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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206718

RESUMO

Heat loss quantification (HLQ) is an essential step in improving a building's thermal performance and optimizing its energy usage. While this problem is well-studied in the literature, most of the existing studies are either qualitative or minimally driven quantitative studies that rely on localized building envelope points and are, thus, not suitable for automated solutions in energy audit applications. This research work is an attempt to fill this gap of knowledge by utilizing intensive thermal data (on the order of 100,000 plus images) and constitutes a relatively new area of analysis in energy audit applications. Specifically, we demonstrate a novel process using deep-learning methods to segment more than 100,000 thermal images collected from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). To quantify the heat loss for a building envelope, multiple stages of computations need to be performed: object detection (using Mask-RCNN/Faster R-CNN), estimating the surface temperature (using two clustering methods), and finally calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient (e.g., the U-value). The proposed model was applied to eleven academic campuses across the state of North Dakota. The preliminary findings indicate that Mask R-CNN outperformed other instance segmentation models with an mIOU of 73% for facades, 55% for windows, 67% for roofs, 24% for doors, and 11% for HVACs. Two clustering methods, namely K-means and threshold-based clustering (TBC), were deployed to estimate surface temperatures with TBC providing consistent estimates across all times of the day over K-means. Our analysis demonstrated that thermal efficiency not only depended on the accurate acquisition of thermal images but also relied on other factors, such as the building geometry and seasonal weather parameters, such as the outside/inside building temperatures, wind, time of day, and indoor heating/cooling conditions. Finally, the resultant U-values of various building envelopes were compared with recommendations from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) building standards.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Ambiente Construído , Análise por Conglomerados , Calefação , North Dakota
2.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E69, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health epidemic. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for transmitting and contracting HCV. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention at a federally qualified health center in the US Midwest to improve HCV screening rates among PWID. METHODS: A prospective quality improvement initiative was conducted to increase the proportion of PWID screened for HCV. Inclusion criteria consisted of being seen by a primary care provider from April 16, 2019, through February 28, 2020, being aged 18 years or older, and confirmation of intravenous drug use. PWID status was confirmed by reviewing electronic health records. The multifaceted intervention consisted of educational sessions for the health care team and workflow changes. We analyzed the proportion of patients screened preintervention and postintervention by using χ2 tests. RESULTS: Of 742 patients who met the inclusion criteria, the proportion of PWID screened preintervention was 59.6% (n = 329) and the proportion of PWID screened postintervention was 65.1% (n = 283), increasing the screening rate by 5.5 percentage points. A χ2 test of homogeneity indicated a significant relationship between the preintervention and postintervention periods, and screening outcomes (P < .001). CONCLUSION: This multifaceted intervention to increase HCV screening resulted in a modest increase in the proportion of PWID screened. Consistent and health care system-wide screening approaches are needed to optimize the potential of HCV treatment and cure options now available.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , North Dakota/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
J Surg Res ; 266: 387-397, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure variability (BPV) describes visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) changes independent of hypertension. Preoperative BPV and intraoperative BPV are associated with increased postoperative outcomes. We investigated the impact of both preoperative BPV and intraoperative BPV on elective surgical outcomes, specifically whether preoperative BPV and intraoperative BPV were independent risk factors for surgical complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 600 patients undergoing elective surgery lasting more than two h and who had ≥8 outpatient BP recordings over three preoperative years. Age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, current medical problems, and medications at time of surgery were recorded. BPV was calculated as the standard deviation (SD) of systolic or diastolic BP for the 369 valid patients. Average BPV were compared between adverse outcomes of readmission, wound infection, acute kidney injury, death, myocardial infarction, and cerebral vascular accident. RESULTS: Three-hundred-sixty-nine (52.6% male, 47.4% female, 98.1% non-Hispanic) patients (mean age 62.5) were included in the study. Preoperative systolic (P = 0.043) and diastolic (P = 0.009) BPV were higher for patients with the combined endpoint of all adverse events. Preoperative systolic BPV was correlated with intraoperative BPV (P = 0.010). Both systolic and diastolic preoperative BPV was found to be independent from intraoperative BPV. Otolaryngology procedures were associated with less adverse outcomes (P = 0.034), whil antimicrobials (P = 0.022), autonomic drugs (P < 0.001), or respiratory drugs (P = 0.032) was associated with an increased likelihood of adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: Preoperative DBPV is associated with increased risk of readmission, wound infection and the combined endpoint of all adverse events. Intraoperative systolic blood pressure variability (SPBV) is associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury and the combined endpoint of all adverse events. Preoperative DBPV and intraoperative SBPV are independent risk factors for ninety-d postoperative outcomes. BPV should be considered in individualized risk assessment when assessing patient eligibility for elective procedures.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Período Intraoperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Dakota/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070906

