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1.
Public Health ; 202: 113-120, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate how early-life exposure to famine affected the development of overweight, general obesity and abdominal obesity in Chinese adults. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a 22-year cohort study. METHODS: Data were derived from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which is a national prospective cohort study. All participants born between 1949 and 1966 were potentially eligible. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured by trained healthcare workers. Height and weight were used to calculate body mass index, which was used to define general obesity and WC was used to define abdominal obesity. Exposure to famine was defined using the birth date as follows: no exposure (participants born between 1962 and 1966); fetal exposure (participants born between 1959 and 1961); early childhood exposure (participants born between 1956 and 1958); mid-childhood exposure (participants born between 1953 and 1955); and late childhood exposure (participants born between 1949 and 1952). RESULTS: In total, 6957 participants were included in this study. Results indicate that exposure to famine was linked to a lower risk of being overweight. Exposure to famine in mid-childhood decreased the risk of general obesity in both males (hazard ratio [HR] 0.485, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.292-0.807 [P = 0.005]) and females (HR 0.426, 95% CI 0.256-0.709 [P = 0.001]). Exposure to famine during any period of childhood decreased the risk of abdominal obesity (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to famine in early childhood decreased the risk of overweight and abdominal obesity in adulthood; however, exposure to famine only had a weak role in the development of general obesity.


Assuntos
Fome Epidêmica , Inanição , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Obesidade Abdominal , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Appetite ; 168: 105785, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728248

RESUMO

Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with a cut-off value of 0.5 has been recognized as an anthropometric indicator of central obesity to predict the risk of the chronic disease. The aim of our study was to identify dietary related risk factors of central obesity based on WHtR. We used cross-sectional data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2011 obtained from 2881 married women aged 19-55. The association of dietary related factors and central obesity was analyzed using binary logistic regression and back-propagation artificial neural network. Overall, central obesity prevalence was 48.4% (1394/2881). Compared to the population of women without central obesity, the population of women with central obesity had an older average age (41.84 ± 6.89 years vs 38.45 ± 7.91 years, P < 0.001), and meanwhile an average lower per capita annual income (13904 ± 15916 CNY vs 16753 ± 19163 CNY, P < 0.001). Our analysis indicated that the score of dietary knowledge (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.956; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.936-0.976) and the score of food preferences (aOR, 0.961; 95% CI, 0.926-0.997) were significantly associated with lower risk of central obesity; whereas fast food (aOR, 1.002; 95% CI, 1.000-1.003) was associated with higher risk of central obesity. The study showed the score of dietary knowledge (15.5%), fast foods (10.2%), and the score of food preferences (8.8%) were the most important modifiable factors for central obesity. In summary, aging, fast food intake, and lower per capita annual income were positively associated with higher prevalence of central obesity, while higher scores of dietary knowledge and food preferences were negatively correlated. More nutrition education programs should be implemented by the government to strengthen the pro-healthy dietary behaviors.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nutrition ; 93: 111443, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) with the risk for hypertension and to compare the ability of the METS-VF, the metabolic score for insulin resistance, visceral adiposity index, waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index to predict hypertension incidence based on a large prospective study of rural Chinese individuals. METHODS: In all, 10 297 non-hypertensive adults (≥18 y of age) from a rural Chinese cohort study in 2007 and 2008 were included at baseline and followed up in 2013 and 2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between baseline METS-VF and hypertension risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict hypertension incidence. RESULTS: We identified 2071 hypertension cases during follow-up. After adjusting for multivariable confounding factors, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus lowest METS-VF quartile overall and for men and women were 3.84 (3.23-4.56), 3.25 (2.48-4.24), and 4.14 (3.30-5.20), respectively. Also, per-SD increase in METS-VF was positively associated with hypertension risk overall and for men and women. Similar results were found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Finally, the AUC value for hypertension was higher for METS-VF than the other five indices overall and for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that METS-VF was positively associated with hypertension incidence and performed better in predicting hypertension risk than five other indices, which suggests that METS-VF is a reliable predictor of hypertension in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Adiposidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960109

