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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(6): 1686-1692, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729148

RESUMO

In recent years, a variety of important fishery resources in China's coastal waters have declined. Octopus ocellatus has the characteristics of short life cycle and rapid growth, with great contributions to fisheries of China's coastal waters. However, we know little about the habitat distribution characteristics of O. ocellatus and its relationship with environmental factors, which is not conducive to better protection and utilization of its resources. Here, we analyzed the distribution characteristics of O. ocellatus and its relationship with environmental factors using three machine learning methods, i.e., random forest model, artificial neural network model, and generalized boosted regression models, based on the survey data of fishery resources and habitat in Haizhou Bay during spring of 2011 and 2013-2017. Among the three models, random forest model had great advantages in the fitting effect and prediction ability. The model analysis results showed that sea bottom temperature, seawater depth and sea bottom salinity had significant effects on the habitat distribution of O. ocellatus. The relative resource density of O. octopus increased first and then decreased with the increases of sea bottom temperature, seawater depth, and sea bottom salinity. Based on environmental data simulated by the FVCOM model, we predicted the habitat distribution of O. ocellatus in Haizhou Bay using random forest model and found that O. ocellatus was mainly distributed in the area between 34.5°-35.8° N and 119.7°-121° E.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Animais , Baías , China , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Estações do Ano
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8292, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739131

RESUMO

Although soft tissues of coleoid cephalopods record key evolutionary adaptations, they are rarely preserved in the fossil record. This prevents meaningful comparative analyses between extant and fossil forms, as well as the development of a relative timescale for morphological innovations. However, unique 3-D soft tissue preservation of Vampyronassa rhodanica (Vampyromorpha) from the Jurassic Lagerstätte of La Voulte-sur-Rhône (Ardèche, France) provides unparalleled opportunities for the observation of these tissues in the oldest likely relative of extant Vampyroteuthis infernalis. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography and reconstruction of V. rhodanica allowed, for the first time, a high-resolution re-examination of external and internal morphology, and comparison with other fossil and extant species, including V. infernalis. The new data obtained demonstrate that some key V. infernalis characters, such as its unique type of sucker attachment, were already present in Jurassic taxa. Nonetheless, compared with the extant form, which is considered to be an opportunistic detritivore and zooplanktivore, many characters in V. rhodanica indicate a pelagic predatory lifestyle. The contrast in trophic niches between the two taxa is consistent with the hypothesis that these forms diversified in continental shelf environments prior to the appearance of adaptations in the Oligocene leading to their modern deep-sea mode of life.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Octopodiformes , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Preservação Biológica , Preservação de Tecido , Microtomografia por Raio-X
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2493: 29-51, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751807

RESUMO

Haplotype-based variant callers have become the de facto choice for genotyping from next-generation sequencing (NGS) as they are able to resolve read-mapper alignment errors and implicitly phase heterozygous variants. Here, I describe how the haplotype-based variant calling tool Octopus can be used for genotyping and haplotyping in several common experimental designs.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Animais , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Octopodiformes/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Mar Drugs ; 20(5)2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35621979

RESUMO

Discovering new drug candidates with high efficacy and few side effects is a major challenge in new drug development. The two evolutionarily related peptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are known to be associated with a variety of physiological and psychological processes via the association of OXT with three types of AVP receptors. Over decades, many synthetic analogs of these peptides have been designed and tested for therapeutic applications; however, only a few studies of their natural analogs have been performed. In this study, we investigated the bioactivity and usefulness of two natural OXT/AVP analogs that originate from the marine invertebrate Octopus vulgaris, named octopressin (OTP) and cephalotocin (CPT). By measuring the intracellular Ca2+ or cyclic AMP increase in each OXT/AVP receptor subtype-overexpressing cell, we found that CPT, but not OTP, acts as a selective agonist of human AVP type 1b and 2 receptors. This behavior is reminiscent of desmopressin, the most widely prescribed antidiuretic drug in the world. Similar to the case for desmopressin, a single intravenous tail injection of CPT into Sprague-Dawley rats reduced urine output and increased urinary osmolality. In conclusion, we suggest that CPT has a significant antidiuretic effect and that CPT might be beneficial for treating urological conditions such as nocturia, enuresis, and diabetes insipidus.


