Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 725
Filtrar
1.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 129(3-5): 139-44, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22210085

RESUMO

Human ketosteroid reductases of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, i.e. AKR1C1-4, are implicated in the biotransformation of synthetic steroid hormones. Norethynodrel (NOR, 17α-ethynyl-17ß-hydroxy-estra-5(10)-en-3-one), the progestin component of the first marketed oral contraceptive, is known to undergo rapid and extensive metabolism to 3α- and 3ß-hydroxymetabolites. The ability of the four human AKR1C enzymes to catalyze the metabolism of NOR has now been characterized. AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 almost exclusively converted NOR to 3ß-hydroxy NOR, while AKR1C3 gave 3ß-hydroxy NOR as the main product and AKR1C4 predominantly formed 3α-hydroxy NOR. Individual AKR1C enzymes also displayed distinct kinetic properties in the reaction of NOR. In contrast, norethindrone (NET), the Δ(4)-isomer of NOR and the most commonly used synthetic progestogen, was not a substrate for the AKR1C enzymes. NOR is also structurally identical to the hormone replacement therapeutic tibolone (TIB), except TIB has a methyl group at the 7α-position. Product profiles and kinetic parameters for the reduction of NOR catalyzed by each individual AKR1C isoform were identical to those for the reduction of TIB catalyzed by the respective isoform. These data suggest that the presence of the 7α-methyl group has a minimal effect on the stereochemical outcome of the reaction and kinetic behavior of each enzyme. Results indicate a role of AKR1C in the hepatic and peripheral metabolism of NOR to 3α- and 3ß-hydroxy NOR and provide insights into the differential pharmacological properties of NOR, NET and TIB.


Assuntos
20-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Anticoncepcionais Orais Sintéticos/metabolismo , Noretinodrel/metabolismo , 3-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Membro C3 da Família 1 de alfa-Ceto Redutase , Anticoncepcionais Orais Sintéticos/química , Humanos , Hidroxiprostaglandina Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Hidroxiesteroides/química , Hidroxiesteroides/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Noretinodrel/química , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
2.
Steroids ; 76(7): 667-8, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21419146

RESUMO

5α-Estrane-3ß,17α-diol is the major metabolite of nandrolone in horse urine. The presence of 5α-estrane-3ß,17α-diol in female and gelding urines is prohibited by Racing Rules and its natural presence in male urine led regulation authorities to establish a concentration threshold of 45 ng/mL. This paper describes a rapid, simple and stereoselective synthesis of 5α-estrane-3ß,17α-diol, providing horseracing laboratories with an essential reference material for their antidoping performance.


Assuntos
Nandrolona/metabolismo , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Animais , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Noretinodrel/síntese química , Noretinodrel/química , Noretinodrel/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estereoisomerismo , Especificidade por Substrato
3.
Climacteric ; 10(4): 344-53, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17653961

