-40% (NH3) during the lockdown compared to pre-lockdown period, respectively. The drastic decrease in gaseous pollutants was observed due to restricted measures during lockdown periods. The level of ozone was observed to be higher during the lockdown periods as compared to the pre-lockdown period. These gaseous pollutants are linked between the health risk assessment and hazard identification for non-carcinogenic. However, in infants (0-1 yr), Health Quotient (HQ) for daily and annual groups was found to be higher than the rest of the exposed group (toddlers, children, and adults) in all the periods. Conclusion: The air quality values for pre-lockdown were calculated to be "poor category to "very poor" category in all zones of Delhi, whereas, during the lockdown period, the air quality levels for all zones were calculated as "satisfactory," except for Northeast Delhi, which displayed the "moderate" category. The computed HQ for daily chronic exposure for each pollutant across the child and adult groups was more than 1 (HQ > 1), which indicated a high probability to induce adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Lactente , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Ozônio/efeitos adversos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2208924120, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652486

RESUMO

Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are unsaturated fatty acid nitration products that exhibit anti-inflammatory actions in experimental mouse models of autoimmune and allergic diseases. These electrophilic molecules interfere with intracellular signaling pathways by reversible post-translational modification of nucleophilic amino-acid residues. Several regulatory proteins have been identified as targets of NO2-FAs, modifying their activity and promoting gene expression changes that result in anti-inflammatory effects. Herein, we report the effects of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) on pro-inflammatory T cell functions, showing that 9- and 10-NOA, but not their oleic acid precursor, decrease T cell proliferation, expression of activation markers CD25 and CD71 on the plasma membrane, and IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ cytokine gene expressions. Moreover, we have found that NO2-OA inhibits the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and that this inhibition takes place through the regulation of the phosphatase activity of calcineurin (CaN), hindering NFAT dephosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in activated T cells. Finally, using mass spectrometry-based approaches, we have found that NO2-OA nitroalkylates CaNA on four Cys (Cys129, 228, 266, and 372), of which only nitroalkylation on Cys372 was of importance for the regulation of CaN phosphatase activity in cells, disturbing functional CaNA/CaNB heterodimer formation. These results provide evidence for an additional mechanism by which NO2-FAs exert their anti-inflammatory actions, pointing to their potential as therapeutic bioactive lipids for the modulation of harmful T cell-mediated immune responses.


Assuntos
Calcineurina , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Camundongos , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
13.
Environ Int ; 171: 107731, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported an association between traffic-related pollution with risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, evidence from prospective studies on the association of walkability and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with MetS is still scarce. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the association of long-term exposure to NO2 and walkability with hazards of incident MetS. METHODS: A total of 17,965 participants without MetS diagnosed within one year at baseline were included in our study from a population-based prospective cohort in Yinzhou District, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Participants were followed up by the regional Health Information System (HIS) until December 15, 2021. MetS was defined based on the criteria of Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS2004). We used walkscore tools, calculating with amenity categories and decay functions, and spatial-temporal land-use regression (LUR) models to estimate walkability and NO2 concentrations. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine the association of walkability and NO2 with hazards of MetS incidence reporting with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Overall, we followed up 77,303 person-years and identified 4040 incident cases of MetS in the entire cohort. Higher walkability was inversely associated with incident MetS (HR = 0.94, 95 % CI: 0.91-0.99), whereas NO2 was positively associated with MetS incidence (HR = 1.07, 95 %CI: 1.00-1.15) per interquartile range increment in two-exposure models. Furthermore, we found a significant multiplicative interaction between walkability and NO2. Stronger associations were observed for NO2 and incident MetS among men, smokers, drinkers and participants who aged < 60 years and had higher levels of income. CONCLUSION: In summary, we found living in areas with lower walkability and higher concentrations of NO2 were associated with increased incidence of MetS. The beneficial effect of higher walkability may be attenuated by exposure to NO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Síndrome Metabólica , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Exposição Ambiental , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Environ Int ; 171: 107736, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution exposure is associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is unknown whether carbonaceous material from vehicular tailpipe emissions or redox-active non-tailpipe metals, eg. from tire and brake wear, are responsible. We assessed ASD associations with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) tracers of tailpipe (elemental carbon [EC] and organic carbon [OC]) and non-tailpipe (copper [Cu]; iron [Fe] and manganese [Mn]) sources during pregnancy in a large cohort. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 318,750 children born in Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals during 2001-2014, followed until age 5. ASD cases were identified by ICD codes. Monthly estimates of PM2.5 and PM2.5 constituents EC, OC, Cu, Fe, and Mn with 4 km spatial resolution were obtained from a source-oriented chemical transport model. These exposures and NO2 were assigned to each maternal address during pregnancy, and associations with ASD were assessed using Cox regression models adjusted for covariates. PM constituent effect estimates were adjusted for PM2.5 and NO2 to assess independent effects. To distinguish ASD risk associated with non-tailpipe from tailpipe sources, the associations with Cu, Fe, and Mn were adjusted for EC and OC, and vice versa. RESULTS: There were 4559 children diagnosed with ASD. In single-pollutant models, increased ASD risk was associated with gestational exposures to tracers of both tailpipe and non-tailpipe emissions. The ASD hazard ratios (HRs) per inter-quartile increment of exposure) for EC, OC, Cu, Fe, and Mn were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.16), 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04-1.15), 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04-1.13), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.09-1.20), and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.12-1.22), respectively. Estimated effects of Cu, Fe, and Mn (reflecting non-tailpipe sources) were largely unchanged in two-pollutant models adjusting for PM2.5, NO2, EC or OC. In contrast, ASD associations with EC and OC were markedly attenuated by adjustment for non-tailpipe sources. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that non-tailpipe emissions may contribute to ASD. Implications are that reducing tailpipe emissions, especially from vehicles with internal combustion engines, may not eliminate ASD associations with traffic-related air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Poluentes Ambientais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Manganês , Carbono
15.
Environ Int ; 171: 107735, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the health effects of air pollution and temperature are widely studied, the molecular effects are poorly understood. Extracellular microRNAs (ex-miRNAs) have the potential to serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and/or to act as intercellular signaling molecules that mediate the effects of environmental exposures on health outcomes. METHODS: We examined the relationship between short-term exposure to air pollution and ambient temperature and the ex-miRNA profiles of participants in the Normative Aging Study (NAS) from 1999 to 2015. Our exposures were defined as same-day, two-day, three-day, one-week, two-week, and three-week moving averages of PM2.5, NO2, O3, and temperature which were derived from high-resolution spatio-temporal models. The ex-miRNA profiles of the subjects were obtained during follow-up visits. We analyzed the data using a longitudinal quantile regression model adjusted for individual covariates, batch effects, and time trends. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using a false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Ex-miRNAs that were significantly associated with exposures were further investigated using pathway analyses. RESULTS: We found that all the examined exposures were associated with changes in ex-miRNA profiles in our study, particularly PM2.5 which was responsible for most of the statistically significant results. We found 110 statistically significant exposure-outcome relationships that revealed associations with the levels of 52 unique ex-miRNAs. Pathway analyses showed these ex-miRNAs have been linked to target mRNAs, genes, and biological mechanisms that could affect virtually every organ system, and as such may be linked to multiple clinical disease presentations such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and neurological disease. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution and temperature exposures were significantly associated with alterations in the ex-miRNA profiles of NAS subjects with possible biological consequences.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Envelhecimento , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , MicroRNAs/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674297

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of a marine exercise retreat program on thyroid-related hormone levels. A total of 62 middle-aged euthyroid women participated in a 6-day marine exercise retreat program. Using thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) hormone levels, the participants were divided into high and low-hormone-level groups. Despite decreased TSH and fT4 levels after the program, the factors influencing changes in each group were different. TSH levels were influenced by changes in the normalized low frequency (nLF) of heart rate variability and carbon monoxide (CO) from all the participants, and changes in body fat percentage, nLF, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure level in the high TSH group. fT4 levels were influenced by changes in body mass index (BMI), NO2 exposure, and particulate matter diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) exposure in all participants. Changes in BMI and CO exposure influenced the low fT4 group. Lastly, changes in the exercise stress test affected the high fT4 group. Thus, the marine exercise retreat program affected euthyroid thyroid-related hormone levels, and influencing factors differ depending on the initial value of the hormone.


Assuntos
Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Feminino , Glândula Tireoide , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674364

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB) identifies infants prematurely born <37 weeks/gestation and is one of the main causes of infant mortality. PTB has been linked to air pollution exposure, but its timing is still unclear and neglects the acute nature of delivery and its association with short-term effects. We analyzed 3 years of birth data (2015-2017) in Turin (Italy) and the relationships with proinflammatory chemicals (PM2.5, O3, and NO2) and biological (aeroallergens) pollutants on PTB vs. at-term birth, in the narrow window of a week before delivery. A tailored non-stationary Poisson model correcting for seasonality and possible confounding variables was applied. Relative risk associated with each pollutant was assessed at any time lag between 0 and 7 days prior to delivery. PTB risk was significantly associated with increased levels of both chemical (PM2.5, RR = 1.023 (1.003-1.043), O3, 1.025 (1.001-1.048)) and biological (aeroallergens, RR ~ 1.01 (1.0002-1.016)) pollutants in the week prior to delivery. None of these, except for NO2 (RR = 1.01 (1.002-1.021)), appeared to play any role on at-term delivery. Pollutant-induced acute inflammation eliciting delivery in at-risk pregnancies may represent the pathophysiological link between air pollution and PTB, as testified by the different effects played on PTB revealed. Further studies are needed to better elucidate a possible exposure threshold to prevent PTB.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Lactente , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Exposição Materna
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 861: 160768, 2023 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493819

