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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149966, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481161

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are known sources of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) spreading into the environment, as well as, of unpleasant odors. CECs represent a potential hazard for human health and the environment being pharmaceutical or biologically active compounds and they are acquiring relevance in European directives. Similarly, the public concern about odour emissions from WWTPs is also increasing due to the decreasing distance between WWTP and residential areas. This study focuses on the effectiveness of the recently developed MULESL technology (MUch LEss SLudge; WO2019097463) in removing CECs and limiting odour emissions from WWTPs. MULESL technology has been developed for its ability to reduce up to 80% the sludge production from WWTPs. However, it is ought to evaluate if the benefits coming from sludge production reduction do not invalidate CECs removal or negatively affect odour emissions. Thus, the performances of a MULESL and a conventional WWTP (flow rate of 375 m3/d and 3600 m3/d, respectively) were compared while treating the same municipal sewage. Whereas both plants succeeded in removing the traditional gross parameters characterizing wastewaters (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen), the MULESL was much more effective than the conventional one in terms of CECs removal for about 60% of the identified compounds showing, however, the same or lower effectiveness for about 30% and 10% of them, respectively. This result was attributed to the high sludge retention time and biomass concentration in the MULESL (enabling enrichment of slow growing microorganisms and forcing biomass to use unusual substrates, respectively), and to the biomass feature to grow in the form of biofilm and granules (favoring micropollutants absorption on biomass). Furthermore, odour impact analysis has shown that the MULESL was characterized by a much lower impact, i.e. 45% lower than that of primary and secondary treatments of the conventional WWTP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Odorantes , Esgotos , Tecnologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 370: 131004, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525425

RESUMO

A step-by-step approach to easily adapt and use a GC-FID as an olfactometer, as well as a detailed description of acquisition and interpretation of olfactometric data by the OSME (from the Greek word for odor, ὀσµÎ®) method. A Merlot wine was used to exemplifly this strategy and its volatiles were characterized, rendering 43 volatiles in 1D-GC/MS and 142 in GCxGC/MS. GC-O showed the presence of 24 odor-active compounds and GCxGC/MS indicated aditional 14 odor-active compounds, which were found as coelutions. Six compounds (isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, carvone, benzyl alcohol and nonanoic acid) were described in 1D-GC-O analyses as having distinct odors by the same and by different assessors. This fact indicated the presence of coeluting bands, which were resolved by GCxGC/MS. The adapted GC-O in combination with the use of GCxGC/MS may be a tool to more accurate investigation of the odor-active compounds of wine.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Cromatografia Gasosa , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 291-298, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Gold Finger' is a grape cultivar with a finger-like shape and a milk flavor. The process by which its aroma profile evolves during ripening is unclear. Thus, changes in the free and bound volatile compounds present in 'Gold Finger' grapes during ripening were investigated using headspace sampling-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HS-SPME-GC-MS). RESULTS: A total of 83 volatile aroma components were identified in the grapes, with aldehydes, esters, acids, and alcohols being the main components. The total aroma compound content exhibited significant differences between the bound and free forms. The total content of bound volatile compounds did not change significantly during fruit development, although the free aroma compound content was significantly higher than the bound content. The total content of free aldehydes, free alcohols, bound norisoprenoids, and ketones gradually increased for up to 70 days after flowering (DAF), while the total free ester, terpene, and acid content decreased. The characteristic aroma compounds of 'Gold Finger' grapes were identified as hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and ethyl hexanoate. CONCLUSIONS: These results give a foundation for the further development of 'Gold Finger' grapes and provide a theoretical basis for the selection and breeding of novel aromatic grape varieties. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
4.
Food Chem ; 371: 131160, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598117

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of edible oil on the volatile aroma profile and storage quality of garlic paste, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The administration of blend oil at 40 °C in a garlic to oil ratio of 1.8 had a higher overall acceptance by affective sensory test. Compared with the original garlic paste, the sensory aroma profile of the oil-immersed garlic paste was characterized by suppressed pungency, garlic scent and garlic odor, and enhanced oil scent. SPME-GC-MS and HS-GC-IMS showed that the application of blend oil caused great changes in the level of some compounds, which could explain its role in the oil-immersed garlic paste. Furthermore, the blend oil also reduced the growth rate of the total number of colonies and browning intensity, and inhibited the loss of allicin. Therefore, the application of blend oil in garlic paste improved the sensory aroma and delayed the deterioration of the product quality.