Assuntos
Antidiuréticos , Octopodiformes , Ocitocina , Animais , Antidiuréticos/farmacologia , Arginina Vasopressina/análogos & derivados , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/farmacologia , Felipressina/farmacologia , Octopodiformes/metabolismo , Ocitocina/análogos & derivados , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Vasopressinas/agonistas , Receptores de Vasopressinas/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8282, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585085

RESUMO

Gill parasites of coleoid cephalopods are frequently observed during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives in the Monterey Submarine Canyon. However, little knowledge exists on the identity of the parasite species or their effects on the cephalopod community. With the help of ROV-collected specimens and in situ footage from the past 27 years, we report on their identity, prevalence and potential infection strategy. Gill parasites were genetically and morphologically identified from collected specimens of Chiroteuthis calyx, Vampyroteuthis infernalis and Gonatus spp. In situ prevalence was estimated from video footage for C. calyx, Galiteuthis spp., Taonius spp. and Japetella diaphana, enabled by their transparent mantle tissue. The most common parasite was identified as Hochbergia cf. moroteuthensis, a protist of unresolved taxonomic ranking. We provide the first molecular data for this parasite and show a sister group relationship to the dinoflagellate genus Oodinium. Hochbergia cf. moroteuthensis was most commonly observed in adult individuals of all species and was sighted year round over the analyzed time period. In situ prevalence was highest in C. calyx (75%), followed by Galiteuthis spp. (29%), Taonius spp. (27%) and J. diaphana (7%). A second parasite, not seen on the in situ footage, but occurring within the gills of Gonatus berryi and Vampyroteuthis infernalis, could not be found in the literature or be identified through DNA barcoding. The need for further investigation is highlighted, making this study a starting point for unravelling ecological implications of the cephalopod-gill-parasite system in deep pelagic waters.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Octopodiformes , Parasitos , Animais , Decapodiformes , Brânquias , Humanos
6.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 116, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) widely contribute to the evolution of genomes allowing genomic innovations, generating germinal and somatic heterogeneity, and giving birth to long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). These features have been associated to the evolution, functioning, and complexity of the nervous system at such a level that somatic retrotransposition of long interspersed element (LINE) L1 has been proposed to be associated to human cognition. Among invertebrates, octopuses are fascinating animals whose nervous system reaches a high level of complexity achieving sophisticated cognitive abilities. The sequencing of the genome of the Octopus bimaculoides revealed a striking expansion of TEs which were proposed to have contributed to the evolution of its complex nervous system. We recently found a similar expansion also in the genome of Octopus vulgaris. However, a specific search for the existence and the transcription of full-length transpositionally competent TEs has not been performed in this genus. RESULTS: Here, we report the identification of LINE elements competent for retrotransposition in Octopus vulgaris and Octopus bimaculoides and show evidence suggesting that they might be transcribed and determine germline and somatic polymorphisms especially in the brain. Transcription and translation measured for one of these elements resulted in specific signals in neurons belonging to areas associated with behavioral plasticity. We also report the transcription of thousands of lncRNAs and the pervasive inclusion of TE fragments in the transcriptomes of both Octopus species, further testifying the crucial activity of TEs in the evolution of the octopus genomes. CONCLUSIONS: The neural transcriptome of the octopus shows the transcription of thousands of putative lncRNAs and of a full-length LINE element belonging to the RTE class. We speculate that a convergent evolutionary process involving retrotransposons activity in the brain has been important for the evolution of sophisticated cognitive abilities in this genus.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Encéfalo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Feminino , Genoma , Octopodiformes/genética , Gravidez , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Retroelementos/genética
7.
Curr Biol ; 32(11): 2572-2579.e4, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561680

