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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(1): 37-50, jan.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1092171

RESUMO

Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar questões sociais e psicológicas relacionadas ao fenômeno do sexting, que se refere à prática de compartilhamento de imagens íntimas na internet e redes sociais. Por intermédio de uma análise não-sistematizada da literatura, sobretudo de publicações internacionais, pretende-se: i) definir o sexting, levando em consideração os aspectos consensuais presentes na literatura da área; ii) explicar sua ocorrência na contemporaneidade, avaliando possíveis impactos na saúde mental das pessoas, em especial de adolescentes; iii) refletir sobre os fatores de risco e proteção que estão circunscritos à manifestação do sexting; iv) apresentar as implicações jurídicas em casos de divulgação indevidas de imagens íntimas. Entende-se que as discussões apresentadas no decorrer deste artigo podem abrir espaços para um campo de investigação pouco explorado na literatura nacional.


This article aim to analyze social and psychological issues related to the phenomenon of sexting, which refers to the practice of sharing intimate images on the internet and social networks. Through a non-systematized analysis of the literature, especially of international publications, it is intended to: i) define sexting, taking into account the consensual aspects present in the literature of the area; ii) explain its occurrence in the contemporary world, evaluating possible impacts on the mental health of people, especially adolescents; iii) reflect about the risk and protection factors that are involved to the manifestation of sexting; iv) present the legal implications in cases of inappropriate exposure of intimate images. It is understood that the discussions presented in this article may open spaces for a little explored field of investigation in the national literature.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo central analizar cuestiones sociales y psicológicas relacionadas con el fenómeno del sexting, que se refiere a la práctica de compartir imágenes íntimas en Internet y redes sociales. Por medio de un análisis no sistematizado de la literatura, sobre todo de publicaciones internacionales, se pretende: i) definir el sexting, teniendo en cuenta los aspectos consensuados presentes en la literatura del área; ii) explicar su ocurrencia en la contemporaneidad, evaluando posibles impactos en la salud mental de las personas, en especial de adolescentes; iii) reflexionar sobre los factores de riesgo y protección que están circunscritos a la manifestación del sexting; iv) presentar las implicaciones jurídicas en casos de divulgación indebida de imágenes íntimas. Se entiende que las discusiones presentadas en el transcurso de este artículo pueden abrir espacios para un campo de investigación poco explorado en la literatura nacional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento do Adolescente , Normas Jurídicas , Fatores de Proteção , Redes Sociais Online , Nudismo
2.
Transl Behav Med ; 9(4): 737-748, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648613

RESUMO

Rates of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are on the rise in the USA with data revealing disproportionate increase in female young adults. The popularity of intentional skin tanning among U.S. adolescents is attributed to several factors, including prioritization of physical appearance, media images of tanned celebrities, ease of availability of artificial tanning facilities, and more recently, the prevalence and celebration of tanned skin on social media. Pinterest, as the third most popular social media platform, was searched for "pins" about skin tanning. The resultant "pins" were examined to understand the extent and characteristics of skin tanning portrayed on Pinterest. We analyzed pins on Pinterest about skin tanning (n = 501) through a quantitative content analysis. Overall, results indicated an overwhelmingly protanning characteristic of pins about skin tanning on Pinterest, with over 85% of pins promoting tanning behavior. The pins were generally characterized by the portrayal of a female subject (61%) and provided positive reinforcement for tanning (49%). Use of tanning for enhancing appearance was the main positive outcome expectancy portrayed in the pins (35%), and nudity or exposure of skin on arms (32%) and legs (31%) was evident in about a third of pins. With overwhelmingly positive pins promoting tanning, use of female subjects, exhibiting nudity, and appearance enhancement, there seems be to a consistent targeting of female users to accept tanning as a socially acceptable and popular behavior. The findings indicate a need for developing sun protection messages and the leveraging of social media for dissemination of skin cancer prevention and detection messages.


Assuntos
Nudismo/tendências , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Curtume/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Nudismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aparência Física/fisiologia , Prevalência , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Curtume/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 24(1): 49-64, jan.- mar. 2018. ILUS
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-967449

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar representações sobre o corpo, produzidas a partir do movimento nudista. Isso será feito abordando as disputas sobre as fotografias publicadas em revistas nudistas durante a década de 1950 no Rio de Janeiro. Ao lado das próprias revistas, jornais, documentos judiciais e livros serão utilizados como fontes primárias, abordadas por meio do conceito de representação (CHARTIER, 2002). Observou-se que as publicações nudistas e a expansão das práticas do movimento produziram representações que evidenciam tensões sobre a relevância do corpo e da exposição corporal na sociedade carioca do período em questão


This work studies representations of the body produced within the nudist movement by looking into debates over photographs published in nudist magazines during the 1950s in Rio de Janeiro. Besides magazines themselves, newspapers, legal documents and books will be used as primary sources addressed through the concept of representation (CHARTIER, 2002). It was found that nudist publications and the expansion of the movement's practices produced representations that show tension regarding the importance of bodies and body exposure in Rio de Janeiro's society of that time


El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar representaciones sobre el cuerpo, producidas a partir del movimiento nudista. Esto se hará abordando las disputas sobre las fotografías publicadas en revistas nudistas durante la década de 1950 en Rio de Janeiro. Además de las revistas, serán utilizados periódicos, documentos legales y libros como fuentes primarias, abordadas a través del concepto de representación (Chartier, 2002). Se observó que las publicaciones nudistas y la expansión de las prácticas del movimiento produjeron representaciones que muestran tensiones sobre la relevancia del cuerpo y de la exposición corporal en la sociedad de Rio de Janeiro de la época


