This roundtable brings together contributions from nine senior, mid-career and junior scholars who work on the history of science in pre-1800 Islamicate societies. The contributions reflect upon some of the challenges that have historically constrained the subfield, how they have sought to overcome them, and what they see as some of the more productive and fruitful turns the field has taken and/or should take in the future. A central trend in all contributions is how they seek to confront the combined weight of colonialism, Orientalism, and the teleological history of science that continues to haunt contemporary discussions in both academia and the general public with regards to science in pre-1800 Islamicate societies. Without diminishing the pioneering achievements of the generations of historians who have preceded us, and upon whose work we continue to rely, this combined weight has tended a) to marginalize the study of occult sciences in Islamicate societies; b) to emphasize investigations of content from an etic perspective of how we got to the present, which is primarily seen as how the scientific content is connected to the rise of modern science in Europe; and c) to concomitantly marginalize the study of science in post-1200 Islamicate societies, particularly those with little to no connection to the rise of "Western" science. The contributions build upon conversations that took place among participants in December 2019 at a workshop at New York University (NYU), Abu Dhabi Institute in New York City, funded by a grant from NYU Abu Dhabi.
AssuntosOcultismo , Sociedades , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Colonialismo , Cidade de Nova Iorque
There have been at least two deaths in Albania linked to ritualistic/satanic practices, which have provoked considerable public concern. Until the 1990s, Albania was strictly atheist. However, since then some religious sects have been establishing themselves. In fact, satanic killings and ritualistic deaths are rare in Albania. We describe two such cases that occurred in 2020 along with consideration of the psychological profiles of perpetrators and victims.The first case involved two deaths: a mother and daughter whose bodies were found near each other, with another daughter in attendance who was diagnosed as clearly psychotic, and legally did not face any charge thereafter. This daughter was witnessing the decomposition of her sister's mummified corpse. She said she was waiting for the "Messiah" to resurrect her. Apparently, while performing ritualistic ceremonies, the daughter and her mother refused food until the mother died from starvation. It was at that point that police broke into the house and discovered the situation.The second case involved a young woman who was found dead, apparently following a trivial infection. Her body (abdomen and dorsum) had written symbols on it, suggesting Satanism and the occult.A detailed analysis of the death scenes and crime scenes provide valuable data for further proceedings, but psychological evaluation of the perpetrators may prove more difficult, and more so where the victims have died.
AssuntosTranstornos Mentais , Ocultismo , Albânia , Comportamento Ritualístico , Feminino , Humanos , Mães
The paper describes a case report of a 36-years old female patient suffering from an addiction to seeking fortune-telling services, which is a type of behavioral addiction, or non-substance addiction. This condition is characterized by the addiction to various "occult services", fortune tellers and other representatives of nontraditional practices who are usually manipulative and self-serving. The authors reveal that this case report of fortune telling addiction possesses all of six components universal for addictions.In light of the increasing prevalence of various behavioral addictions, clinical psychiatrists should be aware of this phenomenon.
AssuntosComportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Ocultismo/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos
In this paper, the author traces two parallel movements of institutionalized Ayurvedic psychiatry, an emergent field of specialization in Kerala, India: the 'work of purification' and the 'work of translation' that Latour has described as characteristic of the 'modern constitution.' The author delineates these processes in terms of the relationship of Ayurvedic psychiatry to (1) allopathic psychiatry, (2) bhutavidya, a branch of textual Ayurveda dealing with spirits, and (3) occult violence. The aim is to offer a model of these open and hidden processes and of Ayurvedic psychiatry's positioning within a hierarchical mental health field characterized simultaneously by biopsychiatric hegemony and a persistent vernacular healing tradition. Through these processes, Ayurvedic psychiatry emerges as a relevant actor. It demarcates itself from both allopathic and vernacular epistemologies and ontologies while simultaneously drawing upon aspects of each, and, in this way, shows itself to be both deeply modern and highly pragmatic.
