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1.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1872): 20210415, 2023 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688384

RESUMO

Great transitions are thought to embody major shifts in locus of selection, labour diversification and communication systems. Such expectations are relevant for biological and cultural systems as decades of research has demonstrated similar dynamics within the evolution of culture. The evolution of the Neo-Inuit cultural tradition in the Bering Strait provides an ideal context for examination of cultural transitions. The Okvik/Old Bering Sea (Okvik/OBS) culture of Bering Strait is the first representative of the Neo-Inuit tradition. Archaeological evidence drawn for settlement and subsistence data, technological traditions and mortuary contexts suggests that Okvik/OBS fits the definition of a major transition given change in the nature of group membership (from families to political groups with social ranking), task organization (emergent labour specialization) and communication (advent of complex art forms conveying social and ideological information). This permits us to develop a number of implications about the evolutionary process recognizing that transitions may occur on three scales: (1) ephemeral variants, as for example, simple technological entities; (2) integrated systems, spanning modular technology to socio-economic strategies; and (3) simultaneous change across all scales with emergent properties. This article is part of the theme issue 'Human socio-cultural evolution in light of evolutionary transitions'.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , Tecnologia
2.
Cell ; 186(1): 47-62.e16, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608657

RESUMO

Horizontal gene transfer accelerates microbial evolution. The marine picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus exhibits high genomic plasticity, yet the underlying mechanisms are elusive. Here, we report a novel family of DNA transposons-"tycheposons"-some of which are viral satellites while others carry cargo, such as nutrient-acquisition genes, which shape the genetic variability in this globally abundant genus. Tycheposons share distinctive mobile-lifecycle-linked hallmark genes, including a deep-branching site-specific tyrosine recombinase. Their excision and integration at tRNA genes appear to drive the remodeling of genomic islands-key reservoirs for flexible genes in bacteria. In a selection experiment, tycheposons harboring a nitrate assimilation cassette were dynamically gained and lost, thereby promoting chromosomal rearrangements and host adaptation. Vesicles and phage particles harvested from seawater are enriched in tycheposons, providing a means for their dispersal in the wild. Similar elements are found in microbes co-occurring with Prochlorococcus, suggesting a common mechanism for microbial diversification in the vast oligotrophic oceans.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Genoma Bacteriano , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Oceanos e Mares , Genômica
3.
Nature ; 613(7943): 218, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609551
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 341, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611095

RESUMO

Onboard microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how bacterial growth pattern and community structure changed by the addition of labile organic compound during the KH-14-2 cruise of R/V Hakuho Maru (Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo and JAMSTEC) in May-June 2014. Seawater samples were collected from the three diversified oceanic environments, Kuroshio Current, North Pacific Sub-polar Gyre (SPG), and North Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (STG) in the western North Pacific Ocean, filtered, supplemented with glucose, and incubated at 23 ± 1 °C, ~ 4 °C, and 23 ± 1 °C, respectively. Untreated control microcosms were also maintained for all the sample types. Significant increases in cell counts and cell sizes were observed in Kuroshio Current and STG waters, whereas in SPG neither the counts nor the sizes changed, even after 120 h of incubation. At early stages of incubation, the classes Bacteroidia, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the Kuroshio Current and SPG samples, while the phyla Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria in the STG samples. Over incubation periods between 60 and 96 h, some members of the class Gammaproteobacteria gradually dominated within which the genera Vibrio and Alteromonas became dominant in the Kuroshio Current and STG, respectively. No growth was detected for the microcosms with seawater from SPG, regardless of glucose amendment. It is concluded that depending on the environmental condition, certain different bacterial groups proliferated quickly and modified the community structures. Temperature significantly influenced the growth and succession, and ultimately the community structure of bacteria.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Gammaproteobacteria , Oceano Pacífico , Água do Mar/química , Oceanos e Mares
5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 28, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596808

RESUMO

Marine heatwaves (MHWs) exert devastating impacts on ecosystems and have been revealed to increase in their incidence, duration, and intensity in response to greenhouse warming. The biologically productive eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUSs) are generally regarded as thermal refugia for marine species due to buffering effects of upwelling on ocean warming. However, using an ensemble of state-of-the-art high-resolution global climate simulations under a high carbon emission scenario, here we show that the MHW stress, measured as the annual cumulative intensity of MHWs, is projected to increase faster in the Southern Hemisphere EBUSs (Humboldt and Benguela current systems) than in their adjacent oceans. This is mainly because the additional warming caused by the weakened eastern boundary currents overwhelms the buffering effect of upwelling. Our findings suggest that the Southern Hemisphere EBUSs will emerge as local hotspots of MHWs in the future, potentially causing severe threats to the ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares
6.
Nature ; 613(7942): 90-95, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600067