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Previous studies in postmenopausal women have demonstrated that, after oral administration of norethisterone, a small proportion of the compound is rapidly converted into ethinylestradiol. The shape of the concentration - time curve suggested that this occurred in the liver. The results were confirmed by in vitro investigations with adult human liver tissue. In 2002, it was shown that, after oral treatment of women with tibolone, aromatization of the compound occurred, resulting in the formation of a potent estrogen, 7 alpha-methyl-ethinylestradiol. The result has been called into question, because the adult human liver does not express cytochrome P450 aromatase, which is encoded by the CYP 19 gene. Moreover, it has been claimed that the serum level of 7 alpha-methyl-ethinylestradiol measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was an artifact. REPLY: Aromatization of steroids is a complex process of consecutive oxidation reactions which are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes. The conversion of the natural C19 steroids, testosterone and androstenedione, into estradiol-17beta and estrone is dependent on the oxidative elimination of the angular C19-methyl group. This complex key reaction is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 aromatase, which is expressed in many tissues of the adult human (e.g. ovary, fat tissue), but not in the liver. However, 19-nortestosterone derivatives are characterized by the lack of the C19-methyl group. Therefore, for the aromatization of these synthetic steroids, the action of the cytochrome P450 aromatase is not necessary and the oxidative introduction of double bonds into the A-ring can be catalyzed by other hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. The final key process in the formation of a phenolic A-ring, both in natural androgens and 19-nortestosterone derivatives, is the enolization of a 3-keto group to the C2-C3-enol or the C3-C4-enol moiety, which occurs without the action of enzymes. CONCLUSION: 19-nortestosterone derivatives (norethisterone, norethynodrel, tibolone) can readily be aromatized in the adult human liver. This leads to the formation of the potent estrogens ethinylestradiol from norethisterone or norethynodrel and 7 alpha-methyl-ethinylestradiol from tibolone. This may have clinical consequences, e.g. the elevated risk of venous thromboembolic disease in premenopausal women treated with high doses of norethisterone for bleeding disorders, or the elevated risk of stroke or endometrial disease in postmenopausal women treated with tibolone.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Aromatase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Nandrolona/metabolismo , Androgênios/farmacologia , Doenças Mamárias/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Etinilestradiol/análogos & derivados , Etinilestradiol/metabolismo , Etinilestradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemias/prevenção & controle , Nandrolona/farmacologia , Noretindrona/metabolismo , Noretindrona/farmacologia , Noretinodrel/metabolismo , Noretinodrel/farmacologia , Norpregnenos/metabolismo , Norpregnenos/farmacologia , Doenças Uterinas/metabolismo
6.
J Environ Biol ; 26(2 Suppl): 387-92, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16334272

RESUMO

The genotoxicity study of a synthetic progestin norethynodrel, was carried out on human lymphocytes chromosomes using sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), replication index (RI) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) as parameters. The study was carried out in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). Norethynodrel was studied at three different concentrations (20, 40 and 60 microg/ml of peripheral blood lymphocyte culture) and was found non-genotoxic in the absence of metabolic activation. But in the presence of S9 mix norethynodrel increased SCE (p<0.03) and CA (p<0.005) frequencies and inhibits lymphocyte proliferation (p<0.03) at 60 microg/ml. The results suggest a genotoxic and cytotoxic effect of norethynodrel in human lymphocytes in vitro in the presence of S9 mix.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Noretinodrel/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 26(12): 1527-30, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16297354

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the stereoselectivity in human metabolic 3-reduction of tibolone. METHODS: Twenty healthy Chinese female volunteers were given a single oral dose of tibolone (2.5 mg), and serial blood samples were collected after treatment. The plasma concentrations of the two pharmacologically active 3-hydroxyl metabolites of tibolone, 3alpha-hydroxyl-7-methyl- norethynodrel (3alpha-HMN) and 3beta-hydroxyl-7-methyl- norethynodrel (3beta-HMN) in plasma were determined by using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. RESULTS: The apparent elimination half-life (T(1/2) of 3alpha-HMN was 1.43+/-0.52 h, and that of 3beta-HMN was 1.53+/-0.60 h. Maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) were found to be 8.75+/-4.36 microg/L for 3alpha-HMN and 3.59+/-1.81 microg/L for 3beta-HMN. Areas under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC(0-t)) were 26.30+/-12.14 microg.h(-1).L(-1) for 3alpha-HMN and 9.89+/-4.93 microg.h(-1).L(-1) for 3beta-HMN. CONCLUSION: Stereo-selective differences exist in the pharmacokinetics of tibolone metabolism in humans.