AssuntosAyurveda , Ocultismo , Psiquiatria , Antropologia Médica , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Violência/etnologia
In the late Middle Ages, rumors began to spread throughout Europe regarding blood miracles associated with the relics of martyrs. Centuries-old blood, pulverized or solidified and black in color, was said to return to its original bright red color, or else to liquefy or bubble under certain circumstances or on certain dates in the liturgical calendar. With the Reformation, in Protestant countries most of these relics were either destroyed or forgotten. In Catholic countries, on the contrary, blood miracles multiplied, reaching a peak between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This article reconstructs the debate that sprang up in eighteenth-century Europe over the blood of Saint Januarius and the attempts made to disprove its miraculous properties, often not in written works, but by staging highly theatrical demonstrations. It examines the way in which, with phenomena as complex as miracles, the activities of testing alleged facts, creating elucidative models, and staging imitations intertwined over the centuries, often overlapping and becoming confused.
AssuntosCatolicismo/história , Ocultismo/história , Protestantismo/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval , Humanos , Itália , Santos
We assumed that, as in the case of addiction disorders, former cult members exhibit vulnerability and protective factors for cult commitment and membership. Thus, the aim of our study was to identify vulnerability factors that are involved in the commitment and in the retention in the group, as well as protective factors that are involved in the departure. We interviewed 31 former cult members, using semi-structured interviews to evaluate their clinical profile, characteristics of the cultic group and their experience in the group. Cult membership and addictive disorders share some characteristics: persistence despite damage, initial psychological relief, occupation of an exclusive place in the thoughts of members, high psychiatric comorbidity prevalence, high accessibility, leading to social precariousness and the importance of familial support when leaving. Three main axes of improvement were highlighted: regulations concerning cults in order to limit their social presence, which appears to be a vulnerability factor for commitment; social and therapeutic follow-up when a member leaves a group so that social precariousness does not become an obstacle to departure; and familial support to maintain a link with the member, as the intervention of a person from outside of the group is an important protective factor for leaving.
AssuntosOcultismo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Participação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
Based on a representative population survey for Germany this article investigates whether engagement in holistic activities is associated with privatized lifestyles and lack of social responsibility or with countercultural orientations and base-democratic political commitment. To analyse this question, respondents who are engaged in holistic activities are divided into three groups that are compared with each other as well as with Christians and non-religious people. The findings show that the three holistic groups are characterized by clearly different attitudinal patterns: Respondents engaged in body-mind-spirit activities have an affinity to self-directed ways of life, post-materialism and environmentalism. Holistic Christians try to combine the Christian ideal of altruism and post-materialist orientations. Those who are attracted only to magical-occult practices are primarily concerned with individualistic self-improvement and correspond more to the image of the hedonist consumer at the esoteric marketplace.
AssuntosAtitude , Saúde Holística , Religião , Responsabilidade Social , Valores Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Cristianismo , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Alemanha , Saúde Holística/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo , Ocultismo , Política , Espiritualismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature.