RESUMO

A rapid and accurate PCR-based method was developed in this study for detecting and identifying a new species of root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus dakotaensis) recently discovered in a soybean field in North Dakota, USA. Species-specific primers, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, were designed to be used in both conventional and quantitative real-time PCR assays for identification of P.dakotaensis. The specificity of the primers was evaluated in silico analysis and laboratory PCR experiments. Results showed that only P.dakotaensis DNA was exclusively amplified in conventional and real-time PCR assays but none of the DNA from other control species were amplified. Detection sensitivity analysis revealed that the conventional PCR was able to detect an equivalent to 1/8 of the DNA of a single nematode whereas real-time PCR detected an equivalent to 1/32 of the DNA of a single nematode. According to the generated standard curve the amplification efficiency of the primers in real-time PCR was 94% with a R2 value of 0.95 between quantification cycle number and log number of P.dakotaensis. To validate the assays to distinguish P.dakotaensis from other Pratylenchus spp. commonly detected in North Dakota soybean fields, 20 soil samples collected from seven counties were tested. The PCR assays amplified the DNA of P.dakotaensis and discriminated it from other Pratylenchus spp. present in North Dakota soybean fields. This is the first report of a species-specific and rapid PCR detection method suitable for use in diagnostic and research laboratories for the detection of P.dakotaensis.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/genética , Animais , Primers do DNA/síntese química , Primers do DNA/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , North Dakota , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tylenchoidea/classificação , Tylenchoidea/isolamento & purificação
5.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(3): 1336-1344, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939818

RESUMO

Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)) has been a major pest of soybean in North America since its detection in this continent in 2000 and subsequent spread. Although several aphid resistance genes have been identified, at least four soybean aphid biotypes have been discovered, with three of them being virulent on soybean cultivars with certain soybean aphid resistance genes. These biotypes are known to vary across years and locations, but information on their variation within single fields is limited. An investigation was conducted to study the variation of soybean aphid biotypes within single townships and fields in Minnesota. Screening of 28 soybean aphid isolates collected from seven soybean fields (six soybean fields in Cairo and Wellington Townships of Renville County, MN and one field in Wilmar Township of Kandiyohi County, MN) revealed the existence of multiple known biotypes of soybean aphid within single fields of soybean. We found up to three biotypes of soybean aphid in a single field. Two biotypes were found in five fields while only one field had only a single biotype. Three isolates presented reactions on a panel of resistant and susceptible indicator lines that were different from known biotypes. These results highlight the importance of characterizing soybean aphid biotypes in small geographical areas and utilizing generated knowledge to develop soybean cultivars pyramided with multiple resistance genes. The outcome will be decreased use of insecticides, thereby improving economic and environmental sustainability of soybean production.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Minnesota , América do Norte , North Dakota , Soja
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251043, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983988