Assuntos
Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacocinética , Norpregnenos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Asiáticos , Moduladores de Receptor Estrogênico/metabolismo , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Noretinodrel/sangue , Norpregnenos/administração & dosagem , Norpregnenos/metabolismo
8.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 24(5): 1088-98, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16110986

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to elucidate how full life-cycle exposure to estrogens impacts zebrafish development and reproduction, compared to partial life-cycle exposure only, and whether the estrogen-induced effects in zebrafish are reversible or irreversible. Zebrafish were exposed in a flow-through system to an environmentally relevant concentration (3 ng/L) of the synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) either from fertilization until the all-ovary stage of gonad development (i.e., 42 d postfertilization [DPF] in our experiment) or from fertilization until the reproductive stage (i.e., 118 DPF). Reversibility of the estrogen-induced effects was assessed after 58 d of depuration in EE2-free water until 176 DPE Early life exposure led to a lasting induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) in adult females but altered neither the sex ratio nor the reproductive capabilities. Full life-cycle exposure resulted in elevated VTG concentrations and caused gonadal feminization in 100% of exposed fish and thus inhibited reproduction. Two types of ovaries were observed in continuously exposed adult fish, immature ovaries with primary growth stage oocytes only and mature ovaries containing the full range of all oocyte maturation stages. Fish with immature ovaries had plasma VTG levels like control males, while fish with mature ovaries had female-like VTG levels. The effects of full life cycle exposure were at least partly reversible, and 26% of fish of the previous all-female cohort developed fully differentiated testes. These findings suggest that continuous estrogen exposure had arrested the developmental transition of the gonads of genetic males from the early all-ovary stage to functional testes. After the exposure had ceased, however, these males apparently were able to accomplish testicular differentiation.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/toxicidade , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fertilização , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Noretinodrel/farmacologia , Noretinodrel/toxicidade , Reprodução , Fatores de Tempo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 24(5): 1125-32, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16110990

RESUMO

The effects of elevated plasma cortisol levels on vitellogenin (VTG) induction were examined in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in an attempt to evaluate the potential influence of stress on this commonly used biomarker of estrogenicity. Two separate experiments were conducted in which fish plasma cortisol was elevated to various levels for 14 d by noninvasive additions of cortisol to the aquaria water. Fathead minnows were exposed to either cortisol alone, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) alone, or a combination of the two hormones, and plasma levels of VTG as well as liver expression of VTG mRNA were measured. Both experiments gave similar results, with an exposure to 4 ng/L of EE2 resulting in significantly greater levels of plasma VTG in the presence of, compared to that in absence of, cortisol, whereas exposure to cortisol alone at concentrations between 144 and 800 microg/L had no effect on plasma VTG levels. This potentiation of the EE2-induced vitellogenesis by cortisol was dose-dependent, with plasma VTG reaching 125, 167, and 295% of the values obtained with EE2 alone when 144, 360, and 800 microg/L of cortisol, respectively, were added to the water. Liver mRNA results were consistent with plasma VTG, although they generally were more variable. The present study demonstrates that cortisol does not independently induce vitellogenesis but can potentiate estrogen-induced VTG synthesis in fathead minnow. The implications of these findings for the use of VTG as a biomarker of estrogenicity are discussed.


Assuntos
Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/toxicidade , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cyprinidae , Interações Medicamentosas , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Noretinodrel/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
10.
J Hepatol ; 43(3): 478-84, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16019103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE), a potent tumor promoter in rat liver, stimulates growth during short-term treatment but inhibits hepatocyte proliferation upon prolonged treatment. To identify the molecular targets of the mitoinhibitory effect of EE, the expression of proteins regulating G(1)- and S-progression were analyzed during the first cell cycle in EE-treated female Wistar rats. METHODS: Long-term (60 days) EE treatment. Immunohistochemical staining for proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to detect cells in S phase and quantification of mitosis. Western blot to monitor protein expression. Cdk2 kinase assay to examine histone H1 phosphorylation. RESULTS: EE reduced the number of cells in S phase and mitosis by about 70%. Cyclin D1 and D3 were unaffected, while cdk4 was moderately decreased. Cyclin E and cdk2 were markedly decreased with concomitant marked reduction of cdk2 kinase activity. EE also decreased cyclin A and increased G1 levels of p53 and p21. CONCLUSIONS: EE causes a cell cycle block before S-phase. The reduction of the cdk2 kinase activity, essential for G1/S-transition, might be involved in the cell cycle block. Also, EE treatment results in p53 activation and upregulation of the cdk inhibitor p21 that might contribute to the G1 arrest.


