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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673949

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-medication is a growing public health concern worldwide. Studies have shown a gap between best practice and the current practice of using over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Despite being a well-recognised problem in Saudi Arabia, few studies have investigated OTC medication use in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the attitudes and knowledge of parents regarding OTC medication use in the Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out via an electronic questionnaire sent randomly to parents over four months, from 1 January to 30 April 2022. The participants' characteristics and categorical variables were represented descriptively by frequency and percentage. A Chi-square test was used to test the relationship between the variables. RESULTS: In total, 211 questionnaires were included in this study. Females represented 54.5% of the participants included in the study. Parents belonging to the 18-to-30-year-old group comprised the highest percentage (37.9%), and most of the parents (72.9%) had received an undergraduate education. Family physicians were the most common source (37.3%) of information about OTC medications, whereas more than half of parents purchased OTC medications from the community pharmacy (58.8%). While almost half of the parents (52.1%) visited a family physician when side effects of OTC medications appeared in their children, only (33.6%) stopped giving their children the OTC medicine. The relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics (including educational level, marital status, and employment status) and OTC drug consumption was significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Educational campaigns are needed to guide patients about the proper use of OTC medications. Studies on OTC medication use are lacking in Saudi Arabia in terms of its frequency, reasons for use, type of self-medication, and contributing factors.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Automedicação , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Arábia Saudita , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 57, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An Integrated Community treatment of Childhood disease (ICCM)- focused intervention involving a large number of Patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs) was conducted by Society for Family Health Nigeria to improve management of childhood, malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea with an intervention approach focused on knowledge and skill improvement. The intervention was conducted in Kaduna and Ebonyi state; recruited and trained 15 interpersonal communication agents (IPCAs) who were saddled with the responsibility to sensitize and mobilize caregivers with children within the age bracket of 2 months to 5 years to our mapped PPMVs within the communities, on the account of Malaria, Diarrhea, and Pneumonia; while the IPCAs in return monitor the quality-of-service delivery. Following the intervention, the Society for Family health conducted a study to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions such as ICCM training, supervision and linkage to quality ICCM commodities, among PPMVs to achieve high levels of knowledge and performance in diagnosing and treating common childhood illnesses. METHODS: Longitudinal research (before and after study) was adopted for the study. From the 387 PPMVs recruited and trained by SFH, 165 PPMVs were systematically selected to participate in the study, before and after the implementation of the intervention. Using SPSS version 22, data from the observation and completed questionnaires were analyzed and a chi-square test was used to examine the associations between the categorical information collected prior and after the intervention. The analysis was conducted at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: More than 50 % of the study participants were females (56.4%) and majority were either Junior community extension workers (35%) or Senior community extension worker (27%). About 21.8% trained PPMVs could not appropriately treat malaria in the first quarter of the intervention, however, there was a significant decrease to 1.8% in second quarter in the number of those that cannot appropriately diagnose and treat malaria. There was also a decrease in the number of those who could not treat cough and fast breathing from 47(28.5%) to 14(8.5%) in the second quarter and for diarrhea from 33.3% in the first quarter to 2.4% in the second quarter. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a significant improvement in the quality of treatment provided by the trained PPMVs across the three disease areas. PPMVs in hard-to-reach areas should be trained and supported to continuously provide quality services to change the indices of under-5 mortality in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Malária , Pneumonia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Administração de Caso , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Nigéria , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/terapia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária
3.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154496, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jingyin granules (JY), one patented Chinese herbal formula, have been advised for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. As of now, the safety and effectiveness of JY in treating COVID-19 patients were still to be evaluated. PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and clinical effectiveness of JY in treating mild COVID-19 patients. STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a prospective cohort study, as the highly infectious COVID-19 omicron variant ranged in Shanghai (ClinicalTrial.gov registration number: ChiCTR2200058692). METHODS: Participants infected with COVID-19, who were diagnosed as mild cases, were assigned to receive either JY (JY group) or traditional Chinese medicine placebo (placebo group) orally for 7 days. The primary clinical indicators were the RNA negative conversion rate (NCR) and the incidence of severe cases. The secondary clinical indicators were the negative conversion time (NCT), inpatient length of stay (ILOS), and