RESUMO

Aging women experience hormonal changes, such as decreased estrogen and increased circulating androgen, due to natural or surgical menopause. These hormonal changes make postmenopausal women vulnerable to body composition changes, muscle loss, and abdominal obesity; with a sedentary lifestyle, these changes affect overall energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate. In addition, fat redistribution due to hormonal changes leads to changes in body shape. In particular, increased bone marrow-derived adipocytes due to estrogen loss contribute to increased visceral fat in postmenopausal women. Enhanced visceral fat lipolysis by adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase triggers the production of excessive free fatty acids, causing insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. Because genes involved in ß-oxidation are downregulated by estradiol loss, excess free fatty acids produced by lipolysis of visceral fat cannot be used appropriately as an energy source through ß-oxidation. Moreover, aged women show increased adipogenesis due to upregulated expression of genes related to fat accumulation. As a result, the catabolism of ATP production associated with ß-oxidation decreases, and metabolism associated with lipid synthesis increases. This review describes the changes in energy metabolism and lipid metabolic abnormalities that are the background of weight gain in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Pós-Menopausa , Adipogenia , Idoso , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Lipólise , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Oxirredução
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948483

RESUMO

The A Body Shape Index (ABSI) was recently introduced to quantify abdominal adiposity relative to the body mass index (BMI) and height. This cross-sectional study was performed to explore whether the ABSI is linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in older adults and compare the predictive capacity of the ABSI versus BMI for CKD. In total, 7053 people aged ≥ 60 years were divided into normal, mild, and moderate-to-severe CKD groups based on their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The correlation of the ABSI with the eGFR and the differences and trends in the ABSI and BMI among the groups were analyzed, and the cutoff points for moderate-to-severe CKD were calculated. The association between the ABSI and CKD was stronger than that between the BMI and CKD. The ABSI had a better capacity to discriminate the CKD stage than did the BMI. The capacity of the ABSI to predict moderate-to-severe CKD was higher than that of the BMI and was more substantial in women than men. The ABSI cutoff points for CKD were ≥0.0822 and 0.0795 in men and women, respectively. In conclusion, the ABSI serves as a better index than the BMI for screening and detecting high-risk individuals with CKD.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 928, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People from South Asia are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). There is an urgent need to develop approaches for the prevention of T2D in South Asians that are cost-effective, generalisable and scalable across settings. HYPOTHESIS: Compared to usual care, the risk of T2D can be reduced amongst South Asians with central obesity or raised HbA1c, through a 12-month lifestyle modification programme delivered by community health workers. DESIGN: Cluster randomised clinical trial (1:1 allocation to intervention or usual care), carried out in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the UK, with 30 sites per country (120 sites total). Target recruitment 3600 (30 participants per site) with annual follow-up for 3 years. ENTRY CRITERIA: South Asian, men or women, age 40-70 years with (i) central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 100 cm in India and Pakistan; ≥90 cm in Sri Lanka) and/or (ii) prediabetes (HbA1c 6.0-6.4% inclusive). EXCLUSION CRITERIA: known type 1 or 2 diabetes, normal or underweight (body mass index < 22 kg/m2); pregnant or planning pregnancy; unstable residence or planning to leave the area; and serious illness. ENDPOINTS: The primary endpoint is new-onset T2D at 3 years, defined as (i) HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or (ii) physician diagnosis and on treatment for T2D. Secondary endpoints at 1 and 3 years are the following: (i) physical measures: waist circumference, weight and blood pressure; (ii) lifestyle measures: smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity and dietary intake; (iii) biochemical measures: fasting glucose, insulin and lipids (total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides); and (iv) treatment compliance. INTERVENTION: Lifestyle intervention (60 sites) or usual care (60 sites). Lifestyle intervention was delivered by a trained community health worker over 12 months (5 one-one sessions, 4 group sessions, 13 telephone sessions) with the goal of the participants achieving a 7% reduction in body mass index and a 10-cm reduction in waist circumference through (i) improved diet and (ii) increased physical activity. Usual care comprised a single 30-min session of lifestyle modification advice from the community health worker. RESULTS: We screened 33,212 people for inclusion into the study. We identified 10,930 people who met study entry criteria, amongst whom 3682 agreed to take part in the intervention. Study participants are 49.2% female and aged 52.8 (SD 8.2) years. Clinical characteristics are well balanced between intervention and usual care sites. More than 90% of follow-up visits are scheduled to be complete in December 2020. Based on the follow-up to end 2019, the observed incidence of T2D in the study population is in line with expectations (6.1% per annum). CONCLUSION: The iHealth-T2D study will advance understanding of strategies for the prevention of diabetes amongst South Asians, use approaches for screening and intervention that are adapted for low-resource settings. Our study will thus inform the implementation of strategies for improving the health and well-being of this major global ethnic group. IRB APPROVAL: 16/WM/0171 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2016-001350-18 . Registered on 14 April 2016. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02949739 . Registered on 31 October 2016, First posted on 31/10/2016.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(11): 1962-1968, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818841

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate longitudinal association between smoking behavior and obesity risk in male adults in China from 1991 to 2015. Methods: A total of 32 169 male adults aged 18-64 years who participated in two or more rounds of China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 1991-2015) and had complete information of demographic characteristics, smoking status and physical measurements were selected as the study subjects. According to whether the subjects smoked or not and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the subjects were divided into four groups: nonsmoker, light smoker (1-14 cigarettes/d), moderate smoker (15-24 cigarettes/d) and heavy smoker (≥25 cigarettes/d). The distribution of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), general obesity and central obesity of subjects with different smoking status were observed. Two-level mixed effect linear regression model and logistic regression model were used to analyze the relationship between smoking status and obesity risk. Results: Compared with nonsmokers, the BMI decreased by 0.19 kg/m2 in light smokers (95%CI:-0.27--0.10), 0.40 kg/m2 in moderate smokers (95%CI:-0.49--0.31), and 0.36 kg/m2 in heavy smokers (95%CI:-0.53--0.19), respectively, and the WC decreased by 0.49 cm in light smokers (95%CI:-0.76--0.21), 0.80 cm in moderate smokers (95%CI:-1.08--0.51) and 0.79 cm in heavy smokers (95%CI:-1.38--0.36) in, respectively. Compared with nonsmokers, the odds ratio of the risk for general and abdominal obesity were 0.70 (95%CI:0.62-0.79) and 0.78 (95%CI:0.73-0.84) in light smokers, 0.61 (95%CI:0.55-0.69) and 0.74 (95%CI:0.70-0.79) in moderate smokers and 0.78 (95%CI:0.65-0.96) and 0.84 (95%CI:0.76-0.95) in heavy smokers, respectively. Conclusions: From 1991 to 2015, the BMI, WC, prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in male adults showed a significant upward trends in both nonsmokers and smokers (light, moderate and heavy) in China, suggesting that smoking is negatively associated with the risk for obesity in male adults.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal , Obesidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769955

RESUMO

(1) Background: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of normal weight with central obesity (NWCO) and to examine the relationship between NWCO and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults of the province of Shaanxi. (2) Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among residents who were aged 18-80 years and had been living in Zhenba County, Shaanxi Province, for over six months in 2018. Descriptive data analysis and prevalence/frequency were conducted. Logistic regression analyses were used to detect the corresponding factors associated with central obesity. (3) Results: A total of 2312 participants (936 men and 1376 women) were analyzed. The prevalence of NWCO was 58.3%. NWCO was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia. Compared with normal weight non-central obesity (NWNO), the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension were 1.47 (95% CI 1.10-1.98) in men and 1.55 (1.14-2.10) in women, and the corresponding odds ratios for dyslipidemia were 2.71 (1.77-4.13) in men and 1.84 (1.29-2.61) in women. Female sex, age over 58 years, and lower education level were also significantly predictors of abdominal obesity. (4) Conclusions: Body mass index alone as a measure of obesity is not sufficient for assessing health risks. Central obesity index should be used together for clinical assessment.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Obesidade Abdominal , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(5): 292-300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719614