RESUMO

Organic carbon buried in marine sediment serves as a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and a source of oxygen1,2. The rate of organic carbon burial through geologic history is conventionally established by using the mass balance between inorganic and organic carbon, each with distinct carbon isotopic values (δ13C)3,4. This method is complicated by large uncertainties, however, and has not been tested with organic carbon accumulation data5,6. Here we report a 'bottom-up' approach for calculating the rate of organic carbon burial that is independent from mass balance calculations. We use data from 81 globally distributed sites to establish the history of organic carbon burial during the Neogene (roughly 23-3 Ma). Our results show larger spatiotemporal variability of organic carbon burial than previously estimated7-9. Globally, the burial rate is high towards the early Miocene and Pliocene and lowest during the mid-Miocene, with the latter period characterized by the lowest ratio of organic-to-carbonate burial rates. This is in contrast to earlier work that interpreted enriched carbonate 13C values of the mid-Miocene as massive organic carbon burial (that is, the Monterey Hypothesis)10,11. Suppressed organic carbon burial during the warm mid-Miocene is probably related to temperature-dependent bacterial degradation of organic matter12,13, suggesting that the organic carbon cycle acted as positive feedback of past global warming.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oceanos e Mares , Ciclo do Carbono , Carbonatos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Oxigênio/análise , História Antiga , Bactérias/metabolismo , Temperatura , Aquecimento Global , Retroalimentação
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 256, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604435

RESUMO

The ocean responds to atmospheric variations. Changes in sea surface winds, surface air temperature, and surface air humidity cause upper ocean variability by modulating air-sea momentum and heat exchanges. Upper ocean variability in the mid-latitudes on inter-annual and longer timescales has previously been considered to be attributable to atmospheric variations in the cold season, because atmospheric forcing is stronger in the cold season than in the warm season. However, this idea has not been sufficiently confirmed yet. Although the ocean model is a useful tool to evaluate the impact of the atmospheric forcing in each season, there are no past studies having examined ocean model responses respectively to the cold- and warm-season atmospheric forcing. In this study, we performed numerical experiments with an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model and investigated oceanic responses to cold- and warm-season atmospheric forcing, focusing on the Kuroshio and North Pacific subtropical mode water (STMW) in the western mid-latitude North Pacific. We found that temporal variations of net Kuroshio transport and STMW distribution/temperature are dominantly controlled by atmospheric forcing in the cold season. These results suggest that cold-season atmospheric variations are key to obtaining insights into large-scale upper ocean variability in the North Pacific subtropical gyre.


Assuntos
Água do Mar , Água , Estações do Ano , Oceanos e Mares , Temperatura Baixa
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 310, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652110

RESUMO

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and global climate change have attracted worldwide attention. PFAS have been found all across the planet, from the polar regions to the global ocean. Global oceans have emerged as a substantial sink for the carbon in the environment due to their remarkable capacity to absorb atmospheric carbon. Oceans absorb around 24% of the world's CO2 emissions. Thus, the ocean plays a prominent role in the earth's carbon cycle. However, the widespread application of PFAS in a wide range of products and the inefficient management of PFAS-containing wastes made them ubiquitous pollutants, which are increasingly getting as a pollutant of emerging concern. Marine PFAS pollutants can produce harmful effects on gas exchange and the ocean's carbon cycle. Thus, it leads to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which eventually adversely affects global warming and climate change. Consequently, threats of marine PFAS to oceans carbon sequestration are discussed in this paper. Marine PFAS pollutants adversely affect the following sectors: (1) The growth and photosynthesis of phytoplankton, (2) development and reproduction of zooplankton by causing toxicity in zooplankton, (3) marine biological pomp, and (4) carbon stock of oceans. In this way, marine PFAS can pose a threat to ocean carbon sequestration. It is expected that this study can develop knowledge about the potential impact of PFAS on ocean carbon sequestration. However, the need for further research to investigate the hidden dimensions of this issue, including the potential scope and scale of this impact, should not be overlooked.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Fluorcarbonetos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceanos e Mares , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1000, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653387