the disappearance rates of clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Nine hundred participants were recruited in this clinical trial study, and 830 patients met the eligibility criteria. Seven hundred and ninety-one patients, accomplished the following-up assessment, including 423 cases of JY group and 368 cases of placebo group. NCR in JY group at 7-day posttreatment was considerably greater compared with placebo group (89.8% [380/423] vs 82.6% [304/368], P = 0.003). None of the patients with mild COVID-19 developed into severe cases. The median NCT of SARS-CoV-2 and ILOS in JY group were lesser than that in placebo group (4.0 [3.0,6.0]vs 5.0 [4.0,7.0] days, P < 0.001; 6.0 [4.0, 8.0] vs 7.0 [5.0, 9.0] days, P < 0.001). In both groups, the obvious improvement in clinical symptoms was observed, but the difference was not significant. In the subgroup of age ≤ 60 years, JY promoted SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative conversion (HR=1.242; 95% CI: 1.069-1.444, P < 0.001). No patients in both groups were reported as the case of serious adverse event. CONCLUSION: JY maybe the potential medicine for treating mild COVID-19 patients, which had beneficial effects on increasing NCR, and shortening NCT and ILOS.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , China , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 63(1): 284-294.e1, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respond to Prevent (R2P) is a randomized clinical trial which sought to accelerate distribution of naloxone and other harm reduction materials from community pharmacies. R2P combined an online continuing education course with in-store materials, specifically designed for use in community pharmacies, and then supported implementation through the one-on-one educational technique of academic detailing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe and synthesize our experiences providing academic detailing as part of the R2P randomized trial. METHODS: Closed-ended items from standardized post detailing questionnaires were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Open-ended items were content analyzed for key themes using immersion-crystallization qualitative methods. RESULTS: A total of 176 pharmacies participated in R2P with 175 receiving their initial academic detailing visit between August 2019 and May 2021. Initial visits were in-person and lasted a median of 35 minutes (interquartile range, 20-45 minutes). The R2P naloxone guide was the most common topic covered (n = 162, 92.6%). Following a fidelity check to assess adequacy of the R2P program implementation, 80 pharmacies (45.7%) required secondary academic detailing. Secondary detailing was more targeted and most frequently focused on the sale of nonprescription syringes (n = 28; 35.2%) or disposal container distribution (n = 30; 37.5%). Analysis of the open-ended items identified factors that the detailers perceived to affect the quality of academic detailing sessions, including the pharmacy environment, participant knowledge of and attitudes toward the subject matter, and ability of the detailer to remain flexible yet consistent. CONCLUSION: R2P provided a standardized process to foster naloxone distribution and engagement in harm reduction with demonstrated implementation in 175 community pharmacies across 4 states. Academic detailing was perceived to be well-received and effective at providing education and promoting distribution of naloxone and nonprescription syringes in community pharmacies. Additional research is needed to confirm these perceptions through evaluation post-intervention behavioral and attitude changes.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Humanos , Naloxona , Redução do Dano , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 63(1): 275-283.e1, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report on efforts to measure readiness to adopt opioid safety initiatives in community pharmacies within 2 large chains. Previous studies identified lack of knowledge, confidence, or enthusiasm in addressing harm reduction efforts. We implemented an intervention that provided training to improve opioid safety. The goal was to increase naloxone prescribing and nonprescription syringe sales, reduce stigma, and decrease opioid overdoses among patients and customers. OBJECTIVES: To assess pharmacy readiness for intervention delivery, by characterizing pharmacy culture around opioid safety; describing current practices and challenges interacting with patients and customers on naloxone, nonprescription syringe sales, and buprenorphine; and determining pharmacy defined goals for implementing the intervention. METHODS: The sample included pharmacy managers and staff pharmacists from 2 large chains who completed a brief phone interview. Interviews consisted of Likert-scale and open-ended, theoretically driven questions. Questions focused on workplace culture, patient engagement, naloxone and buprenorphine prescribing, nonprescription syringe sales, and intervention goals. Coding categories for the open-ended questions were derived using a thematic review of responses. RESULTS: A total of 163 respondents described both workplace culture and how they encourage patient opioid safety as including public health awareness, patient engagement, and naloxone prescribing. Sale of nonprescription syringes exhibited high variability: no sales barriers (53.9%), sales with barriers (21.5%), and no sales (20.9%). Half of pharmacists (50.3%) interacted with buprenorphine prescribers outside of medication fills. Most respondents (68.7%) endorsed being ready to promote the intervention. Pharmacists named goals in adopting the intervention of wanting more knowledge and educational materials, talking points with patients, and best practices for offering naloxone. CONCLUSION: Community pharmacists, before implementation, described awareness of and receptiveness to opioid safety initiatives, with substantial barriers around nonprescription syringe sales. Assessed knowledge level, culture, and identified barriers that emerged in the readiness assessments can be used to tailor future pharmacy-specific programming.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Naloxona , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Farmacêuticos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(20): 5662-5669, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471984

RESUMO

Medical records in the treatment of external-contraction febrile diseases with Chinese patent medicines in Medical Records Integration of Palace in Qing Dynasty were collected and the syndromes of the diseases, and types, categories, and dosage forms of the medicines were summarized to analyze the use of Chinese patent medicines for the external-contraction febrile diseases. The incidence of the diseases is closely related to the constitution, dietary habit, and emotion of patients. Therefore, the diseases were mainly manifested as cold, warm disease in summer, and summerheat-caused affection, and they were also attributed to the internal causes such as dampness, indigestion, phlegm, and stagnated heat. Thus, heat-clearing and summerheat-expelling formulas represented by Yiyuan Powder and Liuyi Powder were most frequently used, followed by the formulas for promoting digestion and removing food stagnation and formulas of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology and surgery department. The composition and application of the most common Chinese patent medicines were analyzed, and the medicines which were also recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020) were selected for further comparison to provide a reference for the current application of them. In the development of Chinese patent medicines, the influence of the processing on the efficacy should be emphasized and the application value of classical prescriptions should be further explored. It is of great significance for the composition optimization and efficacy improvement of modern Chinese patent medicines to study the compatibility of mineral medicinals in traditional formulas. When it comes to application in clinical settings, the indications, usage, and application modes of the Chinese patent medicines of Qing Dynasty are of reference value for modern application. Moreover, the anti-epidemic policies and anti-epidemic tea drinks in the records can serve as a reference for the prevention and control of pestilence diseases at present.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Humanos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pós , Registros Médicos , China
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(21): 5681-5688, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471986

RESUMO

This study took the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(ChP) and the 2018 edition of National Essential Drug List(NEDL) for children as research carriers to systematically analyze the current situation of and problems in the use of Chinese patent medicine for children(CPMC) in China. In view of the problems of imprecise dosage, incomplete safety information, and lack of sui-table varieties, dosage form and specification of CPMC in China, development strategy of CPMC in the future was proposed. It is reco-mmended to carry out systematic post-marketing revaluation studies of CPMC, encourage the development of new varieties or new dosa-ge forms suitable for children, advocate the continuous promotion of real-world studies on children, and expand the information on the use of CPMC with real-world data, so as to lay the foundation for post-marketing revaluation of CPMC and guide the rational use of clini-cal medicines. This study was expected to build a positive policy ecosystem to ensure the supply of CPMC, and promote the high-quality development of CPMC.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicamentos Essenciais , Criança , Humanos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Ecossistema , China
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(19): 5375-5382, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472045

RESUMO

In this study, the evidence mapping was employed to systematically analyze the clinical research literature and learn the distribution of evidence on the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension with Chinese patent medicines in recent six years. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were searched for the relevant literature published from January 2016 to December 2021. The distribution characteristics of evidence were analyzed and presented in charts combined with words. A total of 263 studies were selected, including 238 intervention studies, 17 systematic reviews/Meta-analysis, and 8 observation studies. A total of 72 Chinese patent medicines were involved, among which Songling Xuemaikang Capsules had the highest frequency. In China, the attention to the treatment of essential hypertension with Chinese patent medicines was insufficient, as manifested by the declining number of published literature and the low quality of studies. There were cases of off-label use and medication without syndrome differentiation in clinical practice. Some outcome indicators failed to embody the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and there were cases ignoring the end-point outcome indicators. The overall quality of systematic reviews/Meta-analysis was low, and a variety of studies failed to draw valid conclusions. In the future, it is necessary to standardize the clinical medication and improve the quality of randomized controlled trial(RCT), so as to produce high-quality evidence-based medical evidence and provide strong support for the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicines in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Humanos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico
10.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 21(12): 1340-1346, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36468957

RESUMO

Topical therapies, in many cases over-the-counter (OTC) formulations, are available for the treatment of acne, including benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, and retinoids. While these agents provide therapeutic efficacy, combination regimens can offer improved outcomes due to their ability to address multiple pathways involved in acne formation, making them better suited to address the multiple factors involved in acne pathogenesis and the breadth of complexion issues associated with the condition. The present study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of a daily regimen comprised of topical low-dose (2.5%) BPO applied in the morning and topical retinol applied in the evening in 33 subjects with mild to moderate acne who completed the study. A significant reduction in global total acne count from baseline to week 12 (primary endpoint) was achieved, in addition to significant improvements in Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) of acne severity and reductions in inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Treatment also significantly improved acne-complexion graded efficacy parameters (tactile surface roughness, uneven skin tone, skin blotchiness, and lack of skin clarity), and was well-tolerated, with no statistically significant (P<0.05) increases in objective or subjective facial irritation. Significant improvements from baseline to week 12 were observed for both self-assessment of facial skin conditions and quality of life (QoL) scores. No product-related adverse events (AEs) were observed in the study subjects. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022;21(12):1340-1346. doi:10.36849/JDD.6845.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Fármacos Dermatológicos , Humanos , Peróxido de Benzoíla , Qualidade de Vida , Vitamina A/efeitos adversos , Acne Vulgar/diagnóstico , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Acne Vulgar/induzido quimicamente , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Géis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Combinação de Medicamentos , Administração Cutânea
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(48): e31927, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a serious and fatal heart disease with one of the highest mortality rates in the world. In some countries, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred reperfusion strategy after AMI, but it cannot achieve safe and effective treatment of AMI after PCI remains a challenging clinical problem. The potential of oral Chinese patent medicines to treat AMI after PCI has been demonstrated, but which type of oral Chinese patent medicines may be preferred remains controversial. The aim of this network meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy and safety of multiple oral Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of AMI after PCI. METHODS: We will conduct a literature search from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, formerly Chinese Biomedical Database (SinoMed), Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their inception until to November 1, 2022, with language restricted to Chinese and English. Then, the study selection process will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Meta-Analyses guideline, and the quality assessment will be conducted with Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Pairwise and network meta-analysis will be conducted using the WinBUGS V.1.4.3.37 and STATA V.13. Additionally, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, quality assessment, Small-study effects and publication bias will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This work is based on published research and therefore does not require ethical approval. This review will be published in peer-reviewed journals. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020188065.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Idioma , Metanálise como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Metanálise em Rede , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
12.
Drug Discov Ther ; 16(6): 258-272, 2022 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543180

RESUMO

As an indispensable part of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese patent medicines have played an important role in preventing and treating diseases in China. Since they are easy to use, easy to store, and cost-effective, Chinese patent medicines have been generally accepted and widely used in Chinese clinical practice as a vital medical resource. In recent years, as TCM has developed and it has been accepted around the world, many Chinese patent medicine companies have gained international market access and successfully registered several Chinese patent medicines as over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription drugs in regions and countries that primarily use Western medicine such as the EU, Russia, Canada, Singapore, and Vietnam. Moreover, several Chinese patent medicines have been obtained the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval conducting phase II or III clinical trials in the US. The current work has focused on several Chinese patent medicines that have been successfully registered or that have been submitted for registration abroad. Summarized here are recent advances in the efficacy and molecular mechanisms of these Chinese patent medicines to treat respiratory infectious diseases (Lianhua Qingwen capsules, Jinhua Qinggan granules, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsules), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, Huatuo Zaizao pills, and Tongxinluo Capsules), cancers (a Kanglaite injection and a Shenqi Fuzheng Injection), and gynecological diseases (Guizhi Fuling Capsules). The hope is that this review will contribute to a better understanding of Chinese patent medicines by people around the world.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Humanos , Cápsulas , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554903

RESUMO

The market of over-the-counter drugs, so-called OTC drugs, is a dynamically developing market driven primarily by self-medication. Their use does not require consultation with a physician, and the patients themselves decide to take them. The distribution of OTC medications in the pharmaceutical market in Poland is diversified. These drugs could be purchased at a pharmacy but also at a supermarket, gas station, or via the internet. The low involvement of public funds in spending on drugs, a relatively small percentage of pharmacy sales of reimbursable prescription drugs, and the difficult access to physicians or general consent to drug advertising all create ideal conditions for creating demand for these drugs. Among the European countries, Poland also has the largest share of OTC drugs in the entire pharmaceutical market, and the percentage of OTCs (without supplements) in the whole drug market in Poland continues to grow. Unfortunately, the non-pharmacy market for the sale of OTC drugs is not adequately controlled in practice, and Polish legal regulations regarding the sale of medicines outside pharmacies are among the most liberal in the European Union. However, this does not change the general attitude of consumers toward purchasing OTC drugs. In fact, further growth of the OTC drug market is forecast. Self-medication will undoubtedly play an important role in the trends which may shape this market in the coming years.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Assistência Farmacêutica , Humanos , Polônia , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Automedicação , Comércio
14.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364259

RESUMO

Metamizole (dipyrone) is a widely used non-opioid analgesic in both human and animal medicine. Metamizole's safety has been the topic of numerous opposing debates, given the fact that in certain countries metamizole is frequently used as an over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, while in others it is banned due to the risk of agranulocytosis. Further, small mammals such as rabbits, ferrets, rodents, and hedgehogs have become some of the most common pets present in veterinary practice, and each of these species has specific analgesic needs due to their anatomy and physiology. The key to providing appropriate medical care is in finding a substance that has minimal negative effects. In small mammals, analgesia is an important factor and, it happens frequently that, pain in these patients is not well managed. Post-operative pain management is an important topic in the welfare of animals. The objectives of this review, thus, were to provide a concise overview of analgesics that are used in the treatment of postoperative pain in small mammals (e.g., rabbits and rodents) and to highlight the importance of this product, metamizole, in veterinary medicine, as well as the potential of this substance as an alternative analgesic for the treatment of postoperative pain in small mammals.


Assuntos
Dipirona , Manejo da Dor , Animais , Humanos , Coelhos , Dipirona/uso terapêutico , Furões , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico
15.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 21(11): 1191-1195, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342733