Assuntos
Alho , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 371: 131165, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601213

RESUMO

Takifugu rubripes is well-known for its unique flavour but can also develop a putrid off-note. To eliminate off-note and promote desirable flavour, four cooking processes (boiling, steaming, microwave-heating and roasting) were explored to determine their effects on cooked T. rubripes. The temperature and water dynamics, physico-chemical properties were analysed and correlated with sensory qualities. The changes of centre temperature dynamics during cooking decreased the water mobility and led to varied sensory properties. Six out of ten orthonasal aroma attributes and four out of five mouthfeel attributes were significantly different among samples (p < 0.05). Based on partial least squares regression analysis, orthonasal aroma attributes "roasted" and "earthy/putrid fish" highly correlated with the volatile compounds generated from Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation, respectively; meanwhile mouthfeel attributes of chewy/fibre and tender/juicy were highly associated with water loss and moisture, respectively. This study provides insights for optimising cooking conditions to create desirable fish flavour.


Assuntos
Culinária , Takifugu , Animais , Odorantes/análise , Percepção , Paladar
6.
Food Chem ; 371: 131104, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537605

RESUMO

Mint is a widely used aromatic plant, and the aroma varies among different species. The aroma of five mint species, Mentha citrata L. (MC), Mentha piperita L. (MPI), Mentha spicata L. (MSP), Mentha persicaria L. (MPE), and Mentha suaveolens L. (MSU), were comparatively studied on the sensorial and molecular level. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that MC presented a pronounced lemon-like note, MSU is dominated by citrus and floral aromas, MPI has a prominent minty flavor, MSP and MPE have a similar scent, both of which are flavored with a spearmint-like note. Forty-one odorants with odor activity values (OAVs) ≥1 were characterized. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis based on OAVs indicated that α-citral, menthofuran, isomenthone, menthol, carvone, and linalool were potential odor-active markers for five mint species discrimination. This study herein will provide guidance for mint resources utilization and also aid mint breeding with better flavor.


Assuntos
Mentha spicata , Mentha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aromatizantes , Odorantes/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
Food Chem ; 371: 131103, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537608

RESUMO

Hydroxyl radical system combined with GC-IMS and metabolomics were used to assess the effect of oxidation on the formation of volatile flavor emitted from yak meat. The formation of volatile compounds, including heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 2,3-glutaraldehyde, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, etc. were promoted by oxidation. Among them, 2,3-pentanedione and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, etc. maybe contributed most to the overall aroma of yak meat, while octanal, nonanal and benzaldehyde maybe related to the formation of off-odor or acidification. Meanwhile, the content of metabolites such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, etc. fatty acids and 3-dehydromangiferic acid, tyrosine were increased or decreased with the time of oxidation. More importantly, the formation of most flavor components in yak meat during the course of oxidation were related to stearidonic acid, acetylleucine, dehydroshikimate, 6-phosphate-glucose etc. differential metabolic components. Moreover, starch and sucrose metabolism (prediction), and amino acid metabolism (enrichment) etc. pathways maybe related with the process of oxidation.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Bovinos , Aromatizantes/análise , Carne , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
8.
Food Chem ; 371: 131112, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537609

RESUMO

Egg yolk contains abundant meat precursors, but its odor is quite different from meat aroma. In this study, the lipids in egg yolk were partly removed by acetone or totally removed by chloroform/methanol, and lutein was removed simultaneously by the solvents. Then, the samples were heated, and the volatiles and aroma profiles were analyzed. The results showed that chicken meat aroma and meat aroma were imitated successfully through the removal of neutral lipids and lutein (acetone-treated) and total lipids and lutein (chloroform/methanol-treated) egg yolk samples, respectively. Finally, additional lutein and tert-butylhydroquinone were employed for validating the inhibiting effects of lutein on lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction, and the results demonstrated that it was lutein rather than lipids or their degradation products that determined the flavor formation. These findings push forward the mechanisms for the formation of meat flavor and provide insights for future manufacturing of meat aroma.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo , Odorantes , Luteína , Carne/análise , Paladar
9.
Food Chem ; 371: 131111, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543928