AssuntosLiteratura Moderna/história , Ocultismo/história , Parapsicologia/história , Fotografação/história , França , História do Século XIX , Humanos
Si bien los pueblos andinos contemporáneos muestran un marcado rechazo a las intervenciones quirúrgicas por diversas razones de índole cultural, encontramos en los relatos coloniales de los siglos XVI y XVII descripciones que aluden a la expresión formal de cirugías simbólicas, bajo trance, que persiguen la extracción corporal de los objetos y sustancias que materializan la enfermedad. El artículo analiza varias de estas intervenciones fingidas comparándolas con las actuales estrategias terapéuticas de corte chamánico que realizan los curanderos andinos (AU)
Even when contemporary Andean peoples show a strong rejection to surgical interventions due to cultural reasons, in 16th- and 17th-century colonial sources we find acounts that describe the formal expression of symbolic surgical interventions (carried out while in trance) that aim to extract from the body those objects and substances that materialize the ailment. This article analyzes some of these mock interventions and compares them with current shamanic therapeutical strategies carried out by Andean healers (AU)
AssuntosHumanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Xamanismo/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Antropologia Médica/história , Antropologia Médica/métodos , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Eugenia (Ciência)/métodos , Eugenia (Ciência)/tendências , Comparação Transcultural , Terapias Complementares/história , Religião , Cura Mental/história , Ocultismo/história , Cultura
As a prelude to articles published in this special issue, I sketch changing historiographical conventions regarding the 'occult' in recent history of science and medicine scholarship. Next, a review of standard claims regarding psychical research and parapsychology in philosophical discussions of the demarcation problem reveals that these have tended to disregard basic primary sources and instead rely heavily on problematic popular accounts, simplistic notions of scientific practice, and outdated teleological historiographies of progress. I conclude by suggesting that rigorous and sensitively contextualized case studies of past elite heterodox scientists may be potentially useful to enrich historical and philosophical scholarship by highlighting epistemologies that have fallen through the crude meshes of triumphalist and postmodernist historiographical generalizations alike.
AssuntosHistoriografia , Conhecimento , Medicina , Ocultismo , Parapsicologia , Filosofia , Ciência , Humanos , Publicações
In so far as researchers viewed psychical, occult, and religious phenomena as both objectively verifiable and resistant to extant scientific explanations, their study posed thorny issues for experimental psychologists. Controversies over the study of psychical and occult phenomena at the Fourth Congress of International Psychology (Paris, 1900) and religious phenomena at the Sixth (Geneva, 1909) raise the question of why the latter was accepted as a legitimate object of study, whereas the former was not. Comparison of the Congresses suggests that those interested in the study of religion were willing to forego the quest for objective evidence and focus on experience, whereas those most invested in psychical research were not. The shift in focus did not overcome many of the methodological difficulties. Sub-specialization formalized distinctions between psychical, religious, and pathological phenomena; obscured similarities; and undercut the nascent comparative study of unusual experiences that had emerged at the early Congresses.
AssuntosCongressos como Assunto/história , Ocultismo/história , Parapsicologia/história , Religião/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Paris , Religião e Psicologia , Suíça
The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant.
AssuntosCatolicismo/história , Ocultismo/história , Protestantismo/história , Religião e Ciência , Santos , Sangue , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval , Itália
This study takes on a relational and situated perspective to understand the relationship between scientific knowledge and fortune-telling. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of scientific facts and methods, and fortune-telling beliefs and practices. A sample of 1863 adults was drawn from a population of Taiwanese citizens using the method of probability proportional to size. The findings showed that knowledge of scientific methods was negatively associated with fortune-telling beliefs. However, knowledge of scientific facts was, by and large, positively associated with engagement in fortune-telling practices, a phenomenon known as cognitive polyphasia. This study does not imply that science communication or education have no effect on promoting scientific knowledge; rather, it hopes to encourage researchers and practitioners to use a culturally sensitive lens to rethink the role of science in society and its relationship with other forms of knowledge and belief.
AssuntosConhecimento , Ocultismo , Ciência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Compreensão , Cultura , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
Em 1953, Devereux editou uma coletânea de textos de Freud sobre a psicanálise e o ocultismo. Apesar de pouco conhecidos, tais escritos foram fundamentais no debate com a filosofia francesa. Merleau-Ponty, por exemplo, debruçou-se sobre esta questão duas vezes: primeiro, relacionando a premonição com a percepção. Depois, a telepatia ao sentir. Sua conclusão nos leva a repensar o tema central da psicanálise: o inconsciente. Sua proposta é relacioná-lo à indivisão do sentir e à sua reversibilidade: vejo e sou visto...
In 1953, Devereux edited a collection of Freud's texts on psychoanalysis and the occultism. Despite these texts being little known, they were crucial in the debate with the French philosophy. Merleau-Ponty, for instance, addressed this issue twice. At first, relating the premonition with perception. At another time, he links the telepathy with the sense. His conclusion leads us to rethink the focus of psychoanalysis: the unconscious. His proposal is to link it with the unity of the sense and its reversibility: to see and being seen...