RESUMO

Among all invertebrates, soft-bodied cephalopods have the largest central nervous systems and the greatest brain-to-body mass ratios, yet unlike other big-brained animals, cephalopods are unusually short lived.1-5 Primates and corvids survive for many decades, but shallow-water octopuses, such as the California two-spot octopus (Octopus bimaculoides), typically live for only 1 year.6,7 Lifespan and reproduction are controlled by the principal neuroendocrine center of the octopus: the optic glands, which are functional analogs to the vertebrate pituitary gland.8-10 After mating, females steadfastly brood their eggs, begin fasting, and undergo rapid physiological decline, featuring repeated self-injury and leading to death.11 Removal of the optic glands completely reverses this life history trajectory,10 but the signaling factors underlying this major life transition are unknown. Here, we characterize the major secretions and steroidogenic pathways of the female optic gland using mass spectrometry techniques. We find that at least three pathways are mobilized to increase synthesis of select sterol hormones after reproduction. One pathway generates pregnane steroids, known in other animals to support reproduction.12-16 Two other pathways produce 7-dehydrocholesterol and bile acid intermediates, neither of which were previously known to be involved in semelparity. Our results provide insight into invertebrate cholesterol pathways and confirm a remarkable unity of steroid hormone biology in life history processes across Bilateria.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônios/metabolismo , Octopodiformes/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Esteroides/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445334

RESUMO

Octopuses have keen vision and are generally considered visual predators, yet octopuses predominantly forage blindly in nature, inserting their arms into crevices to search and detect hidden prey. The extent to which octopuses discriminate prey using chemo- versus mechano-tactile sensing is unknown. We developed a whole-animal behavioral assay that takes advantage of octopuses' natural searching behavior to test their ability to discriminate prey from non-prey tastes solely via contact chemoreception. This methodology eliminated vision, mechano-tactile sensing and distance chemoreception while testing the contact chemosensory discriminatory abilities of the octopus arm suckers. Extracts from two types of prey (crab, shrimp) and three types of non-prey (sea star, algae, seawater) were embedded in agarose (to control for mechano-tactile discrimination) and presented to octopuses inside an artificial rock dome; octopuses reached their arms inside to explore its contents - imitating natural prey-searching behavior. Results revealed that octopuses are capable of discriminating between potential prey items using only contact chemoreception, as measured by an increased amount of sucker contact time and arm curls when presented with prey extracts versus non-prey extracts. These results highlight the importance of contact chemoreception in the multi-modal sensing involved in a complex foraging behavior.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Octopodiformes , Percepção do Tato , Animais , Octopodiformes/fisiologia , Tato
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 124: 430-441, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472401

RESUMO

Mollusks have recently received increasing attention because of their unique immune systems. Mollusks such as Amphioctopus fangsiao are economically important cephalopods, and the effects of their egg-protecting behavior on the larval immune response are unclear. Meanwhile, little research has been done on the resistance response of cephalopod larvae infected with pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio anguillarum. In this study, V. anguillarum was used to infect the primary hatching A. fangsiao larvae under different egg-protecting behaviors for 24 h, and a total of 7156 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at four time points after hatching based on transcriptome analysis. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that multiple immune-related GO terms and KEGG signaling pathways were enriched. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPI networks) were used to search functional relationships between immune-related DEGs. Finally, 20 hub genes related to multiple gene functions or involved in multiple signaling pathways were identified, and their accuracy was verified using quantitative RT-PCR. PPI networks were first used to study the effects A. fangsiao larvae after infection with V. anguillarum under different egg-protecting behaviors. The results provide significant genetic resources for exploring invertebrate larval immune processes. The data lays a foundation for further study the immune response mechanisms for invertebrates after infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Octopodiformes , Vibrioses , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Imunidade , Larva/genética , Octopodiformes/genética , Transcriptoma , Vibrio
10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(17): e2104382, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388640

RESUMO

A soft gripper inspired by the glowing sucker octopus (Stauroteuthis syrtensis)' highly evolved grasping capability enabled by the umbrella-shaped dorsal and ventral membrane between each arm is presented here, comprising of a 3D-printed linkage mechanism used to actuate a modular mold silicone-casting soft suction disc to deform. The soft gripper grasp can lift objects using the suction generated by the pump in the soft disc. Moreover, the protruded funnel-shaped end of the deformed suctorial mouth can adapt to smooth and rough surfaces. Furthermore, when the gripper contacts the submerged target objects in a turbid environment, local suctorial mouth arrays on the suction disc are locked, causing the variable flow inside them, which can be detected as a tactile perception signal to the target objects instead of visual perception. Aided by the 3D-printed linkage mechanism, the soft gripper can grasp objects of different shapes and dimensions, including flat objects, objects beyond the grasping range, irregular objects, scattered objects, and a moving turtle. The results report the soft gripper's versatility and demonstrate the vast application potentials of self-adaptive grasping and sensing in various environments, including but are not limited to underwater, which is always a key challenge of grasping technology.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Robótica , Animais , Força da Mão , Robótica/métodos , Sucção
11.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 191: 107754, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398307