RESUMO

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is widely used as a traditional spice in the cooking of goat meat (mutton) due to its distinctive flavor and the ability to weaken the "goaty flavor". To investigate the aroma characteristics of stewed mutton with thyme (SMT), four SMT samples prepared using different cooking utensils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Totally, 26 aroma-active compounds (AACs) were determined by GC-MS/O and further quantified. Among these, 20 AACs exhibited odor activity values (OAV) greater than 1. However, no significant differences existed among the four SMTs, which indicated that different utensils had little effect on the aroma profile of SMTs. Aroma recombination and omission experiments results showed that nonanal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal had the greatest contribution to the aroma profile of SMTs. These three compounds, together with dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methyl-butanal, octanal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-nonenal, methanethiol, hexanal, (E)-2-undecenal, and 1-octen-3-ol, were confirmed as the key aroma compounds in SMTs.


Assuntos
Thymus (Planta) , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Cabras , Carne , Odorantes , Olfatometria
10.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132210, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826912

RESUMO

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are important sources of unpleasant odours in biosolid emissions. However, the study of VSCs may be limited by complications in their gas phase measurements due to reactivity, transformations and varying reported odour detection thresholds. A range of methods were used to quantitatively analyse VSCs in wastewater biosolid emissions. VSCs were identified in aged biosolid emissions by gas chromatography (GC) with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD) and mass spectrometry coupled with olfactory detection port (MS/O). In total, 10 VSC's were identified with two volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs), allyl methyl sulfide and methyl propyl sulfide being reported for the first time in biosolid emissions. The emission patterns of different VSCs varied as the biosolids aged. Initially, the median concentrations of H2S, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), methanethiol (MeSH) and ethanethiol (EtSH) were orders of magnitude greater than their reported odour detection threshold, suggesting they would contribute to the odorous impact of the biosolids. The maximum H2S value was equal to 59.9 × 103 µg/m3 and was at least one magnitude higher compared to VOSCs, such as dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (3.8×103 µg/m3), DMS (4.53 × 103 µg/m3), EtSH (2.83 × 103 µg/m3) and MeSH (3.25 × 103 µg/m3). Among the identified VSCs, H2S was the prominent odorant in terms of the magnitude and the frequency of detection, both initially as well as throughout storage. However, DMTS should be considered as a high priority or key odorant due to its odour activity value (OAV) and frequency of detection (sensorially detected in more than 75% of samples, with an OAVs higher than 1).


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Biossólidos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Enxofre , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Águas Residuárias
11.
Food Chem ; 372: 131118, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600194

RESUMO

To systematically study the impact of root restriction (RR) on the aroma quality of grape berry, in this study, free and bound compounds were investigated in 'Red Alexandria' grape skin and pulp produced with and without RR during development and ripening. Compared with the control, RR advanced the initiation of free-terpene synthesis and increased their concentrations at 14-18 weeks post-flowering (wpf) by promoting the conversion of bound terpenes to free terpenes. In addition, RR significantly regulated the aromatic series at 14-18 wpf and advanced the date of aroma maturation. Network analyses indicated that the correlations among bound compounds were more conserved than those among free compounds, and the skin network displayed tight coordination compared with the pulp network. Terpenes were highly intercorrelated and played a core role in these networks. Finally, 10 bound compounds in pulp were screened out as indicators of the developmental timing of grape.


Assuntos
Vitis , Frutas , Odorantes , Terpenos
12.
Food Chem ; 372: 131202, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607047

RESUMO

Analysis of three matcha (cyclone-, bead- and stone-milled) revealed differences in their sizes and surface morphologies. Using liquid chromatography, 4 sugars, 6 organic acids, 18 amino acids and 9 polyphenols were detected in all matcha samples and shown to present in different amount. Moreover, 108 volatile compounds were detected and 30 potential flavour-contributing compounds were quantified by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry using headspace-stir bar sorptive extraction-thin-film solid-phase microextraction (HS-SBSE-TFSPME). Sensory evaluation by a trained panel found that the matcha samples possess different notes (cyclone-milled: leafy; bead-milled: fishy; and stone-milled: roasty) which is supported by the volatile compound analysis. Finally, the three matcha were differentiated based on non-volatile and volatile components using principal component analysis, and the correlation between chemical composition and sensory evaluation data was carried out using partial least square regression. In conclusion, milling processes clearly affected the physical, chemical and sensory qualities of matcha.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aminas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
13.
Food Chem ; 372: 131229, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624784