RESUMO

A diverse range of threats have been associated with managed-bee declines globally. Recent increases of two known threats, land-use change and pesticide use, have resulted from agricultural expansion and intensification notably in the top honey-producing state in the United States: North Dakota. This study investigated the dual threat from land conversion and pesticide use surrounding ~14,000 registered apiaries in North Dakota from 2001 to 2014. We estimated the annual total insecticide use (kg) on major crops within 1.6 km of apiary sites. Of the eight insecticides quantified, six showed significant increasing trends over the time period. Specifically, applications of the newly established neonicotinoids Chlothianidin, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam, increased annually by 1329 kg, 686 kg, 795 kg, respectively. Also, the use of Chlorpyrifos, which was well-established in the state by 2001 and is highly toxic to honey bees, increased by ~8,800 kg annually from 6,500 kg in 2001 to 115,000 kg in 2014 on corn, soybeans and wheat. We further evaluated the relative quality changes of natural/semi-natural land covers surrounding apiaries in 2006, 2010 and 2014, a period of significant increases in cropland area. In areas surrounding apiaries, we observed changes in multiple indices of forage quality that reflect the deteriorating landscape surrounding registered apiary sites due to land-use change and pesticide-use increases. Overall, our results suggest that the application of foliar-applied insecticides, including pyrethroids and one organophosphate, increased surrounding apiaries when the use of neonicotinoid seed treatments surged and the area for producing corn and soybeans expanded. Spatially, these threats were most pronounced in southeastern North Dakota, a region hosting a high density of apiary sites that has recently experienced corn and soybean expansion. Our results highlight the value of natural and semi-natural land covers as sources of pollinator forage and refugia for bees against pesticide exposure. Our study provides insights for targeting conservation efforts to improve forage quality benefiting managed pollinators.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas/métodos , Abelhas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Agricultura , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Criação de Abelhas/tendências , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Mel/provisão & distribuição , Inseticidas/toxicidade , North Dakota , Pólen/química , Polinização
7.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(3): 648-651, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857323

RESUMO

Forty female moose (Alces alces) captured in North Dakota, US, in March 2014 were tested for antibodies to a variety of pathogens. Antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) were detected in 39 (98%) moose following a year with a high number of human cases, suggesting the population accurately reflects WNV activity. Fifteen percent of moose (6/40) had antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, implying expansion of the tick vector into the area. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. were detected in 55% of moose (22/40), a higher rate than previously detected in cattle from the region. Low titers (100-400) to one or more serovars of Leptospira spp. were detected in 23% of moose (9/40), a common finding in wild ruminants. Exposure to other pathogens was uncommon (<8%; <3/40) or not documented. Survival and recruitment were high during the study period, suggesting a limited population-level impact at current levels of exposure and environmental co-stressors.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , North Dakota/epidemiologia , Ruminantes
8.
J Pediatr ; 236: 157-163.e1, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the interplay between maternal exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and father's acknowledgment of paternity (AOP; a proxy for paternal involvement) in the risk of low birth weight (<2500 grams) and preterm birth (<37 weeks) among offspring. STUDY DESIGN: Data come from the 2018 North Dakota and South Dakota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 1896). Logistic regression models were used to assess low birth weight and preterm birth outcomes. Moderation analyses are conducted to assess the interaction between maternal ACEs and father's AOP. RESULTS: Moderation analyses demonstrated a positive interaction between an accumulating number of maternal ACEs and being unmarried without AOP for low birth weight and preterm birth. Upon comparing newborns of unmarried women without AOP, those whose mothers were exposed to 4 or more ACEs had a 3.74 times greater probability of low birth weight (0.050 vs 0.187) and a 1.74 times greater probability of preterm birth (0.085 vs 0.148) than those whose mothers reported no ACE exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to accumulating ACEs substantially increases the risk of deleterious infant health outcomes, but only for newborns of unmarried women without AOP. Future research should assess the efficacy of interventions that can mitigate the impact of maternal ACEs in the absence of father's AOP.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Saúde do Lactente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Paterno , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , North Dakota , Paternidade , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , South Dakota
10.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 61(3): e127-e132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has disrupted much of the health care system. Despite changes in routine practices, community pharmacists have continuously served their patients throughout the pandemic. Frontline health care workers, including community pharmacy personnel, are at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to report the prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from a sample of North Dakota community pharmacy personnel. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in 2 cities in North Dakota with the highest COVID-19 rates at the time of investigation. Community pharmacy personnel were tested for the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies using a rapid antibody test. In addition to antibody testing, participants completed a questionnaire reporting on demographics, previous COVID-19 exposure, previous COVID-19 symptoms, and personal protection equipment (PPE) practices. RESULTS: A total of 247 pharmacy personnel from 29 pharmacies were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The timing and use of PPE varied by location. Among the 247 community pharmacy personnel, 14.6% tested positive for IgM, IgG, or both. Survey data revealed a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between a positive antibody test and direct contact with an individual who tested positive for COVID-19 (odds ratio: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.18-5.95]), but there were no statistically significant effects related to the workplace, including PPE use, personnel role, or the number of hours worked. The self-reported loss of taste or smell was the only significant symptom associated with a positive antibody test (18.91 [3.10-115.59]). CONCLUSION: Community pharmacy personnel may be at an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 exposure compared with the general population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Farmácias , Anticorpos Antivirais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , North Dakota/epidemiologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Environ Entomol ; 50(1): 154-159, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595658