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of risk factors related to the development of mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Its prevalence has increased worldwide, and healthcare systems will face major challenges in addressing this problem. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on insulin resistance (IR) and obesity associated with MS in Wistar rats. The experimental design consisted of three groups of sucrose-induced MS rats: the MS group that consumed sucrose (MS-Suc; n=5), the MS group that ingested sucrose and HBOT (MS-Suc-HBOT; n=5), the MS group that did not consume sucrose and that received HBOT (MS-HBOT; n=5) and the control group. The rats received HBOT for 20 d at 2.4 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 60 min. Subsequently, the rats were euthanized, and body fat weight, serum biochemical parameters and microscopic analysis of adipose tissue were determined. Rats with hyperoxia had decreased body weight, adipose tissue hypertrophy, and abdominal and epididymal fat. Likewise, markers of insulin resistance (glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR), biochemical parameters of dyslipidemia (cholesterol and triglycerides) and nonalcoholic fatty liver (AST and ALT) decreased; in contrast, compared to the control group, HBOT increased the 1/HOMA-IR, HOMA-ßCell and McAuley indexes, which were related to the improvement in insulin sensitivity (p<0.05; p<0.01). HBOT showed beneficial effects in the treatment of IR and obesity associated with sucrose-induced metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade Abdominal , Animais , Sacarose na Dieta , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade Abdominal/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1084, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known on the gender-specific effect and potential role of non-linear associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and liver cancer risk. We evaluated these associations based on the UK Biobank cohort. METHODS: We included 474,929 individuals without previous cancer based on the UK Biobank cohort. Gender-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Non-linear associations for individual MetS components were assessed by the restricted cubic spline method. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 6.6 years, we observed 276 cases of liver cancer (175 men, 101 women). MetS [HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.27-1.72] and central obesity [HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.18-2.31] were associated with higher risk of liver cancer in men but not in women. Participants with hyperglycaemia has higher risk of liver cancer. High waist circumference and blood glucose were dose-dependently associated with increased liver cancer risk in both genders. For high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (both genders) and blood pressure (women), U-shaped associations were observed. Low HDL cholesterol (< 1.35 mmol/L) in men and high HDL cholesterol in women (> 1.52 mmol/L) were associated with increased liver cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: MetS components showed gender-specific linear or U- shaped associations with the risk of liver cancer. Our study might provide evidence for individualized management of MetS for preventing liver cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
11.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 333-340, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620337