Assuntos
Humanos , Nudismo , Fotografação , Corpo Humano
5.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 21(1): 16-24, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261342

RESUMO

This study builds on research about the importance of body presentation among men who have sex with men (MSM) by exploring the phenomenon of nude body presentation in online dating environments. In a quantitative survey of N = 9,235 MSM users of a gay online dating site (ODS) in Germany, the prevalence of nude pictures and gratifications sought while displaying them were investigated. About two-thirds of the participants declared that they use nude pictures in their dating profiles, with only small differences in prevalence between members of different ages, education levels, and sexual orientation. Furthermore, the results indicate that the use of nudity is driven by three underlying gratifications: (1) Attracting attention, meaning that nudity is used to accelerate sexual outcomes from online dating use; (2) empowerment, meaning that nudity online serves as an environment for otherwise and elsewhere inhibited forms of body presentation; and (3) self-verification, whereby nudity is used as a means of receiving affirmation from others. Regression analyses are used to investigate associations of these gratifications with sociodemographics and online dating behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to earlier research on self-presentation as well as theories of body importance among gay men. While earlier research has mainly focused on the negative implications of body presentation (e.g., self-objectification; reinforcing standards of beauty), the findings of this study hint that ODS may provide a platform for acts of nude body presentation that are not possible elsewhere and are thus accompanied by empowerment and self-verification.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Nudismo/psicologia , Autorrevelação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Alemanha , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poder Psicológico , Prevalência , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Biol Psychol ; 103: 167-75, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25224182

RESUMO

The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Corpo Humano , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nudismo , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMJ ; 344: e3058, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22549058
12.
PLoS One ; 6(11): e24408, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22110574

RESUMO

Recent event-related potential studies have shown that the occipitotemporal N170 component--best known for its sensitivity to faces--is also sensitive to perception of human bodies. Considering that in the timescale of evolution clothing is a relatively new invention that hides the bodily features relevant for sexual selection and arousal, we investigated whether the early N170 brain response would be enhanced to nude over clothed bodies. In two experiments, we measured N170 responses to nude bodies, bodies wearing swimsuits, clothed bodies, faces, and control stimuli (cars). We found that the N170 amplitude was larger to opposite and same-sex nude vs. clothed bodies. Moreover, the N170 amplitude increased linearly as the amount of clothing decreased from full clothing via swimsuits to nude bodies. Strikingly, the N170 response to nude bodies was even greater than that to faces, and the N170 amplitude to bodies was independent of whether the face of the bodies was visible or not. All human stimuli evoked greater N170 responses than did the control stimulus. Autonomic measurements and self-evaluations showed that nude bodies were affectively more arousing compared to the other stimulus categories. We conclude that the early visual processing of human bodies is sensitive to the visibility of the sex-related features of human bodies and that the visual processing of other people's nude bodies is enhanced in the brain. This enhancement is likely to reflect affective arousal elicited by nude bodies. Such facilitated visual processing of other people's nude bodies is possibly beneficial in identifying potential mating partners and competitors, and for triggering sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Face , Corpo Humano , Nudismo , Sexualidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Automóveis , Vestuário , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nudismo/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores Sexuais , Sexualidade/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arch Sex Behav ; 40(5): 1007-14, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20814814

RESUMO

Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.


Assuntos
Face , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Nudismo , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação
15.
Ger Life Lett ; 64(1): 31-42, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21186682

RESUMO

In her essays on Wieland, written around 1980, Elizabeth Boa went against contemporary fashion both by praising a neglected writer and by vindicating the role of pleasure in the reception of literature. She noted how Wieland varies a literary topos ­ a man watching a woman bathing naked ­ by letting women watch men bathing naked. This topos most often occurs in the pastoral, a popular eighteenth-century genre. Various examples are examined to show that they suggest equality rather than male dominance in relations between the sexes: men watching women bathing in James Thomson and Gottfried Keller; an example involving cross-dressing in Kleist; and finally women watching men bathing naked in Swift, Voltaire and Wieland's Idris und Zenide.


Assuntos
Banhos , Relações Interpessoais , Literatura , Nudismo , Prazer , Mulheres , Banhos/história , Banhos/psicologia , História do Século XX , Corpo Humano , Relações Interpessoais/história , Literatura/história , Nudismo/história , Nudismo/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Mulheres/educação , Mulheres/história , Mulheres/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/história
20.
J Sex Res ; 46(5): 446-59, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19288337

RESUMO

Little research has been conducted with regard to how women view male nudity. The purpose of this analysis was to present an historical case study of Viva, a 1970s women's magazine geared toward the presentation of male nudity. Implicit in Viva's editorial direction was the assumption that women's sexuality is socially constructed and, thus, modifiable but also homologous to men's sexuality. Using sexual scripting theory as a sensitizing concept, a content analysis of women's letters to the editor was conducted. Letters justified inclusion of male nudity on the basis of principles of fairness and equality with men. In addition, letters tried to demarcate boundary conditions for what constituted acceptable male nudity in terms of the presence of erection, size, shape, and coloring of the penis, and whether inclusion of the penis was contextualized by other physical traits such as body musculature. Despite an early effort to modify cultural scripts on the basis of a constructivist world view, it was found that, ultimately, Viva advocated an essentialist viewpoint that reified existing conceptualizations of female sexuality as both static and uninterested in the visual representation of sexually related material. This study explored whether Viva's essentialist final position may have reflected financial exigencies rather than ideologies.


Assuntos
Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Nudismo/história , Nudismo/psicologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Sexualidade/psicologia , Correspondência como Assunto , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos
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