RESUMO

Addition of oenological tannins claims to have a positive impact on wine stability, protection from oxidation and likely sensory persistence. However, their role on red wine aroma during oxidation is controversial. The present study aims at investigating the effect of addition of oenological tannins on wine flavour (mainly aroma) before and after air exposure. Temporal Dominance of Sensations, a dynamic sensory evaluation, was coupled with a dynamic chemical measurement (nosespace analysis) using a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometer connected to the nasal cavity of 17 assessors. Results showed that the oxidation of a non-oaked Pinot Noir red wine decreases the fruity aroma dominance and increases the maderised and prune one. A contextual decrease of the fruity ethyl decanoate and increase of oxidative Strecker aldehydes are observed. Ellagitannins but not proanthocyanidins preserved perception of fruitiness and prevented increase of maderised notes. Moreover, ellagitannins increase the aroma persistence mainly in the non-oxidized wine.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Vinho , Odorantes/análise , Percepção , Taninos , Paladar , Vinho/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 372: 131227, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627089

RESUMO

To investigate the specific difference in aroma characteristics of Huangjiu (Chinese rice wine) in Shaoxing region fermented with different brewing water, descriptive sensory analysis, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC × GC-qMS) and multivariate statistical analysis were employed. The descriptive sensory analysis proved that Huangjiu fermented with Jianhu water had higher overall aroma intensity, and was more prominent in ester, sweet and alcoholic aroma than those fermented with deionized water and Nenjiang water. The results of aroma components analysis by GC × GC-qMS showed that the Huangjiu fermented with Jianhu water had higher concentration of some key aroma compounds, such as ethyl butyrate (OAV: 29-196), isoamyl acetate (OAV: 11-18) and ethyl hexanoate (OAV: 38-47). The multivariate statistical analysis further confirmed that 14 compounds could be used as key markers to distinguish the Huangjiu samples fermented with different brewing water. The correlation network between the volatile compounds in Huangjiu and the inorganic components in water indicated that the ions played an important role in the formation of the difference in aroma characteristics among the samples.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Análise de Dados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Água
15.
Food Chem ; 372: 131260, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628122

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of different reheating methods (microwave, water boiling, steaming, and frying) on the flavor of surimi gels with untreated sample as control. Electronic nose and electronic tongue results showed that microwave could better maintain the original odor and taste characteristics of surimi gels. Additionally, 43 kinds of volatile aroma compounds were detected in surimi gels, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, heterocycles, and esters. The aroma fingerprints of surimi gels were similar between water boiling and steaming and between microwave and the control, whereas frying showed the most unique aroma profile possibly related to the highest TBARS values. The total contents of nucleotides, carnosine and lactic acid were significantly higher in fried samples relative to other samples. In conclusion, all the reheating treatments can alter the flavor of samples, but microwave showed better performance in sensory evaluation and maintaining the original flavor of surimi gels.


Assuntos
Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aromatizantes , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Vapor
16.
Food Chem ; 372: 131222, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638059

RESUMO

Varietal thiols are important wine aroma compounds that are generally less abundant in red wines. Accentuated cut edges (ACE), known for accelerating phenolic extraction, was applied to Shiraz winemaking and compared with conventional crushing (NOACE) to examine the effects on varietal thiol precursor extraction and thiol formation. Water addition to grape must and skin contact time (SCT) during fermentation were also assessed. Although there was no difference for precursors in the must, ACE significantly decreased 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol concentration during fermentation. 3-Sulfanylhexan-1-ol and ethyl esters were significantly influenced by crushing method and/or SCT, with NOACE or shorter SCT yielding higher concentrations. Acetates, higher alcohols, fatty acids, and isoprenoids differed according to the interaction of crushing method and SCT, with ACE and shorter SCT significantly enhancing all groups except acetates. Volatiles in Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir wines produced at commercial scale with ACE were briefly evaluated, suggesting an impact of grape variety.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Acetatos/análise , Fermentação , Odorantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Vinho/análise
17.
Food Chem ; 371: 131379, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808773