RESUMO

The red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus L., is a univoltine seed-feeding pest of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. Artificial infestations of S. fulvus onto sunflowers with traditional (<25% oleic acid), mid-oleic (55-75%), or high oleic (>80%) fatty acid profiles were used to test if fatty acids could be used as natural markers to estimate the proportion of weevils developing on oilseed sunflowers rather than wild Helianthus spp. and confection (non-oil) types. Oleic acid (%) in S. fulvus confirmed the fatty acid compositions of mature larvae and weevil adults reflected their diets, making primary (oleic or linoleic) fatty acids feasible as natural markers for this crop-insect combination. Oleic acid in wild S. fulvus populations in North Dakota suggests at least 84 and 90% of adults originated from mid-oleic or high oleic sunflower hybrids in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Surveys in 2017 (n = 156 fields) and 2019 (n = 120 fields) extended information provided by S. fulvus fatty acid data; no significant spatial patterns of S. fulvus damage were detected in samples, damage to oilseed sunflowers was greater than confection (non-oil) types, and the majority of damage occurred in ≈10% of surveyed fields. Combined, data suggest a few unmanaged or mismanaged oilseed sunflower fields are responsible for producing most S. fulvus in an area. Improved management seems possible with a combination of grower education and expanded use of non-insecticidal tactics, including cultural practices and S. fulvus-resistant hybrids.


Assuntos
Besouros , Helianthus , Gorgulhos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , North Dakota , Sementes
12.
Plant Dis ; 105(6): 1765-1770, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406859

RESUMO

Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight (Goss's wilt) of corn is the most important corn disease in North Dakota (ND), and yield loss due to the disease has not been reliably quantified in northern corn growing regions. To help quantify the amount of yield loss caused by Goss's wilt, a total of six field experiments were conducted from 2015 to 2017. Experiments were designed in a randomized complete block with a split plot arrangement. Hybrids served as main plots and Clavibacter nebraskensis inoculation timings as subplots. Three hybrids were used and classified as susceptible, moderately susceptible, and resistant. Inoculation timings included a noninoculated control, six to 10 leaf collars (V6 to V10), reproductive silk stage (R1), or a sequential combination of V6 to V10 and R1. A high level of disease (greater than 50% on susceptible hybrid) occurred in three experiments, a low level of disease (less than 5% on susceptible hybrid) in one experiment, and no disease was reported in two experiments. A combined analysis of the high disease experiments indicated yield losses of 34 to 41% on the susceptible hybrid when C. nebraskensis inoculation occurred at V6 to V10. Yield losses of 22 to 25% occurred on the moderately susceptible hybrid when C. nebraskensis inoculation occurred at V6 to V10, and statistical differences in yield loss were not found among inoculations timings on the resistant hybrid. Correlation analyses suggest that for every 1% increase in R1 disease severity on the susceptible hybrid, yield was reduced by 117 kg/ha (1.9 bu/acre). The current study further demonstrates the importance of hybrid resistance and provides updated yield loss information on Goss's wilt in a northern corn growing region.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Zea mays , Clavibacter , North Dakota
13.
Plant Dis ; 105(4): 764-769, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074070

RESUMO

Microplot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cover crops on population reduction of a major soybean pest, soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) in 2016 and 2017. Ten crop species, including annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. arvense), carinata (Brassica carinata A. Braun), faba bean (Vicia faba Roth), foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauvois), daikon radish (Raphanus sativus L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis L.), turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.), were planted along with susceptible soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Barnes') in soil naturally infested with each of two SCN populations (SCN103 and SCN2W) from two North Dakota soybean fields. Crops were grown in large plastic pots for 75 days in an outdoor environment (microplot). Soil samples were collected from each pot for nematode extraction and SCN eggs were counted to determine the final SCN egg density. The population reduction was determined for each crop and nonplanted natural soil (fallow). All of the tested crops and nonplanted natural soil had significantly (P < 0.0001) lower final population densities compared with susceptible soybean (Barnes). Also, a significant difference (P < 0.0001) was observed between the SCN population suppressions caused by cover crops versus the fallow treatment. All cover crops except Austrian winter pea, carinata, faba bean, and foxtail millet had consistently lower SCN egg numbers than in fallow in both years of the experiments. The average population reductions of SCN by the cover crops ranged from 44 to 67% in comparison with the initial population density, while the fallow had natural reductions from 4 to 24%. Annual ryegrass and daikon radish reduced SCN egg numbers to a greater extent than the other cover crops, with an average of 65 and 67% reduction of initial population density, respectively, from 2 years. The results suggested that cover crops reduced the SCN populations in external microplot conditions, and their use has great potential for improving SCN management in infested fields.


Assuntos
Cistos , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , North Dakota , Soja
14.
Acad Emerg Med ; 28(1): 98-106, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to estimate the emergency medicine board-certified emergency physician (EMBC EP) workforce supply and demand by U.S. state. METHODS: To estimate state demand, we applied the methodology from our 2005 analysis to calculate full-time equivalent (FTE) EMBC EP demand for each emergency department (ED). The 2017 National Emergency Department Inventory-USA provided visit volumes for all EDs, while the American Board of Medical Specialties supplied the 2017 number of EMBC EPs per state. Assuming that at least one EMBC EP should be present 24/7 in each ED (requiring 5.35 FTEs minimum), we calculated the total FTEs required by dividing each ED's visit volume by the estimated average visits seen by an EMBC EP (3,548 visits per year) and then summed FTEs by state. The U.S. Census Bureau provided state demographic characteristics. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the association between state demographics and the density of EMBC EPs per state and compared 2017 results to our prior 2005 analysis. RESULTS: There were 40,716 total EMBC EPs in 2017, fulfilling 77% of the estimated national demand. This was a substantial increase from 23,035 total EMBC EPs fulfilling 58% of demand in 2005. The 2017 supply ranged from 24% of demand in North Dakota to 142% in Hawaii. A lower density of EMBC EPs was associated with states in the Midwest and South (p < 0.001) and with a more rural population (p = 0.02). The absolute shortage of EMBC EPs worsened or remained the same in one-fourth of states. CONCLUSION: While the total number of EMBC EPs nearly doubled between 2005 and 2017, a shortage of full-time coverage persists. The supply and demand vary greatly by state. Worsening absolute shortages in several states show that the distribution of EMBC EPs is not meeting demand across the United States, particularly in rural areas.


Assuntos
Certificação , Medicina de Emergência , Médicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , North Dakota , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
15.
Plant Dis ; 105(4): 1019-1025, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976076

RESUMO

Damping-off and crown and root rot of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-2 (AG 2-2) are important soilborne diseases in Minnesota and North Dakota. Management involves an integrated approach, including crop rotation, use of resistant cultivars, and timely fungicide application. Our objectives were to evaluate the role of inoculum density and cultivar susceptibility on the onset and development of Rhizoctonia diseases and on yield and quality in sugar beet. Three cultivars varying in susceptibility were sown in field plots inoculated with 0, 20, 40, or 60 kg/ha of R. solani AG 2-2 IIIB infested barley during 2013 and 2015. In both years, there was a significant linear effect of inoculum density with decreasing area under the stand establishment curve (AUSEC), root yield, and sucrose quality as inoculum density increased. Cultivar susceptibility significantly affected AUSEC as well as sucrose quality in both years and root yield in 2013. In both years, there was an inoculum density by cultivar interaction on disease ratings, with the partially resistant cultivar resulting in lower ratings than the moderate and susceptible cultivars, especially as inoculum density increased. These results have implications for cultivar selection and for use and timing of postemergence fungicide application based on field history of inoculum pressure.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Rhizoctonia , Minnesota , North Dakota , Doenças das Plantas , Açúcares
16.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(1): 4-12, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oil development (OD) has been associated with increased sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, with limited focus on the North Dakota (ND) oil boom. Public health (PH) nurse experiences can provide context related to health challenges during OD-related population booms. OBJECTIVE: To compare reported STI rates in ND oil-producing (OP) and non-oil-producing (NOP) counties before, during, and after the oil boom and describe PH nurse experiences during this time. DESIGN: We conducted secondary data analysis of oil production data and reported rates for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and conducted interviews with ND PH nurses. SAMPLE: PH nurses within ND counties geographically located in or near OD in the state. MEASUREMENTS: ND county-level OD data trends were compared to similarly timed reported rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea in OP and NOP counties. PH nurse interviews were conducted addressing their STI-related experiences working in PH during the oil boom. RESULTS: Significant findings include a correlation between OD and gonorrhea rates. PH nurses described a limited PH infrastructure to meet the health needs of a transient, increasing population. CONCLUSIONS: Expanding the role of PH nurses in ND to implement STI screening and treatment would improve access to STI testing allowing for comprehensive reporting of STIs.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras de Saúde Pública , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , North Dakota/epidemiologia , Enfermeiras de Saúde Pública/psicologia , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/enfermagem
17.
Am Surg ; 87(7): 1133-1139, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The procedures that rural general surgeons perform may be changing. It is important to recognize the trends and practices of the current rural general surgeon in efforts to better prepare general surgeons who desire to enter a practice in a rural environment. The aim of this review is to detail the recent operative case volumes of 6 rural locations in the upper Midwest where general surgery is practiced. METHODS: The Enterprise Data and Analytics department of Sanford Health compiled all surgical procedures performed within the Sanford Health System between January 1, 2013 and August 31, 2018. Procedures performed by a total of 58 general surgeons in locations of under 50 000 people are included in this review. RESULTS: From January 1, 2013 to August 31, 2018, 38 958 surgical procedures were performed in rural locations. Endoscopic procedures made up 61.6% of a rural general surgeon's practice. Cholecystectomy (6.3%), hernia repair (6.3%), and appendectomy (3.7%) were the principle nonendoscopic procedures performed by rural surgeons, comprising 16.3% of the case volume. Added together, endoscopy, cholecystectomy, hernia repair, and appendectomy made up 77.9% of the rural general surgeon's caseload. Vascular procedures (2.5%), breast procedures (1.8%), obstetrics (0.4%), and urology procedures (0.2%) are also included in this review. CONCLUSIONS: Rural general surgeons are vital to the surgical workforce in the United States. Recognizing a trend that rural general surgeons perform less subspecialty procedures and more endoscopic procedures will provide direction for those interested in pursuing a career in rural general surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Minnesota , North Dakota , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Carga de Trabalho
18.
J Safety Res ; 75: 24-31, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bicyclist safety is a growing concern as more adults use this form of transportation for recreation, exercise, and mobility. Most bicyclist fatalities result from a crash with a vehicle. Often, the behaviors of the driver are responsible for the crash. METHOD: This survey study of Montana and North Dakota residents (n = 938) examined the influence of traffic safety culture on driver behaviors that affect safe interactions with bicyclists. RESULTS: Prosocial driver behavior was most common and appeared to be intentional. Intention was increased by positive attitudes, normative perceptions, and perceived control. However, normative perceptions appear to offer the most opportunity for change. Practical Application: Strategies that increase perceptions that prosocial driver behavior is normal may increase prosocial intentions, thereby increasing bicyclist safety.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Montana , North Dakota , Adulto Jovem
19.
Plant Dis ; 104(11): 2823-2831, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955406