Assuntos
Quinases relacionadas a CDC2 e CDC28/genética , Ciclina E/genética , Regeneração Hepática/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Fase S/fisiologia , Animais , Quinases relacionadas a CDC2 e CDC28/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D3 , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina , Ciclinas/genética , Replicação do DNA , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Hepática/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Noretinodrel/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fase S/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Analyst ; 130(7): 1065-9, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15965531

RESUMO

A method for the determination of endocrine disruptors, bisphenol A and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, in environmental water samples was developed using in-tube solid-phase microextraction followed by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. A poly(acrylamide-vinylpyridine) monolithic capillary column was applied as the extraction media in view of its greater phase ratio than open-tubular capillaries and thus higher extraction efficiency. After optimizing the extraction conditions, bisphenol A and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol were extracted directly from water samples in a wide dynamic linear range of 0.5-1000 ng mL(-1), with the detection limits obtained as 0.064 and 0.12 ng mL(-1), respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory with the intraday and interday RSD values smaller than 7.2%. Environmental water samples of different sources were successfully analyzed with the presented method and the monolithic capillary was proved to be robust and reusable in analyzing real water samples.


Assuntos
Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Fenóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glândulas Endócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microquímica , Noretinodrel/análise , Noretinodrel/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
12.
Int J Oncol ; 26(6): 1507-15, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15870863

RESUMO

Overexpression of the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a common molecular feature in subsets of sex-steroid-related tumors including breast carcinomas that is associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we explored whether breast-cancer associated FAS (oncogenic antigen-519) is regulated by the progestin component in oral contraceptives. In addition, we examined the role of FAS hyperactivity on progestin-regulated breast cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastatic properties. We found that in estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, synthetic progestins used in oral contraceptives including norethynodrel (NOR) and norethindrone, induced a dose-dependent increase of FAS enzymatic activity, with a maximum response (> or = 4-fold) occurring at a concentration of 10(-8) M. FAS activity was only slightly stimulated after exposure to two other progestins, medroxy-progesterone acetate (MPA) and megestrol acetate (MGA), which are used in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and high-dose progestin treatment therapy. Western blot analyses showed that NOR-induced stimulation of FAS activity correlated closely with NOR-induced up-regulation of FAS protein expression. To determine the role of FAS accumulation following NOR exposure, we pharmacologically examined the requirement for FAS activity in NOR-stimulated breast cancer cell proliferation and survival. The novel small compound C75 (a slow-binding FAS inhibitor) blocked NOR-induced breast cancer cell proliferation in anchorage-dependent assays. More importantly, pharmacological inhibition of FAS activity completely abolished NOR-stimulated soft-agar colony formation of MCF-7 cells. To evaluate the involvement of PR and ER signalings in NOR-induced up-regulation of FAS expression and activity, NOR was used in combination with either the anti-progestin RU486 (mifepristone) or the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (Faslodex). RU486 and ICI 182,780 similarly abolished NOR-induced FAS activation, supporting the notion that PR- and ER-mediated FAS up-regulation might play different roles in NOR-stimulated breast cancer cells. Interestingly, when we evaluated the involvement of PR and ER signalings on NOR-induced breast cancer cell proliferation, the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780, but not the anti-progestin RU486, was found to inhibit NOR-stimulated proliferation and survival of MCF-7 cells in anchorage-dependent and -independent assays. To further determine whether NOR produced their effects via the ER, we evaluated its effects on endogenous ER transcriptional activity by using transient transfection assays with an estrogen-response element reporter construct (ERE-Luciferase). In the absence of E2 stimulation, treatment with NOR dramatically increased the levels of ERE-dependent transcriptional activity. This estrogenic like-effect of NOR was blocked by the addition of ICI 182,780, whereas RU486 failed to inhibit NOR-induced ERE activity. In summary, this study provides direct evidence that: a) a number of synthetic progestins used in oral contraceptives significantly activates breast cancer-associated FAS (OA-519) activity and expression in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells; b) FAS activity is necessary for progestin-induced anchorage-independent growth and survival of human breast cancer cells, and c) activation of ER, but not PR signaling, is the stimulatory mechanism through which synthetic progestins enhance a FAS-dependent proliferative and pro-survival signaling. These findings should be helpful to explain the conflicting evidence linking oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk through the estrogenic activation of tumor-associated FAS (OA-519), a molecular marker associated with poor clinical outcome of breast cancer disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Ácido Graxo Sintases/fisiologia , Noretinodrel/farmacologia , Congêneres da Progesterona/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Graxo Sintases/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Estrogênio/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise
13.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 94(4): 361-8, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15857755