RESUMO

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in secondary inorganic aerosol formation. Understanding the temporal variations, sources, and environmental influences of NH3 is conducive to better formulate PM2.5 pollution control strategies for policy-makers. Here, we performed a comprehensive field campaign with the measurements of NH3 and related parameters at a rural site of the North China Plain (NCP) in winter of 2017. The results showed that residential coal combustion contributed dominantly to NH3 during the entire observation period, resulting in the obviously high average concentration of NH3 (31.2 ± 24.6 ppbv). The sensitivity tests of pH-NHx during the three different pollution periods suggested that the rural site was always in the NHx-rich atmosphere where high levels of NHx increased the particle pH inefficiently. Nevertheless, the particle pH still elevated by 1.5-2.2 units at the excessive NHx levels during the three pollution periods. In addition, the HONO/NO2 ratios were found to correlate linearly with NH3 concentrations, implying the acceleration effect of NH3 on HONO production from NO2 heterogeneous reactions. After considering the NH3-enhanced uptake coefficient of NO2 in the nocturnal HONO budget, the unknown source of HONO could be fully explained. Therefore, more attentions should be given for effective emission control of NH3 to improve air quality throughout the NCP, especially in the rural areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Amônia , Amônia/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Aerossóis/análise
19.
J Environ Manage ; 328: 116907, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508979

RESUMO

Lockdowns enforced amid the pandemic facilitated the evaluation of the impact of emission reductions on air quality and the production regime of O3 under NOx reduction. Analysis of space-time variation of various pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NOx, CO, O3 and VOC or TNMHC) through the lockdown phases at eight typical stations (Urban/Metro, Rural/high vegetation and coastal) is carried out. It reveals how the major pollutant (PM10 or PM2.5 or O3, or CO) differs from station to station as lockdowns progress depending on geography, land-use pattern and efficacy of lockdown implementation. Among the stations analyzed, Delhi (Chandnichowk), the most polluted (PM10 = 203 µgm-3; O3 = 17.4 ppbv) in pre-lockdown, experienced maximum reduction during the first phase of lockdown in PM2.5 (-47%), NO2 (-40%), CO (-37%) while O3 remained almost the same (2% reduction) to pre-lockdown levels. The least polluted Mahabaleshwar (PM10 = 45 µgm-3; O3 = 54 ppbv) witnessed relatively less reduction in PM2.5 (-2.9%), NO2 (-4.7%), CO (-49%) while O3 increased by 36% to pre-lockdown levels. In rural stations with lots of greenery, O3 is the major pollutant attributed to biogenic VOC emissions from vegetation besides lower NO levels. In other stations, PM2.5 or PM10 is the primary pollutant. At Chennai, Jabalpur, Mahabaleshwar and Goa, the deciding factor of Air Quality Index (AQI) remained unchanged, with reduced values. Particulate matter, PM10 decided AQI for three stations (dust as control component), and PM2.5 decided the same for two but within acceptable limits for stations. Improvement of AQI through control of dust would prove beneficial for Chennai and Patiala; anthropogenic emission control would work for Chandani chowk, Goa and Patiala; emission control of CO is required for Mahabaleshwar and Thiruvanathapuram. Under low VOC/NOx ratio conditions, O3 varies with the ratio, NO/NO2, with a negative (positive) slope indicating VOC-sensitive (NOx-sensitive) regime. Peak O3 isopleths as a function of NOx and VOC depicting distinct patterns suggest that O3 variation is entirely non-linear for a given NOx or VOC.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Índia , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poeira/análise
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114423, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525948

RESUMO

Ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-induced adverse health effects have been studied, but documented evidence on neural systems is limited. This study aimed to determine the acute effect of NO2 exposure on nervous system damage biomarker levels in healthy older adults. Five rounds of follow-up among 34 healthy retired people were scheduled from December 2018 to April 2019 in Xinxiang, China. The real-time NO2 concentrations were measured using a fixed site monitor. Serum samples were acquired during each round to measure nervous system damage biomarker levels: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurofilament light chain (NfL), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B). A linear mixed-effect model was incorporated to analyze the association between short-term NO2 exposure and serum concentrations of the above-mentioned biomarkers. Stratification analysis based on sex, educational attainment, glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1) polymorphism, and physical activity intensity was conducted to explore their potential modification effect. The NO2 concentration ranged from 34.7 to 59.0 µg/m3 during the study period. Acute exposure to ambient NO2 was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of NfL, PGP9.5, and BDNF. In response to a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration, NfL and PGP9.5 levels increased by 76 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 12-140 %) and 54 % (95 % CI: 1-107 %) on the lag0 day, respectively, while BDNF levels increased by 49 % (95 % CI: 2-96 %) at lag4 day. The estimated effect of NO2 on NSE levels in GSTT1-sufficient participants was significantly higher than that in GSTT1-null participants. Intriguingly, the estimation of NO2 on PGP9.5 levels in females was significantly higher than that in males. Most two-pollutant models showed robust results, except for O3, which might have had confounding effects on NO2-induced BDNF stimulation. In summary, acute exposure to NO2 was associated with increased levels of serum nervous system damage biomarker levels including NFL, PGP9.5, and BDNF. The present study provided insights into NO2 exposure-induced adverse neural effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Biomarcadores/análise , Sistema Nervoso , China , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise
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