RESUMO

The associated direct and indirect costs of acquiring acne vulgaris (acne) treatment from a clinician may prohibit some patients from doing so. Barriers to care may also influence patient preferences for treatment, and while both over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription acne treatments are efficacious, preferences for OTC or prescription acne medications are not well established. We recruited 529 adult subjects from the United States through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), and subjects were surveyed about acne, their acne treatment preferences, and any barriers to care. A total of 450 subjects passed the attention check and were included in the analysis. Of respondents who had tried both OTC and prescription treatments (n=223), more respondents reported that they preferred prescription treatments (130/223, 58.3%), compared with OTC treatments (64/223, 28.7%); or no preference (29/223, 13.0%; P=0.00001). Almost half of all respondents also stated that they experienced barriers to accessing medical care for acne treatment (192/450 42.7%); cost and transportation were the top 2 factors. Considering how common barriers are, and their everchanging nature, some patients may benefit from a discussion of alternative non-prescription acne treatments, serving as a bridge to therapy or while patients are unable to reach a medical provider. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022;21(11):1191-1195. doi:10.36849/JDD.6940.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Preferência do Paciente , Acne Vulgar/diagnóstico , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-medication has become a common phenomenon. Economic factors are important factors that affect the self-medication of residents. This study aimed to investigate the current status of self-medication behaviors in China and explored the related factors affecting considerations associated with medical insurance reimbursement or drug price in self-medication. METHODS: A national cross-sectional investigation was conducted among Chinese people over 18 years old under a multi-stage sampling method through a questionnaire, which includes demographic sociological characteristics, self-medication behaviors and scales. The Chi-square test was used to analyze whether the respondents consider medical insurance reimbursement or drug price as an important factor when purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Logistic regression was used to examine the associated factors of considering medical insurance reimbursement or drug price. RESULTS: In total, 9256 respondents were included in this study; 37.52% of the respondents regarded drug prices as an important consideration, and 28.53% of the respondents attached great importance to medical insurance reimbursement. Elderly respondents who lived in the central region, had medical insurance, and had lower levels of health literacy were more likely to consider the medical insurance reimbursement, while respondents with high monthly family income as well as students were less likely to consider the same issue (p < 0.05). Respondents settled in the central and western regions, students, those without fixed occupations, those who suffered from chronic diseases, or those with lower health literacy were more likely to consider drug prices, while the respondents with bachelor degrees, urban population and high per capita monthly income were less likely to consider the drug prices (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Self-medication behaviors with OTC drugs were prevalent in China, and consideration factors of medical insurance reimbursement or drug prices were related to socio-demographic characteristics and health literacy. There is a need to take measures to reduce the economic burden of self-medication, improve the health literacy of residents and strengthen public health education.


Assuntos
Seguro , Automedicação , Humanos , Idoso , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , China/epidemiologia
17.
Malar J ; 21(1): 317, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria prevents a mild case from developing into severe disease and death. Unfortunately, parasitological testing of febrile children is greater in the public and formal private sector than in the informal private sector where many patients with malaria-like symptoms first seek treatment. This study was aimed at improving implementation of the T3 policy among OTCMS using some interventions that could be scaled-up easily at the national level. METHODS: Interventions were evaluated using a two-arm, cluster randomized trial across 8 rural communities (4 clusters per arm), in two adjacent districts of Ghana. A total of 7 OTCMS in the intervention arm and 5 OTCMS in the control arm in the selected communities participated in the study. Five interventions were implemented in the intervention arm only. These were acquisition of subsidized malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits, training of OTCMS, supportive visits to OTCMS, community sensitization on malaria, and introduction of malaria surveillance tool. The primary outcome was the proportion of children under 10 years with fever or suspected to have malaria visiting OTCMS and getting tested (using RDT) before treatment. Secondary outcomes included OTCMS adherence to national malaria treatment guidelines and the recommended RDT retail price. Outcomes were measured using mystery client (an adult who pretends to be a real patient) surveys supplemented by a household survey. Proportions were compared using chi-square test or Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Following deployment of interventions, mystery client survey showed that OTCMS' adherence to malaria protocol in the intervention arm increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control arm. Household surveys in the intervention arm showed that caregivers self-treating their children or visiting drug vendors significantly decreased in favour of visits to OTCMS shops for treatment (p < 0.001). End-line malaria testing rate was higher compared with the baseline rate, though not statistically significant (30.8% vs 10.5%; p = 0.1238). OTCMS in the intervention arm also adhered to the subsidized RDT retail price of GHc2.40. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting OTCMS in rural communities have the potential of improving adherence to the T3 malaria policy and subsequently improving management of uncomplicated malaria in Ghana. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN77836926. Registered on 4 November 2019.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , População Rural , Gana , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Setor Privado , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422217