RESUMO

Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. and de Toni, is an economically important disease in cultivated sunflowers, Helianthus annuus L. Resistance genes incorporated into commercial hybrids are used as an effective disease management tool, but the duration of effectiveness is limited as virulence evolves in the pathogen population. A comprehensive assessment of pathogen virulence was conducted in 2014 and 2015 in the U.S. Great Plains states of North Dakota and South Dakota, where approximately 75% of the U.S. sunflower is produced annually. The virulence phenotypes (and races) of 185 isolates were determined using the U.S. standard set of nine differentials. Additionally, the virulence phenotypes of 61 to 185 isolates were determined on 13 additional lines that have been used to evaluate pathogen virulence in North America and/or internationally. Although widespread virulence was identified on several genes, new virulence was identified on the Pl8 resistance gene, and no virulence was observed on the PlArg, Pl15, Pl17 and Pl18 genes. Results of this study suggest that three additional lines should be used as differentials and agree with previous studies that six lines proposed as differentials should be used in two internationally accepted differential sets. For effective disease management using genetic resistance, it is critical that virulence data be relevant and timely. This is best accomplished when pathogen virulence is determined frequently and by using genetic lines containing resistance genes actively incorporated into commercial cultivars.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , América do Norte , North Dakota , Fenótipo , Estados Unidos , Virulência/genética
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(20)2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769191

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a well-documented phenomenon in bacteria from many natural ecosystems, including wild animals. However, the specific determinants and spatial distribution of resistant bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment remain incompletely understood. In particular, information regarding the importance of anthropogenic sources of AMR relative to that of other biological and ecological influences is lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional study of AMR in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and barred owls (Strix varia) admitted to a rehabilitation center in the midwestern United States. A combination of selective culture enrichment and shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to identify ARGs from Enterobacteriaceae Overall, the prevalence of AMR was comparable to that in past studies of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in raptors, with acquired ARGs being identified in 23% of samples. Multimodel regression analyses identified seasonality and owl age to be important predictors of the likelihood of the presence of ARGs, with birds sampled during warmer months being more likely to harbor ARGs than those sampled during cooler months and with birds in their hatch year being more likely to harbor ß-lactam ARGs than adults. Beyond host-specific determinants, ARG-positive owls were also more likely to be recovered from areas of high agricultural land cover. Spatial clustering analyses identified a significant high-risk cluster of tetracycline resistance gene-positive owls in the southern sampling range, but this could not be explained by any predictor variables. Taken together, these results highlight the complex distribution of AMR in natural environments and suggest that both biological and anthropogenic factors play important roles in determining the emergence and persistence of AMR in wildlife.IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a multifaceted problem that poses a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Recent reports suggest that wildlife may play an important role in the emergence, dissemination, and persistence of AMR. As such, there have been calls for better integration of wildlife into current research on AMR, including the use of wild animals as biosentinels of AMR contamination in the environment. A One Health approach can be used to gain a better understanding of all AMR sources and pathways, particularly those at the human-animal-environment interface. Our study focuses on this interface in order to assess the effect of human-impacted landscapes on AMR in a wild animal. This work highlights the value of wildlife rehabilitation centers for environmental AMR surveillance and demonstrates how metagenomic sequencing within a spatial epidemiology framework can be used to address questions surrounding AMR complexity in natural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Estrigiformes/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Genes Bacterianos , Metagenômica , Minnesota/epidemiologia , North Dakota/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
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