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of substituting wheat with pulse flours (lentil, chickpea, lupin, green and yellow pea) on reactivity during different steps of sponge cake development. Pulses exhibited a greater ability to generate volatiles with probable odor activity. Batter beating initiated lipid oxidation which depended on lipoxygenase activity and the fatty acid profile of the flours. Among the pulses, pea batters were richest in oxidation markers whereas lupin was least reactive, probably due to thermal pre-treatment. Baking triggered caramelization and Maillard reactions, notably with the pulse products which were particularly enriched in pyrazines and furanic compounds. Principle component analysis revealed that pea cakes were associated with oxidation markers that typically possess green-beany flavors, while Maillard markers known to impart nutty, roasted notes were assigned to lentil and chickpea cakes. These findings highlight the importance of ingredient type and its pre-processing in the development of quality-related markers for gluten-free products.


Assuntos
Cicer , Lens (Planta) , Farinha/análise , Odorantes , Paladar
18.
Food Chem ; 371: 131123, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555706

RESUMO

The anabolism of aroma volatiles in response to non-biological factors during the drying process of shiitake mushrooms was analyzed. Temperatures (40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C) had secondary activation effects on the synthetase activity. The enzymatic reaction time could last 4-5 h under medium-temperature drying process (40 °C and 50 °C), and 1.5-2 h under a high-temperature drying process (60 °C and 70 °C). The aroma synthesis dominated by non-enzymatic reactions were chemical reactions between amino acids and reducing sugars. The hot-air drying process of shiitake mushroom was consistent with the cubic model and the key control points influencing the enzymatic reaction parameters were in the order of moisture rate > temperature > drying time > drying rate. The non-enzymatic reaction parameters were in the order of temperature > drying time > drying rate > moisture rate. The total sulfur volatiles produced in the optimized process were significantly higher, and the drying time of the process could be completed within 6 h.


Assuntos
Cogumelos Shiitake , Dessecação , Conservação de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Enxofre
19.
Food Chem ; 371: 131166, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583178

RESUMO

Melon juice produces strong cooked off-odors during heat processing, leading to serious deterioration of aroma quality. In this work, the aroma quality of melon juice, the changes in GOD reaction products, and the interactions of reaction products and cooked off-odor components were analyzed by sensory evaluation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactory, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, and isothermal titration calorimetry to study the effect mechanism of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the release of cooked off-odor components from heat-treated melon juice. The results showed that GOD treatment improved the aroma quality mainly by controlling off-odor attributes and maintaining characteristic odor attributes. This was because the reaction products (hydrogen peroxide and gluconic acid) of GOD treatment inhibited the release of cooked off-odor components from heat-treated melon juice through oxidation and hydrophobic effects. Furthermore, these products reduced the loss of characteristic odor compounds by restraining Maillard, degradation, and oxidation reactions during heat processing.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucose Oxidase , Temperatura Alta , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 73-84, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mushroom possesses desirable aroma, taste, texture, health-promoting and disease-preventing dietary components, making it an ideal ingredient, especially for animal-based food substitution. Nevertheless, no study has replaced egg whites partially with mushrooms and investigated their sensory quality. This study aimed to investigate flavor impartment of mushroom on egg whites and the sensory quality of roasting and steaming egg whites replaced by white and crimini mushrooms at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively, using a panel trained with aroma chemical references for 31 sensory attributes with 0-10 line scales. RESULTS: Roasted and steamed egg whites possessed major sensory attributes of sulfury and egg-like aroma and flavor (intensities > 3). After mushroom topping was added, the dominant sensory attributes shifted to mushroom-based flavor characteristics, including mushroom-like, earthy, dark meat, roasted, hay, soybean, potato, woody, umami, bitter, astringent and firmness texture. Mushroom variety showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) impacts on egg white sensory quality, with crimini introducing more intense flavor. The higher the mushroom proportion with egg whites, the more intense was the flavor associated with mushroom. Mushroom could enhance egg-like flavor in multiple dimensions, including aroma, taste and texture, according to partial least square regression. CONCLUSION: White and crimini mushrooms enriched roasted and steamed egg white sensory quality with introduction of characteristic sensory attributes from mushrooms. Mushroom variety and proportion with egg whites displayed significant impacts on egg white sensory properties. The study contributed to understanding the impact of mushrooms on egg white sensory profile and served as a guide in incorporating mushroom in product development. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Clara de Ovo/química , Paladar , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Culinária , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Olfato
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