RESUMO

The rapid ongoing changes in the Central Arctic Ocean call for baseline information on the pelagic fauna. However, sampling for motile organisms which easily escape vertically towed nets is challenging. Here, we report the species composition and catch weight of pelagic fishes and larger zooplankton from 12 trawl hauls conducted in ice covered waters in the Central Arctic Ocean beyond the continental slopes in late summer. Combined trawl catches with acoustics data revealed low amounts of fish and zooplankton from the advective influenced slope region in the Nansen Basin in the south to the ice-covered deep Amundsen Basin in the north. Both arctic and subarctic-boreal species, including the ones considered as Atlantic expatriate species were found all the way to 87.5o N. We found three fish species (Boreogadus saida, Benthosema glaciale and Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), but the catch was limited to only seven individuals. Euphausiids, amphipods and gelatinous zooplankton dominated the catch weight in the Nansen Basin in the mesopelagic communities. Euphausiids were almost absent in the Amundsen Basin with copepods, amphipods, chaetognaths and gelatinous zooplankton dominating. We postulate asymmetric conditions in the pelagic ecosystems of the western and eastern Eurasian Basin caused by ice and ocean circulation regimes.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Ecossistema , Animais , Zooplâncton , Peixes , Camada de Gelo , Acústica , Oceanos e Mares , Regiões Árticas
11.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 64, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653511

RESUMO

Polar oceans belong to the most productive and rapidly changing environments, yet our understanding of this fragile ecosystem remains limited. Here we present an analysis of a unique set of DNA metabarcoding samples from the western Weddell Sea sampled throughout the whole water column and across five water masses with different characteristics and different origin. We focus on factors affecting the distribution of planktonic pico-nano eukaryotes and observe an ecological succession of eukaryotic communities as the water masses move away from the surface and as oxygen becomes depleted with time. At the beginning of this succession, in the photic zone, algae, bacteriovores, and predators of small eukaryotes dominate the community, while another community develops as the water sinks deeper, mostly composed of parasitoids (syndinians), mesoplankton predators (radiolarians), and diplonemids. The strongly correlated distribution of syndinians and diplonemids along the depth and oxygen gradients suggests their close ecological link and moves us closer to understanding the biological role of the latter group in the ocean ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Eucariotos , Água , Oceanos e Mares , Oxigênio
12.
Environ Int ; 171: 107716, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587499

RESUMO

Approximately 9 million metric tons of plastics enters the ocean annually, and once in the marine environment, plastic surfaces can be quickly colonised by marine microorganisms, forming a biofilm. Studies on plastic debris-biofilm associations, known as plastisphere, have increased exponentially within the last few years. In this review, we first briefly summarise methods and techniques used in exploring plastic-microbe interactions. Then we highlight research gaps and provide future research opportunities for marine plastisphere studies, especially, on plastic characterisation and standardised biodegradation tests, the fate of "environmentally friendly" plastics, and plastisphere of coastal habitats. Located in the tropics, Southeast Asian (SEA) countries are significant contributors to marine plastic debris. However, plastisphere studies in this region are lacking and therefore, we discuss how the unique environmental conditions in the SEA seas may affect plastic-microbe interaction and why there is an imperative need to conduct plastisphere studies in SEA marine environments. Finally, we also highlight the lack of understanding of the pathogenicity and ecotoxicological effects of plastisphere on marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Projetos de Pesquisa , Biodegradação Ambiental
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2120869120, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656855

RESUMO

Observed range shifts of numerous species support predictions of climate change models that species will shift their distribution northward into the Arctic and sub-Arctic seas due to ocean warming. However, how this is affecting overall species richness is unclear. Here we analyze 20,670 scientific research trawls from the North Sea to the Arctic Ocean collected from 1994 to 2020, including 193 fish species. We found that demersal fish species richness at the local scale has doubled in some Arctic regions, including the Barents Sea, and increased at a lower rate at adjacent regions in the last three decades, followed by an increase in species richness and turnover at a regional scale. These changes in biodiversity correlated with an increase in sea bottom temperature. Within the study area, Arctic species' probability of occurrence generally declined over time. However, the increase in species from southern latitudes, together with an increase in some Arctic species, ultimately led to an enrichment of the Arctic and sub-Arctic marine fauna due to increasing water temperature consistent with climate change.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Oceanos e Mares , Temperatura , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Oceano Atlântico
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679382