RESUMO

Oral contraceptives (OC) and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) modulate plasma levels of proteins that regulate blood coagulation. It remains unclear whether the progestin component contributes to these changes. The present study was designed to determine whether progestins modulate two essential plasma anticoagulants, antithrombin (AT) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), in an animal model. Ovariectomized rats were treated orally with three progestins, norethindrone acetate (NETA), trimegestone (TMG), or drospirenone (DSP), either alone or combined with 17alpha-ethyinylestradiol (EE). Plasma AT levels were unchanged. However, TFPI activity was reduced by EE alone (10-100 microg/kg/day) in a dose-dependent manner; NETA (3 or 10 mg/kg/day) reduced TFPI by approximately 40 or approximately 80%, respectively, while TMG and DSP had no effect. NETA and EE effects were blocked by co-administration of ICI-182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist, suggesting that both responses were likely estrogen receptor-mediated. Reduced TFPI after NETA or EE treatment was not accompanied by changes in TFPI mRNA levels in tissues that express TFPI, but there was a positive correlation between plasma TFPI and total cholesterol. Sex hormone effects on TFPI in this model and as reported in women may help to shift the coagulation balance to a more prothrombotic state. Progestins such as TMG and DSP that lack estrogenic activity could potentially have an improved clinical profile.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Noretindrona/análogos & derivados , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Progestinas/farmacologia , Promegestona/análogos & derivados , Androstenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Colesterol/sangue , Etinilestradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Modelos Animais , Noretindrona/farmacologia , Acetato de Noretindrona , Noretinodrel/farmacologia , Ovariectomia , Promegestona/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 80(3): 511-20, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15740794

RESUMO

Clinical studies evaluating a calcium channel modulator, gabapentin, for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms have been reported. The present studies evaluated three calcium channel modulators in ovariectomized (OVX) rodent models of temperature regulation. Gabapentin, reported to interact with the alpha(2)delta subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel blockers, verapamil and nifedipine, were examined. These series of experiments demonstrated that orally administered gabapentin, verapamil and nifedipine all acutely and dose-dependently lower tail skin temperature in both models of OVX-induced thermoregulatory dysfunction. These compounds all had a rapid onset of action, however, the efficacy of all three calcium channel modulators is less than that observed following chronic estrogen treatment. Additionally, these compounds were also tested in a telemetric rat model measuring core body temperature to evaluate any temperature effects on internal core temperature. The present data suggests that gabapentin, verapamil and nifedipine all act to globally alter temperature regulation in steroid-dependent models of thermoregulatory function.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/fisiologia , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Ovariectomia , Aminas/farmacologia , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Gabapentina , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Dependência de Morfina/metabolismo , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Noretinodrel/farmacologia , Ratos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo , Verapamil/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
15.
Chemosphere ; 59(2): 271-80, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15722099