RESUMO

Due to the fast growth rate, the short life cycle, the high market price and the high food conversion efficiency, O. vulgaris is considered as a good candidate for aquaculture. One of the prerequisites for the successful integration of new species, such as octopi, into industrial-scale production, is the knowledge of the pathological conditions that may arise, with emphasis on infectious diseases caused by microorganisms and para-sites transmitted through wild populations, especially for the farmed organisms cul-tured in cages in proximity to teleost fish. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the sensitivity of common octopus to experimental infection with pathogenic bacteria, to assess the activation of hemocytes and more specifically their phagocytic activity after infection and to associate sensitivity of the species and phagocytic activity of hemocytes to temperature changes, route of infection and pathogen. Common octopus individuals were intramuscularly and intravenously infected with either Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida or Vibrio alginolyticus. The hemocyte phagocytosis activation in vitro at two temperatures (21 ± 0.5 °C and 24 ± 0.5 °C) was studied, in an effort to relate these aspects to climate change. Hemolymph was withdrawn on days 0, 3 and 7 post infections/injections. Number of circulating hemocytes/ml hemolymph, phagocytosis ability and Phagocytosis Particle Binding Intensity index were determined. Correlations between hemocytes and bodyweight and between hemocytes and phagocytosis ability were also determined. No mortalities were recorded irrespective of pathogen, route of infection and temperature employed. Circulating hemocytes in control specimens ranged between 1.60x105 hemocytes ml-1 hemolymph to 20.02x105 hemocytes/ml hemolymph at both experiments and temperatures. The interrelation between octopi weight and circulating hemocytes showed that natural fluctuations, age, maturity stage and temperature may affect this relationship. Rise of temperature influenced phagocytosis which seemed to be route of infection, time-point and pathogen related. Specimens infected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida showed decreased phagocytosis with rise of temperature while when Vibrio alginolyticus was used, phagocytosis activity increased, in most cases. Temperature also played an important role in the correlation between the circulating hemocytes and phagocytosis activity, as at lower temperatures a negative strong correlation was observed. The results prompted us to calculate the activation index. This index showed that temperature is an important factor in hemocyte activation since for Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida infected specimens, hemocytes were more activated at 21 ± 0.5℃ instead of 24 ± 0.5℃, and the opposite observed for Vibrio alginolyticus samples and only later post-infection. Comparing the phagocytosis ability results with those obtained from Particle Binding Intensity index important differences concerned mainly confidence levels. The use of phagocytosis ability instead of PBI index provides more accurate results.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Octopodiformes , Animais , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Photobacterium , Temperatura , Vibrio alginolyticus
12.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 17(3)2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235920

RESUMO

Rigid suckers commonly used in surgical procedures often cause absorption damage, while their soft counterparts are difficult to handle due to their weak anchoring. Alternatively, the octopus sucker is both soft and has strong suction power. Further observation revealed that its structure is self-sealing and that the tissues are layered in hardness. Inspired by said structure and the characteristics of associated materials, a bionic soft sucker with stiffness gradient and acetabular roof structure was proposed, made of silicone with varying hardness including structures such as acetabular roof and circle muscles. The automatic tensile force measurement system was used to experimentally analyze the adsorption performance of the suckers to the soft curved contact surface. Both dry and wet conditions were tested, along with practical tests on organisms. The bionic sucker adsorption force was increased by 25.1% and 34.6% on the cylindrical surface, and 45.2% and 7.3% on the spherical surface for dry and wet conditions, respectively. During the experiment, the bionic suckers did not cause notable suction damage to the contact surfaces. Thus, this type of bionic sucker shows good application prospects in the field of surgery.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Adsorção , Animais , Biônica , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Octopodiformes/fisiologia , Sucção
13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(21): e202202527, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266278