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Drug consumption is a widely developed practice around the world. However, sometimes medicines are acquired with or without prescription, a practice termed self-medication, which can have negative impacts on the health of the population. It has been observed that with the arrival of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, self-medicated drug consumption figures increased in several countries. To describe the patterns of medication, use and the prevalence of self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic in inhabitants of the capital province of Pichincha, Ecuador. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted based on a self-administered online questionnaire from April to June 2022, among residents of the province of Pichincha, Ecuador. Participants were invited through social networks (WhatsApp and Facebook). A total of 401 surveys were included in this study. Consumption patterns (prescription of and treatment with) of medicines during the pandemic were evaluated, as well as the prevalence of self-medication and variables that characterize the way of acquiring medicines. The Chi-square test was used to look for relationships between consumption patterns, self-medication, and the characteristics of the participants. Results: Most participants were female (53.4%), and 59.4% reported having had COVID-19. A total of 244 (60.9%) consumed medications during the pandemic, mostly for the purpose of treating the infection. About half (48.4%) self-medicated. The most used medications were paracetamol (87.3%) and ibuprofen (47.5%). Drugs consumption as a treatment and informal sources of information (TV, social networks, advice) were associated with the practice of self-medication (p < 0.05). Conclusions: A significant percentage of over-the-counter (OTC) and legal drug use was found to persist after the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight the effects that alternative forms of information sources other than medical personnel can have on drug consumption and self-medication practices.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Equador/epidemiologia , Automedicação , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276129, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) was the most common gynecological disorder, with an increasingly high prevalence worldwide. PD often accompanied other dysmenorrhea-associated symptoms to trigger exacerbations, and even cause depression and anxiety for patients. As the effective first-line medication, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have become widespread across China and combined with oral traditional Chinese patent medicines (TCPMs) for PD in clinical practice. We hope to provide better efficacy and safety evidence about oral TCPMs combined with NSAIDs (oral TCPMs+NSAIDs) for patients with PD by this network meta-analysis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a Bayesian network meta-analysis of all oral TCPMs+NSAIDs for clinical diagnosis as PD. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, VIP information resource integration service platform databases, and clinical registers will be searched from the database inception to June 30, 2022 to find randomized controlled trials. Two reviewers will independently screen and check titles and abstracts and read the full text. Data extraction with the same criteria will be conducted by two researchers, including study characteristics, participant characteristics, interventions and comparators, and outcomes. We will perform the network meta-analysis by the Bayesian random method to analyze the direct and indirect comparisons. Meta-regression with multiple covariates will be conducted to find the potential heterogeneity. We will perform the sensitivity analysis to identify the potential effect on the robustness of our results. Evidence certainty of all interventions in outcomes will be identified and assessed by Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) assessment. Funnel plots with Egger test and Begg's test to detect the potential publication bias. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021265675.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Dismenorreia , Feminino , Humanos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Metanálise como Assunto , Metanálise em Rede , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos
20.
Trials ; 23(1): 898, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tic disorders (TD) is a neuropsychiatric disease with twitch as the main manifestation in childhood. Jiu-Wei-Xi-Feng granules has been marketed in China for treating children with TD. As Long Gu (Os Draconis) in the composition of this Chinese patent medicine is a rare and expensive medicinal material protected by the Chinese government, therefore, we consider replacing it with Mu Li (Concha Ostreae) that has the same effect and is cheaper. This study is designed to evaluate the clinical equivalence between Jiu-Wei-Xi-Feng granules (Os Draconis replaced by Concha Ostreae) (JWXFD) and Jiu-Wei-Xi-Feng granules (original formula) (JWXFO) in children with TD (consumption of renal yin and liver wind stirring up internally syndrome). METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, equivalence trial comparing the efficacy and safety of JWXFD and JWXFO in treating Children with tic disorders (consumption of renal yin and liver wind stirring up internally syndrome). A total of 288 patients will be recruited and randomly assigned to two groups in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment course is 6 weeks, with a 2 weeks follow-up. The primary outcome is the mean change value from baseline to 6th week by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale total tic score (YGTSS-TTS). Secondary outcomes include total effective rate of tic, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores and its factor scores (the degree of motor tics, phonic tics and social function damage), Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, and TCM syndrome efficacy. DISCUSSION: The design of this study refers to a large number of similar research design points, and asked for opinions of peer experts, and finally reached a consensus. This trial will provide high-quality evidence on the clinical equivalence between JWXFD and JWXFO and provide a basis for the marketing of JWXFD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000032312 Registered on 25 April 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=52630.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Tique , Tiques , Criança , Humanos , Tiques/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos de Tique/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Tique/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Síndrome , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
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