RESUMO

A bioaccumulation study was performed with the endobenthic freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus MULLER exposed to the radiolabelled synthetic steroid 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (14C-EE2) in a spiked artificial sediment. Concentration of total radioactivity increased constantly and almost linearly during 35 days of exposure. The accumulation factor normalised to worm lipid content and sediment TOC (AFlipid/OC) was 75 at the end of the uptake period, but a steady state was not reached. Uptake kinetics were calculated fitting the measured AFs to a kinetic rate equation for constant uptake from sediment using iterative non-linear regression analysis. After 10 days of elimination in contaminant-free sediment 50% of the accumulated total radioactivity was excreted by the worms. Extracts from L. variegatus sampled at the end of the uptake phase were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The results showed that 6% of the total radioactivity incorporated by the worms was 14C-EE2. After treatment of extracts with beta-glucuronidase the amount of 14C-EE2 increased to 84%. These results suggest that L. variegatus has the potency to accumulate high amounts of conjugated EE2. Hence, a transfer of EE2 to benthivores and subsequent secondary poisoning of predators might be possible.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Carbono/farmacocinética , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Noretinodrel/farmacocinética , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Carbono/análise , Radioisótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Água Doce , Glucuronidase , Cinética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Noretinodrel/química , Noretinodrel/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Oxigênio/análise , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 24(2): 352-9, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15719995

RESUMO

Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were assessed for reproductive output and endocrine function, including circulating steroid concentrations, ex vivo steroidogenesis from the gonads, aromatase activity, hepatic estrogen receptor (ER), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) after exposure to 0, 0.2, 5, 500, and 2,000 ng/L of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) for 14 d. The EE altered these biochemical responses at various sites along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis at concentrations as low as 0.2 ng/L, but it only depressed reproductive function at concentrations of 500 ng/L or greater. Offspring also had reduced ability to hatch at 500 ng/L of EE, but this concentration did not produce any other observed changes in development or sexual phenotype. The reproductive parameters correlated well with VTG, ER, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) in both sexes of adult medaka, which could be indicative of the ER-mediated mode of action for EE. Vitellogenin and ER were elevated at higher concentrations of EE in both sexes, whereas GSI was decreased. Overall, most biochemical endpoints were more sensitive than reproduction or development to exposure, indicating that reproductive function may be relatively protected.


Assuntos
Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Etinilestradiol/toxicidade , Exposição Materna , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aromatase/efeitos dos fármacos , Aromatase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sistema Endócrino/embriologia , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/fisiologia , Etinilestradiol/sangue , Etinilestradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Gonadotropinas/metabolismo , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oryzias , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Receptores de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Vitelogeninas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15639456

RESUMO

In this paper, p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate has been reported as a novel derivatization reagent with strong nuclephilic reactivity for the hydroxyl compounds. The derivatization for the two pharmacologically active 3-hydroxyl metabolites, 3alpha-hydroxyl-7-methyl-norethynodrel and 3beta-hydroxyl-7-methyl-norethynodrel by p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate can be accomplished in 2 min under room temperature. The offline derivatization procedure introduced an easily ionizable sulfonylcarbamic ester moiety to the metabolites. This greatly improved the analyte's sensitivity in negative electrospray ionization and enabled us to achieve the desired lower limit of quantitation at 100 pg/ml in plasma. Therefore, a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method for the analysis of the two stereo isomers was developed. The method had been validated to be accurate, precise, and sensitive, and can be used for the metabolism pharmacokinetic study of tibolone in human subjects.