RESUMO

Over 70% of the earth's surface is covered by oceans; globally, oceans provides a huge source of wealth to humans. In the literature, several sensors have been developed to investigate oceans. Electrical conductivity temperature depth (CTD) sensors were used frequently and extensively. Long-term accurate CTD data is important for the study and utilization of oceans, e.g., for weather forecasting, ecological evolution, fishery, and shipping. Several kinds of CTD sensors based on electrics, optical, acoustic wave and radio waves have been developed. CTD sensors are often utilized by measuring electrical signals. The latest progress of CTD sensors will be presented in order of performance. The principles, structure, materials and properties of many CTD sensors were discussed in detail. The commercially available CTD sensors were involved and their respective performances were compared. Some possible development directions of CTD sensors for ocean investigation are proposed.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Humanos , Condutividade Elétrica , Oceanos e Mares
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679833

RESUMO

Shipping traffic is recognised as the main man-noise source of the anthropogenic noise generated in the marine environment. The underwater acoustic pollution is increased due to the increment of the human activity at seas supposing a threat for marine habitats. The ship as acoustic source must be understood and controlled to manage the maritime areas both in time and space to reduce the impact of noise in marine fauna. Shipping noise is mainly composed of flow noise, propeller noise and machinery noise. This research is focused on the analysis and estimation of the underwater radiated noise generated by the vibrations of the onboard machinery or structure-borne noise based on the calculation of the transfer function. This function relates the acceleration levels of the vibrations of the hull's panels and the radiated noise by them using the radiation efficiency. Different analytical methods to estimate the radiation efficiency are presented and compared with data collected at sea. The measurements are performed acquiring simultaneously acceleration and acoustic levels by means on accelerometers installed on the hull's panels at different positions and hydrophones deployed close to the bow, middle and stern of the ship. The analysis of the transmission of the vibrations along the ships is performed using the data from different locations of the hydrophones. The quality of the measurements is analysed using the coherence function through the spectral correlation between the measurement of vibrations and acoustic levels. On the other hand, signal-to-noise ratio is computed to verify the strength of the noise sources. The computed transfer function is used to predict the underwater radiated noise from vibrations showing differences less than 2 dB re to 1 µPa2.


Assuntos
Navios , Vibração , Humanos , Ruído , Oceanos e Mares , Acústica
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280827, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693065

RESUMO

In large areas of the ocean, iron concentrations are insufficient to promote phytoplankton growth. Numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the effect of iron on algae and how algae cope with fluctuating iron concentrations. Fertilization experiments in low-iron areas resulted primarily in diatom-dominated algal blooms, leading to laboratory studies on diatoms comparing low- and high-iron conditions. Here, we focus on the short-term temporal response following iron addition to an iron-starved open ocean diatom, Thalassiosira oceanica. We employed the NanoString platform and analyzed a high-resolution time series on 54 transcripts encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis, N-linked glycosylation, iron transport, as well as transcription factors. Nine transcripts were iron-responsive, with an immediate response to the addition of iron. The fastest response observed was the decrease in transcript levels of proteins involved in iron uptake, followed by an increase in transcript levels of iron-containing enzymes and a simultaneous decrease in the transcript levels of their iron-free replacement enzymes. The transcription inhibitor actinomycin D was used to understand the underlying mechanisms of the decrease of the iron-responsive transcripts and to determine their half-lives. Here, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), plastocyanin (PETE), ferredoxin (PETF) and cellular repressor of EA1-stimulated genes (CREGx2) revealed longer than average half-lives. Four iron-responsive transcripts showed statistically significant differences in their decay rates between the iron-recovery samples and the actD treatment. These differences suggest regulatory mechanisms influencing gene transcription and mRNA stability. Overall, our study contributes towards a detailed understanding of diatom cell biology in the context of iron fertilization response and provides important observations to assess oceanic diatom responses following sudden changes in iron concentrations.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Fotossíntese
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 184: 105873, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628821