RESUMO

Study of enantioselective recognition in water by synthetic chiral macrocyclic receptors is undoubtedly of theoretical and practical significance, but it is a big challenge to achieve the enantioselective recognition with both high enantioselectivity and high affinity in water probably due to the deficiency of such water-soluble macrocyclic receptors with stable chiral cavities. Herein, we report a new class of chiral macrocyclic arenes named octopus[3]arenes. The enantiomeric macrocycles are composed of three homochiral ethenoanthracene subunits, and they can be synthesized by two pathways and then easily converted into water-soluble octopus[3]arenes P-1 and M-1. Notably, P-1 and M-1 with the rigid hexagonal structures and stable chiral hydrophobic cavities exhibit highly enantioselective recognition towards three pairs of chiral ammonium salts in water with the association constant up to 106  M-1 and the S/R selectivity up to 12.89.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Octopodiformes , Animais , Sais/química , Estereoisomerismo , Água/química
14.
J Exp Biol ; 225(6)2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244172

RESUMO

Octopus arms are highly flexible structures capable of complex motions and are used in a wide repertoire of behaviors. Movements are generated by the coordinated summation of innervation signals to packed arrays of muscles oriented in different directions and moving based on their anatomical relationships. In this study, we investigated the interplay between muscle biomechanics and anatomical organization in the Octopus vulgaris arm to elucidate their role in different arm movements. We performed isometric and isotonic force measurements on isolated longitudinal and transverse arm muscles and showed that longitudinal muscles have a higher rate of activation and relaxation, lower twitch-to-tetanus ratio and lower passive tension than transverse muscles, thus prompting their use as faster and slower muscles, respectively. This points to the use of longitudinal muscles in more graded responses, such as those involved in precise actions, and transverse muscles in intense and sustained actions, such as motion stabilization and posture maintenance. Once activated, the arm muscles exert forces that cause deformations of the entire arm, which are determined by the amount, location, properties and orientation of their fibers. Here, we show that, although continuous, the arm manifests a certain degree of morphological specialization, where the arm muscles have a different aspect ratio along the arm. This possibly supports the functional specialization of arm portions observed in various motions, such as fetching and crawling. Hence, the octopus arm as a whole can be seen as a 'reservoir' of possibilities where different types of motion may emerge at the limb level through the co-option of the muscle contractile properties and structural arrangement.


Assuntos
Braço , Octopodiformes , Animais , Contração Muscular , Músculos , Extremidade Superior
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5227, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347207

RESUMO

Coleoid cephalopods camouflage on timescales of seconds to match their visual surroundings. To date, studies of cephalopod camouflage-to-substrate have been focused primarily on benthic cuttlefish and octopus, because they are readily found sitting on the substrate. In contrast to benthic cephalopods, oval squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana species complex) are semi-pelagic animals that spend most of their time in the water column. In this study, we demonstrate that in captivity, S. lessoniana Sp.2 (Shiro-ika, white-squid) from the Okinawa archipelago, Japan, adapts the coloration of their skin using their chromatophores according to the background substrate. We show that if the animal moves between substrates of different reflectivity, the body patterning is changed to match. Chromatophore matching to substrate has not been reported in any loliginid cephalopod under laboratory conditions. Adaptation of the chromatophore system to the bottom substrate in the laboratory is a novel experimental finding that establishes oval squid as laboratory model animals for further research on camouflage.


Assuntos
Cromatóforos , Octopodiformes , Animais , Decapodiformes , Japão
16.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101192, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243377

RESUMO

Due to their unique body, standard behavioral testing protocols are often hard to apply to octopuses. Our protocol enables controlled behavioral testing of the sensory systems in single arms while allowing observation of the arm motion. The protocol allows the researcher to exclude the sense of vision without surgical manipulation and selectively test peripheral sensory input-derived learning and motor behavior. Applying the protocol requires systematic and multistage training of octopuses to associate correct maze interaction with food reward. For complete details on the use and execution of this profile, please refer to Gutnick et al. (2020).