Assuntos
Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Isocianatos/química , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Noretinodrel/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Compostos de Tosil/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Norpregnenos/sangue , Norpregnenos/farmacocinética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estereoisomerismo
18.
Neoplasia ; 6(5): 584-94, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15548368

RESUMO

Exposure to estrogenic compounds during critical periods of fetal development could result in adverse effects on the development of reproductive organs that are not apparent until later in life. Bisphenol A (BPA), which is employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, is a prime candidate for endocrine disruption. We examined BPA to address the question of whether in utero exposure affects the uterus of the offspring and studied the expression and distribution of the estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), because estrogens influence the development, growth, and function of the uterus through both receptors. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered by gavage either 0.1 or 50 mg/kg per day BPA or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) as reference dose on gestation days 6 through 21. Female offspring were killed in estrus. Uterine morphologic changes as well as ERalpha and ERbeta distribution and expression were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Striking morphologic changes were observed in the uterine epithelium of postpubertal offspring during estrus of the in utero BPA-treated animals (the thickness of the total epithelium was significantly reduced). ERalpha expression was increased in the 50-mg BPA and EE2-treated group. In contrast, we observed significantly decreased ERbeta expression in all BPA- and EE2-treated animals when compared with the control. In summary, these results clearly indicate that in utero exposure of rats to BPA promotes uterine disruption in offspring. We hypothesize that the uterine disruption could possibly be provoked by a dysregulation of ERalpha and ERbeta.


Assuntos
Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/análise , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/análise , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estro/metabolismo , Feminino , Noretinodrel/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Útero/anormalidades , Útero/embriologia
19.
Water Sci Technol ; 50(5): 133-40, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15497840

RESUMO

Agricultural application of municipal sewage sludge has been emotionally discussed in the last decades, because the latter contains endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other organic micropollutants with unknown fate and risk potential. Bisphenol A (BPA) was chosen as a model substance to investigate the influence of sludge conditioning on the end-concentration of EDCs in sludge. Adsorption studies with radioactive-labelled BPA showed that more than 75% BPA in anaerobically digested sludge is bound to solids (log Kd = 2.09-2.30; log Koc = 2.72-3.11). Sludge conditioning with polymer or iron (III) chloride alone had no influence on the adsorption of BPA. After conditioning with iron (III) chloride and calcium hydroxide desorption of BPA took place. Apparently, it occurred due to the deprotonation of BPA (pKa= 10.3) as the pH-value reached 12.4 during the process. The same behaviour is expected for other phenolic EDCs with similar pKa (nonylphenol, 17beta-estradiol, estron, estriol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol). This study shows high affinity of BPA to the anaerobically digested sludge and importance of conditioning in the elimination of EDCs during the sludge treatment. Addition of polymer is favourable in the case of sludge incineration. Conditioning with iron (III) chloride and calcium hydroxide shows advantages for the use of sludge as fertiliser.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Fenóis/toxicidade , Esgotos/química , Absorção , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Isótopos de Carbono , Cloretos , Cidades , Estradiol/análise , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/análise , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Noretinodrel/análise , Noretinodrel/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 38(19): 5177-86, 2004 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15506215

RESUMO

This study investigated the oxidation of the oral contraceptive 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) during ozonation. First, the effect of ozone (O3) on the estrogenic activity of aqueous solutions of EE2 was studied using a yeast estrogen screen (YES). It could be shown that O3 doses typically applied for the disinfection of drinking waters were sufficient to reduce estrogenicity by a factor of more than 200. However, it proved impossible to completely remove estrogenic activity due to the slow reappearance of 0.1-0.2% of the initial EE2 concentration after ozonation. Second, oxidation products formed during ozonation of EE2 were identified with LC-MS/MS and GC/MS and the help of the model compounds 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthol (THN) and 1-ethinyl-1-cyclohexanol (ECH), which represent the reactive phenolic moiety and the ethinyl group of EE2. Additionally, oxidation products of the natural steroid hormones 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were identified. The chemical structures of the oxidation products were significantly altered as compared to the parent compounds, explaining the diminished estrogenic activity after ozonation. Overall,the results demonstrate that ozonation is a promising tool for the control of EE2, E2, and E1 in drinking water and wastewater.


Assuntos
Noretinodrel/análogos & derivados , Noretinodrel/química , Noretinodrel/farmacologia , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/química , Ozônio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Purificação da Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...