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop and validate risk scores for predicting abdominal obesity in South American children and adolescents based on extrinsic and intrinsic variables. METHODS: Children (n = 358) and adolescents (n = 369) from seven South American cities from the South American Youth Cardiovascular and Environmental (SAYCARE) Study. The primary outcome was abdominal obesity. Potential predictors were based on sociodemographic, maternal, environmental, and behavioural factors and nutritional status. In multilevel logistic models, associated variables were tested to build the scores, which were internally validated. RESULTS: We identified 120 children and 98 adolescents who were abdominally obese. We found at least five variables associated with the outcome in children with unacceptable predictive capacity. However, in adolescents, we found that biological sex, age, maternal body mass index (BMI), active commuting by bike, soft drink consumption (for risk score A), and weight (for score B) can predict abdominal obesity. Both scores, A and B, showed acceptable performance in the ROC curve [areas under curve: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.82) and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.89-1.00), respectively]. CONCLUSION: The SAYCARE risk scores present accurate, individualised estimates for identifying adolescents who are at risk of developing abdominal obesity. However, these have not been externally validated.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Obesidade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 436, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The number of older people is estimated to increase from 524 million in 2010 to 1.5 billion in 2050. The factors and models of human longevity and successful aging are questions that have intrigued individuals for thousands of years. For the first time, the current study was designed to investigate the relationships between sex hormones, bone turnover, abdominal obesity, nutritional status and centenarian longevity in the oldest females. METHODS: The China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study was performed in 18 cities and counties of Hainan Province using standard methodology in 500 centenarian females and 237 oldest females aged between 80 and 99 years. RESULTS: Centenarians were inversely associated with the geriatric nutritional risk index [Exp(B) (95% CI): 0.901 (0.883-0.919)] and abdominal obesity [Exp(B) (95% CI): 0.719 (0.520-0.996)] and positively associated with prolactin [Exp(B) (95% CI): 1.073 (1.044-1.103)], progesterone [Exp(B) (95% CI): 44.182 (22.036-88.584)], estradiol [Exp(B) (95% CI): 1.094 (1.071-1.119)], osteocalcin [Exp(B) (95% CI): 1.041 (1.028-1.054)], ß-crossLaps [Exp(B) (95% CI): 63.141 (24.482-162.848)] and parathyroid [Exp(B) (95% CI): 1.022 (1.013-1.031)] hormone levels (P < 0.05 for all). The geriatric nutritional risk index and abdominal obesity were inversely associated with luteinizing hormone [ß coefficient (95% CI): - 0.001 (- 0.002 to 0.001)]; Exp(B) (95% CI): 0.985 (0.974-0.996)], follicle-stimulating hormone [ß coefficient (95% CI): 0.000 (- 0.001 to 0.000)]; Exp(B) (95% CI): 0.990 (0.985-0.996)], osteocalcin [ß coefficient (95% CI): - 0.001 (- 0.001 to 0.000)]; Exp(B) (95% CI): 0.987(0.977-0.997)] and ß-crossLaps [ß coefficient (95% CI): - 0.100 (- 0.130 to 0.071)]; Exp(B) (95% CI): 0.338 (0.166-0.689)] levels (P < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Centenarian longevity had inverse relationships with nutritional status and abdominal obesity and positive relationships with sex hormones and bone turnover. Nutritional status and abdominal obesity had inverse relationships with sex hormones and bone turnover. Increased sex hormones and bone turnover may be representative of centenarian longevity. Optimizing nutritional status and avoiding abdominal obesity may increase sex hormones and bone turnover and promote centenarian longevity and successful aging.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Obesidade Abdominal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Remodelação Óssea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e048221, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The measurement of visceral fat (VF) is clinically important for the identification of individuals at high risk of visceral obesity-related health conditions. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely available and frequently used body composition assessment method, but there have been few validation studies for the measurement of VF. This validation study investigated agreement between BIA and CT for the assessment of VF in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Between 2015 and 2016 in China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 414 adults (119 men and 295 women) aged 40-82 years. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: CT-visceral fat area (VFA) was derived at the L2-3 and umbilicus level and VFA cut-offs for visceral obesity applied. BIA measurements of visceral fat level were compared with CT VFA findings using scatter plots and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: Scatter plots showed poor agreement between BIA and CT-derived visceral fat measurements in both sexes (R=0.387-0.636). ROC curves gave optimum figures for sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 69% in women and 76% and 70% in men, respectively, for BIA to discriminate between adults with normal levels of VF and those with visceral obesity determined by CT. CONCLUSION: BIA has limited accuracy for the assessment of VF in adults in practice when compared with the criterion method.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3122-3130, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) is independently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Abdominal obesity, defined by waist circumference, is a predictor of cardiovascular events. Recently, relative fat mass (RFM) was proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk. We assessed the role of three different measures of obesity to predict unprovoked VTE in a longitudinal study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Moli-sani is a prospective cohort study carried out in the general population of the Molise region, Italy. A total of 23,538 individuals (48% men, age 55.4 years) enrolled between 2005 and 2010 were eligible. Patients on anticoagulant treatment were excluded. BMI ≥30 kg/m2 defined obesity, waist circumference >102 cm for men or 88 cm for women defined abdominal obesity, tertiles of RFM were compared. The long-term incidence of first unprovoked VTE during follow-up was assessed. Overall, 29.6% individuals were obese and 44.2% had abdominal obesity. A total of 66 first unprovoked VTE events were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 8.2 years. After multivariable Cox regression analysis, the risk of unprovoked VTE was significantly higher in obese participants (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.16-3.07) than in participants with BMI <30; in subjects with abdominal obesity than with normal waist circumference (HR 2.19, 1.26-3.81); and in subjects with third vs first RFM tertile index (HR 2.46, 1.15-5.28). The areas under the curves for the models including the three obesity indexes were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Three indexes of obesity based on BMI, waist circumference or RFM similarly predict first occurrence of unprovoked VTE.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico
15.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 86, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaussian graphical model (GGM) has been introduced as a new approach to identify patterns of dietary intake. We aimed to investigate the link between dietary networks derived through GGM and obesity in Iranian adults. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 850 men and women (age range: 20-59 years) who attended the local health centers in Tehran. Dietary intake was evaluated by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. GGM was applied to identify dietary networks. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of general and abdominal adiposity across tertiles of dietary network scores were estimated using logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, physical activity, smoking status, marital status, education, energy intake and menopausal status. RESULTS: GGM identified three dietary networks, where 30 foods were grouped into six communities. The identified networks were healthy, unhealthy and saturated fats networks, wherein cooked vegetables, processed meat and butter were, respectively, central to the networks. Being in the top tertile of saturated fats network score was associated with a higher likelihood of central obesity by waist-to-hip ratio (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.25; P for trend: 0.01). There was also a marginally significant positive association between higher unhealthy network score and odds of central obesity by waist circumference (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 0.94, 2.37; P for trend: 0.09). Healthy network was not associated with central adiposity. There was no association between dietary network scores and general obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy and saturated fat dietary networks were associated with abdominal adiposity in adults. GGM-derived dietary networks represent dietary patterns and can be used to investigate diet-disease associations.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707758

RESUMO

Introduction: metabolic syndrome portends an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death. Evidence showed that healthcare workers are at higher risk of cardiovascular events because of their engagement in night-shift work. Therefore, this study determined the association between metabolic syndrome and healthcare work status in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study involving 105 healthcare workers and 143 non-healthcare workers. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made based on the International Diabetic Federation criteria: abdominal obesity plus, any two of: elevated blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg or previous diagnosis of hypertension on the use of antihypertensive medications; impaired fasting glucose; elevated triglycerides; and low HDL-cholesterol. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome were analysed using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results: men comprised 37.9% of the study population and the mean age was 42.1 ± 9.7 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar in both groups (HCWs-29.5% vs non-HCWs- 28.0%, p-value=0.789); overall prevalence was 28.6%. Abdominal obesity, elevated total cholesterol and elevated LDL-cholesterol occurred more frequently in HCWs than in non-HCWs: (68.6% vs 55.2%, p-value=0.034; 65.7% vs 39.2%, p-value= < 0.001 and 50.5 vs 28.7%; p-value < 0.001) respectively. Female sex (aOR: 3.67, 95% CI: 1.74-7.45; p < 0.001) and obesity (aOR: 4.39, 95% CI: 2.31-8.37; p < 0.001) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: a similar prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in the healthcare workers and the non- healthcare workers. However, abdominal obesity, elevated total cholesterol and elevated LDL-cholesterol occurred more frequently in healthcare workers than in non- healthcare workers.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684374

RESUMO

Anthropometric indicators of general and abdominal obesity can predict cardiovascular disease outcomes. Their performance in predicting hypertension (HTN) varies across populations. We aimed to analyze the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (CI) with HTN, to examine their predictive performance and to determine their optimal cut-offs in a nationally representative sample of Albanians aged 15-59 years (n = 20,635). Logistic regression models were fitted and sex-specific receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed. The indicators were positively associated with HTN. Sex modified the relationships, as associations appeared significantly stronger among females than males in the highest categories of the indicators. The area under ROC curves (AUCs) for BMI were 0.729 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.720-0.738) among females and 0.648 (95% CI: 0.633-0.663) among males, and AUCs for WHtR were 0.725 (95% CI: 0.716-0.734) among females and 0.637 (95% CI: 0.622-0.652) among males. However, the AUCs for BMI and WHtR did not differ significantly among females (p = 0.279) and males (p = 0.227). BMI outperformed WC and CI in both sexes. The optimal BMI cut-offs were 27.0 kg/m2 among females and 25.6 kg/m2 among males, and that for WHtR were 0.53 among females and 0.54 among males. BMI and WHtR demonstrated similar discriminatory power, and the identified cut-offs may inform initiatives for structured HTN screening in Albania.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Albânia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699701

RESUMO

Aim: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with weight gain and extreme central, visceral, abdominal obesity which is confirmed with dual-energy X-rays absorptiometric (DXA) diagnostic cut-off point (CP) values of central obesity indexes (COI), determined as an android to gynoid tissue and fat mass ratios. These best differentiate CS from non-CS obese women matched with CS according to their age and BMI. The aim of this study was to determine the CP values of new DXA indexes of central, abdominal obesity as a ratio of android and trunk to legs as well as trunk and legs to total tissue and fat mass that best differentiate CS and matched non-CS obese women in order to confirm central abdominal obesity, and to determine their normal CP values that best differentiate healthy non-obese women from CS and non-CS obese women, and to exclude abdominal obesity completely. Material and Methods: DXA indexes of abdominal obesity, calculated as а ratio of regional body fat and tissue mass compartments android to legs (A/L), trunk to legs (Tr/L), trunk to total (Tr/To) and legs to total (L/To) values were determined among 4 groups. Each group consisted of 18 women: 1st group of CS, 2nd group of obese women (O1) not different according to their age and BMI from CS, 3rd group of obese women (O2) with higher BMI of 35 ± 1.2 kg and a 4th group of non-obese, healthy women (C) with a normal BMI. Diagnostic accuracy (DG) of CP values of DXA indexes of abdominal obesity and indexes of normal body fat distribution (BFD) were determined. Results: A/L, Tr/L, Tr/To, and L/To DXA indexes were significantly different between CS and O1 as well as between non-CS women O2 compared to O1 and C. These indexes had a highly significant correlation among each other and also in relation to their BMI (p < 0.0001). A/L-Tm CP value of 0.3 best differentiated the CS from group O1, with the highest DG of 100 % and an A/L-Fm CP value of 0.26 differentiated them with a DG of 94.44% and sensitivity of 100 %. An A/L-Tn CP value of 0.23 and an A/L-Fn CP value of 0.25 best differentiated CS and C as well as O2 and C for the highest DG of 100 %. Conclusions: DXA indexes A/L, Tr/L, Tr/To and L/To values were significantly different among the four groups. These values correlated significantly among them and with their BMI in non-CS groups, thus confirming a BMI increase association with a more pronounced abdominal BFD. An A/L-Tm CP value of 0.3 and an A/L-Fm CP value of 0.26 were discovered as the best DXA diagnostic indexes of extreme abdominal obesity in CS and these could also be used in discovering abdominal BFD in non-CS obese women with metabolic syndrome (MS). An A/L-Tn CP value of 0.23 and an A/L-Fn CP value of 0.25 were discovered as the best DXA diagnostic indexes of normal BFD which completely excluded abdominal obesity.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade Abdominal , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Absorciometria de Fóton , Composição Corporal , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17873, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504193

RESUMO

A body shape index (ABSI) was proposed for estimation of abdominal adiposity. ABSI has been reported to have associations with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events. However, there is no information on the association between ABSI and endothelial function. We examined cross-sectional associations of ABSI with endothelial function in 8823 subjects (6773 men and 2050 women). Subjects with a lower quartile of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) were defined as subjects having endothelial dysfunction. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis revealed that ABSI was negatively correlated with FMD (men, r = - 0.23, P = 0.003; women, r = - 0.32, P < 0.001). The areas under the curves of ABSI and body mass index to predict endothelial dysfunction were 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.65) and 0.58 (95% CI 0.57-0.60) in men, and 0.68 (95% CI 0.66-0.71) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.61) in women, respectively. The cutoff values of ABSI for predicting subjects with endothelial dysfunction were 0.0796 (sensitivity, 55.2%; specificity, 65.5%) in men and 0.0823 (sensitivity, 56.2%; specificity, 73.4%) in women. Multivariate analysis revealed that an ABSI value higher than the cutoff value remained an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction in both sexes. The results of our study suggest that ABSI calculation should be performed for evaluation of risk of cardiovascular events in both men and women.Clinical trial registration information URL for Clinical Trial: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm ; Registration Number for Clinical Trial: UMIN000012952 (01/05/2010).


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Obes ; 2021: 1578653, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504719

RESUMO

Background: Similar to the general population, the prevalence of central obesity is increasing among HIV-infected persons. There are little data on the burden of abdominal obesity using the waist-to-hip ratio measurement in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of central obesity among HIV patients taking ART in an armed force comprehensive and specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018. A systematic sampling method was used to select 353 study participants. Pretested World Health Organization stepwise questionnaire, document review, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were used to collect data on different variables under the study. The collected data were entered into EpiData version 3 and analyzed by SPSS version 21. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was considered to declare a statistically significant association. Results: The prevalence of central obesity in this study was 71.7% (95% CI: 67%-76.4%). Besides, the odds of central obesity were associated with being female (AOR: 85.6; 95% CI: 20.09, 364.6), among merchants (AOR: 18.8; 95% CI: 1.39, 255.7), CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.007, 0.160), among respondents taking AZT + 3TC + EFV-based ART regimen (AOR: 8.73; 95% CI: 1.33, 57.17), ABC + 3TC + ATV/r-based regimen (AOR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.94), increased BMI (AOR: 3.50; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.89), and abnormal blood pressure (AOR: 2.53; 95%: 1.13, 5.67). Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that central obesity is a huge public health problem among the HIV-infected population in the study area. Being female, increased BMI, low CD4 count, AZT + 3TC + EFV, ABC + 3TC + ATV/r-based regimen, and abnormal blood pressure were associated with central obesity. Therefore, adequate attention must be paid to primary and secondary control of these factors to reduce the prevalence of abdominal obesity among HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Obesidade Abdominal , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia
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