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Animais , Aprendizagem , Recompensa , Tato
17.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164004

RESUMO

The preservative properties of waste liquor obtained from octopus (Octopus vulgaris) cooking were investigated. Three different concentrations (high, medium, and low) of octopus cooking liquor (OCL) were included, respectively, in the aqueous packaging medium employed for mackerel (Scomber colias) canning. As a result, the canning process led to an increase (p < 0.05) of lipid content, lipid oxidation (development of fluorescent compounds and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), lipid hydrolysis (formation of free fatty acids, FFA) and ω3/ω6 ratio in fish muscle. In all canned samples, primary (peroxides) and secondary (TBARS) levels of lipid oxidation were low. Remarkably, the presence in the packaging medium of the high and medium OCL concentrations led to lower (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation development (fluorescent compound and TBARS detection, respectively). Furthermore, an increasing OCL presence led to an average decrease of peroxide and FFA content and to an average increase of the polyene index (PI). All OCL-packaged muscle showed lower average values of saturated fatty acids and ω3/ω6 ratio and higher average values of PI and monounsaturated fatty acid presence. This study provides a first approach to novel and beneficial use of the present marine waste to inhibit lipid damage of commercial canned fish.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos em Conserva , Octopodiformes/química , Perciformes , Animais , Culinária , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Perciformes/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
18.
Curr Biol ; 32(3): R131-R135, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134362

RESUMO

Octopuses inhabit almost all seas in the world. A new study on tropical species suggests that, as in vertebrates, folding in the brain and visual system might be linked to habitat and lifestyle.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Animais , Encéfalo
19.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 320: 114000, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217062

RESUMO

The optic glands (OG) of cephalopods are a source of molecules associated with the control of reproductive traits and lifecycle events such as sexual maturation, reproductive behavior, feeding, parental care, and senescence. However, little is known about the role of the optic gland in Octopus maya adults during mating and egg laying. RNA sequencing, de novo transcriptome assembly, ubiquity and differential expression analysis were performed. First, we analyzed the expression patterns of transcripts commonly associated with OG regulatory functions to describe their possible role once the maturation of the gonad is complete. The transcriptomic profiles of the optic gland of both sexes were compared with emphasis on the signaling pathways involved in the dimorphism of reproductive traits. Results suggest that in the OG of males, the reproductive condition (mated or non-mated) did not affect the general expression profile. In contrast, more differentially expressed genes were observed in females. In mated females, the mRNA metabolic process and the response to norepinephrine were enriched, suggesting a high cellular activity in preparation for the laying of the embryos. Whereas in egg-laying females, energetic and metabolic processes were the most represented, including the oxidation-reduction process. Finally, the gene expression patterns in senescence females suggest a physiological response to starvation as well as upregulation of genes involved retrotransposon activity. In conclusion, more substantial fluctuations in gene expression were observed in the optic glands of the fertilized females compared to the males. Such differences might be associated with the regulation of the egg-laying and the onset of senescence.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Transcriptoma , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Octopodiformes/genética , Reprodução/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
Environ Res ; 210: 112961, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181305

RESUMO

Cephalopods are a group of marine invertebrates that have received little attention as sentinel species in comparison to other molluscs, such as bivalves. Consequently, their physiological and biochemical xenobiotic metabolism responses are poorly understood. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of the enzymatic activities involved in detoxification reactions and neural transmission in the digestive tract of two commercial cephalopods: the Common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, and the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. For methodological purposes, several common B-esterases (five carboxylesterase (CE) substrates and three cholinesterase (ChE) determinations) were assayed as a proxy of metabolic and neuronal activities, respectively. Four components of the digestive tract in each species were considered: salivary glands, the stomach, the digestive gland and the caecum. The in vitro responses of digestive gland homogenates to model chemicals and contaminants of environmental concern were contrasted between both cephalopod species. The baseline biochemical activities in the four digestive tract components were also determined. Moreover, in order to validate the protocol, purified proteins, recombinant human CE (CE1 and CE2) and purified eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were included in the analysis. Overall, carboxylesterase activities were higher in octopus than in cuttlefish, with the activity quantified in the digestive tract components in the following order: digestive gland ≈ caecum > stomach ≈ salivary glands, with higher hydrolysis rates reached with naphthyl-derived substrates. In contrast, cuttlefish hydrolysis rates with ChE substrates were higher than in octopus. This trend was also reflected in a higher sensitivity to CE inhibitors in octopus and to AChE inhibitors in cuttlefish. Given the detoxification character of CEs and its protective role preventing AChE inhibition, octopus could be regarded as more efficiently protected than cuttlefish from neurotoxic exposures. A full characterisation of B-esterases in the digestive tract of the two common cephalopods is also provided.


Assuntos
Carboxilesterase , Octopodiformes , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Octopodiformes/metabolismo
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