RESUMO

Community and diversity shifts of bacteria and microeukaryotes with strong environmental and spatial variations have been unveiled in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and northern coastal part of South China Sea (SCS). However, it is not clear what the determining factors shape the microbial community and how the biotic interactions respond to the estuarine and oceanic environment. Here, we established the multiple regression models (MRM) and co-occurrence networks on microbial communities in PRE and SCS habitats. The results showed that there were significant differences of the abiotic factors affecting the bacterial and microeukaryotic communities between PRE and SCS habitats. Salinity explained the largest variations to the microbial community dissimilarities in PRE. Whereas spatial and environmental factors determined the microbial community dissimilarities in SCS. Positive relations between parasitic lineages (e.g. Perkinsea and Cercozoa) and algal taxa (Dinophyceae, Cryptophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta) dominated in the PRE network. While parasites Syndiniales positively correlated with other Syndiniales and protists in SCS. Strong positive associations among autotrophic and heterotrophic groups were revealed in both niches. Therefore, the biotic interactions are also important and may be responsible for the unexplained variations of the abiotic factors from MRM models. Microbial network in the PRE estuarine water had weakened resistance to environmental disturbances, while the SCS network had greater capacity to maintain network stability. This study shed light on the different mechanisms of abiotic and biotic factors in shaping the compositions of bacteria and microeukaryotes between PRE and SCS niches, and highlights the weakening effect of environmental disturbances on the microbial network stability.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Microbiota , Bactérias , Oceanos e Mares , China
18.
PLoS Biol ; 21(1): e3001966, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701270

RESUMO

Viruses are the most abundant biological entity in the ocean and infect a wide range of microbial life across bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In this essay, we take a journey across several orders of magnitude in the scales of biological organization, time, and space of host-virus interactions in the ocean, aiming to shed light on their ecological relevance. We start from viruses infecting microbial host cells by delivering their genetic material in seconds across nanometer-size membranes, which highjack their host's metabolism in a few minutes to hours, leading to a profound transcriptomic and metabolic rewiring. The outcome of lytic infection leads to a release of virions and signaling molecules that can reach neighboring cells a few millimeters away, resulting in a population whose heterogeneous infection level impacts the surrounding community for days. These population dynamics can leave unique metabolic and biogeochemical fingerprints across scales of kilometers and over several decades. One of the biggest challenges in marine microbiology is to assess the impact of viruses across these scales, from the single cell to the ecosystem level. Here, we argue that the advent of new methodologies and conceptual frameworks represents an exciting time to pursue these efforts and propose a set of important challenges for the field. A better understanding of host-virus interactions across scales will inform models of global ocean ecosystem function in different climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Ecossistema , Vírus/genética , Bactérias , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar
19.
Sci Adv ; 9(3): eade2365, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662849

RESUMO

Variation in environmental conditions across a species' range can alter their responses to environmental change through local adaptation and acclimation. Evolutionary responses, however, may be challenged in ecosystems with tightly coupled environmental conditions, where changes in the covariance of environmental factors may make it more difficult for species to adapt to global change. Here, we conduct a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment and find evidence for local adaptation/acclimation in populations of red sea urchins, Mesocentrotus franciscanus, to multiple environmental drivers. Moreover, populations differ in their response to projected concurrent changes in pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Our results highlight the potential for local adaptation/acclimation to multivariate environmental regimes but suggest that thresholds in responses to a single environmental variable, such as temperature, may be more important than changes to environmental covariance. Therefore, identifying physiological thresholds in key environmental drivers may be particularly useful for preserving biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodiversidade , Oceanos e Mares
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1516, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707611

RESUMO

Silica cycling in the world's oceans is not straightforward to evaluate on a geological time scale. With the rise of radiolarians and sponges from the early Cambrian onward, silica can have two depositional origins, continental weathering, and biogenic silica. It is critical to have a reliable method of differentiating amorphous silica and crystalline silica to truly understand biogeochemical and inorganic silica cycling. In this study, opal-A is mapped across the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin in the Late Devonian Duvernay Formation shales using longwave hyperspectral imaging alongside geochemical proxies that differentiate between crystalline and amorphous SiO2, during the expansion of the world's early forests. Signaled by several carbon isotope excursions in the Frasnian, the punctata Event corresponds to the expansion of forests when vascular land plants develop seeds and deeper root networks, likely resulting in increased pedogenesis. Nutrients from thicker soil horizons entering the marine realm are linked to higher levels of primary productivity in oceans and subsequent oxygen starvation in deeper waters at this time. The results of this study reveal, for the first time, the spatial distribution of amorphous SiO2 across a sedimentary basin during this major shift in the terrestrial realm when forests expand and develop deeper root networks.


Assuntos
Minerais , Dióxido de Silício , Florestas , Solo , Oceanos e Mares
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