AssuntosAdulto , Ocultismo/psicologia , Psicanálise/métodos , Telepatia , Inconsciente Psicológico
Em 1953, Devereux editou uma coletânea de textos de Freud sobre a psicanálise e o ocultismo. Apesar de pouco conhecidos, tais escritos foram fundamentais no debate com a filosofia francesa. Merleau-Ponty, por exemplo, debruçou-se sobre esta questão duas vezes: primeiro, relacionando a premonição com a percepção. Depois, a telepatia ao sentir. Sua conclusão nos leva a repensar o tema central da psicanálise: o inconsciente. Sua proposta é relacioná-lo à indivisão do sentir e à sua reversibilidade: vejo e sou visto(AU)
In 1953, Devereux edited a collection of Freud's texts on psychoanalysis and the occultism. Despite these texts being little known, they were crucial in the debate with the French philosophy. Merleau-Ponty, for instance, addressed this issue twice. At first, relating the premonition with perception. At another time, he links the telepathy with the sense. His conclusion leads us to rethink the focus of psychoanalysis: the unconscious. His proposal is to link it with the unity of the sense and its reversibility: to see and being seen(AU)
AssuntosAdulto , Inconsciente Psicológico , Telepatia , Psicanálise/métodos , Ocultismo/psicologia
In recent years, satanic groups have been responsible for various types and degrees of crimes. We report the case of a number of murders committed in Italy by a group of young people calling themselves the "Bestie di Satana". Forensic psychiatric assessment of the members of a satanic sect charged with the crime revealed that all the young people had a fragile, immature personality, a very low level of education and were socially disadvantaged. The trial of the members of the "Bestie di Satana" sect was concluded with the verdict of deliberate murder, and all the members were given long jail sentences. This report should lead us to explore social and cultural responses to juvenile satanism, statistically shown to be a relatively rare phenomenon but with a high criminal potential.
AssuntosHomicídio/psicologia , Comportamento de Massa , Ocultismo , Adulto , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
Este es el primero de una serie de artículos en los que se pretende estudiar la historia y la significación psicológica del mito del zombi a través del análisis de sus elementos alegóricos y simbólicos partiendo de una conceptualización de mito extraída de las nociones de la psicología analítica de Jung y de la historia de las religiones de Eliade. Aquí profundizaremos en la genealogía simbólica que antecede y se inserta en la concepción del zombi en The Magic Island de Seabrook (primer texto donde aparece el zombi como muerto viviente) a través del análisis comparativo con el sonámbulo de la literatura y cinematografía del lado oscuro del magnetismo animal y la hipnosis y su relación con el autómata (AU)
This is the first of series of articles that aims to study the history and psychological significance of the myth of the zombie through the analysis of its allegorical and symbolic elements, based on a myths conceptualization extracted from the notions of Jungs analytical psychology and Eliades history of religions. Here, well look deeply into the symbolic genealogy that comes before and its inserted in zombie conception in Seabrooks The magic island (first text where zombie appears as living dead) through a comparative analysis with the somnambulist in literature and filmography of the dark side of animal magnetism and hypnosis and its connection with the automaton (AU)
AssuntosHumanos , Masculino , Feminino , Genealogia e Heráldica , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Teoria Psicanalítica , Medicina na Literatura , Literatura/história , Sonambulismo/psicologia , Hipnose/história , Hipnose/métodos , Magnetismo/história , Fantasia , Ocultismo/história , Ocultismo/psicologia
In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin's most prominent occultists, the plaintiff--the medium's husband--argued that Moll's use of terms such as 'trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce' in reference to Vollhardt's phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll's putative affront to the medium--of which he was eventually acquitted--was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who--parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists--was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff-Moll trial as a means of examining Moll's critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany's occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll.