Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.524
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639278

RESUMO

Promoting physical activity (PA) is a long-standing public health initiative to improve overall health and wellbeing. Innovative strategies such as Play Streets, temporary activation of public spaces to provide safe places for active play, are being adopted in urban and rural communities to increase PA among children. As part of these strategies, aspects of social and community connectedness may be strengthened. This study analyzes focus groups and interviews from rural Play Street implementation team members (n = 14) as well as adults (n = 7) and children (n = 25) who attended Play Streets hosted in rural North Carolina, Maryland, Oklahoma, and Texas to better understand the added benefits of Play Streets in community connectedness. Overall, elements of social support and social cohesion are mentioned most frequently with instrumental and conditional support; however, concepts of social capital, collective-efficacy, and social identification are also presented. Participants expressed that Play Streets provided more than just PA; they provided opportunities to access and share resources, build perceptions of safety and trust in the community, and develop relationships with others. Fostering community connection through Play Streets may reduce health inequities in rural communities by building community resilience. Community-based PA programming that enhance and capitalize on community connectedness could be effective ways to improving the overall health and wellbeing of residents.


Assuntos
População Rural , Capital Social , Adulto , Criança , Exercício Físico , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Oklahoma
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 404, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are common on horses, but recent publications characterizing equine tick infestations in North America are lacking. METHODS: To further understand attachment site preferences of common ticks of horses, and to document the seasonality of equine tick infestation in northeastern Oklahoma, horses from eight farms were evaluated twice a month over a 1-year period. Each horse was systematically inspected beginning at the head and moving caudally to the tail. Attachment sites of ticks were recorded and all ticks collected were identified to species and stage. RESULTS: Horses (26 males and 62 females) enrolled in the study ranged in age from 1 to 23 years (mean = 12, 95% CI 11-13). A total of 2731 ticks were collected; 84.1% (74/88) of the horses were infested (median = 3 ticks) at one or more examinations. Five tick species were identified, including Amblyomma americanum (78.2%; 2136/2731), Ixodes scapularis (18.2%; 497/2731), Dermacentor albipictus brown variant (2.6%; 71/2731), Dermacentor variabilis (0.7%; 20/2731), and Amblyomma maculatum (0.3%; 7/231). Most ticks were adults (83.6%; 2282/2731), but immature A. americanum (436/2136; 20.4%), D. albipictus (12/71; 16.9%), and A. maculatum (n = 1) were occasionally recovered. Amblyomma americanum were most often attached to the inguinal area, and I. scapularis and D. albipictus were most commonly found on the chest and axillary region (P < 0.0001). Ticks were found on horses in every month of the year. The largest number of ticks (638/2731; 23.4%) were collected in May (P < 0.0001). Amblyomma americanum, primarily immature, was the only tick recovered in September, I. scapularis and D. albipictus predominated October through February, and both A. americanum and I. scapularis were common in March. In the warmer months, April through August, A. americanum was the most common tick, followed by D. variabilis and A. maculatum. CONCLUSIONS: This research confirms that ticks common on horses in North America have attachment site preferences and that ticks infest horses in Oklahoma throughout the year, including during the winter. Additional research is warranted to fully understand the risk these infestations pose to equine health.


Assuntos
Amblyomma/fisiologia , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Cabeça/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Masculino , Pescoço/parasitologia , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Tórax/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 402, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Babesia species are intraerythrocytic Apicomplexan parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. These pathogens are typically transmitted either by tick vectors or by direct blood-to-blood contact, and may cause life-threatening clinical disease, such as thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure, in canine hosts. While Babesia vogeli and Babesia gibsoni infections have both been reported in Oklahoma, reports of Babesia conradae infections have been limited to California. METHODS: Four separate kennels of coyote-hunting dogs were identified in Oklahoma after the kennels had consulted with Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (antemortem cases) or the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab (postmortem cases). Upon owner consent, every accessible dog from each of the four kennels was briefly examined for ectoparasites, particularly ticks, and whole blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes. Clinically ill dogs were examined by a practicing veterinarian, and clinical signs included anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, fever and anemia. DNA was extracted from each blood sample, and a nested PCR was performed using general apicomplexan primers for the partial 18S rRNA gene. PCR products were electrophoresed in agarose matrix, and appropriately sized amplicons were sequenced. Sequences were compared to reference 18S rRNA gene sequences available in GenBank, and samples with > 98% homology to B. conradae (GenBank: AF158702) were considered positive. Babesia conradae-positive dogs were then treated with atovaquone (13.5 mg/kg three times per day) and azithromycin (10 mg/kg once daily) for 10 days and retested at 30 and 60 days post-treatment by PCR. RESULTS: Of 40 dogs tested, 15 (37.5%) were positive for B. conradae with 98-99% sequence homology to B. conradae from California. All positive cases were coyote-hunting Greyhounds. Ectoparasites were not identified on any of the dogs at the time of blood collection. Treatment of clinically ill dogs with atovaquone and azithromycin resulted in complete clinical recovery in all treated dogs with negative follow-up PCR at 30 and 60 days post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this study (i) documents the occurrence of B. conradae in Oklahoma, (ii) highlights this pathogen as a differential to be considered when clinical signs are present, (iii) supports the use of atovaquone and azithromycin as effective treatment in these cases and (iv) demonstrates chronic subclinical carrier dogs serving as potential reservoirs of B. conradae infection to naïve dogs.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães Trabalhadores/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Coiotes , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444242

RESUMO

Little is known about the environmental health-related policies and practices of early care and education (ECE) programs that contribute to childhood asthma, particularly in Oklahoma where child asthma rates (9.8%) and rates of uncontrolled asthma among children with asthma (60.0%) surpass national rates (8.1% and 50.3%, respectively). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with directors of Oklahoma-licensed ECE programs to assess policies and practices related to asthma control and to evaluate potential differences between Centers and Family Childcare Homes (FCCHs). Surveyed ECEs (n = 476) included Centers (56.7%), FCCHs (40.6%), and other program types (2.7%). Almost half (47.2%) of directors reported never receiving any asthma training. More Center directors were asthma-trained than FCCH directors (61.0% versus 42.0%, p < 0.0001). Most ECEs used asthma triggers, including bleach (88.5%) and air fresheners (73.6%). Centers were more likely to use bleach daily than were FCCHs (75.6% versus 66.8%, p = 0.04). FCCHs used air fresheners more than did Centers (79.0% versus 61.0%, p < 0.0001). The majority of ECEs (74.8%) used pesticides indoors. Centers applied indoor pesticides more frequently (i.e., monthly or more often) than did FCCHs (86.0% versus 58.0%, p < 0.0001). Policy, educational, and technical assistance interventions are needed to reduce asthma triggers and improve asthma control in Oklahoma ECEs.


Assuntos
Asma , Creches , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Ambiental , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Oklahoma/epidemiologia
6.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 24(4): 244-250, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429182

RESUMO

Every reared-apart monozygotic (MZ) twin pair offers a fresh perspective on human developmental questions. This is true regardless of whether the co-twins were raised in the same country or across the globe. The members of two pairs of separated MZ female twins have recently come to attention. In one case the twins were raised by different families in Argentina; in the other case the twins were raised by different families in Sweden and Vietnam. The perceptions and perspectives of these twins are insightful. The twin research section that follows begins with a tribute to our late esteemed colleague, Dr Isaac Blickstein (1953-2020). Research concerning the infanticide and sacrifice of Archaic-aged twins and triplets and prehistoric twin burials is reviewed next. Highlights from a conference focused on the 2018 film Three Identical Strangers are also included in this portion. The final section of this article includes media reports of an atypical twin father, an actor's twin brother, a twin link to the 1921 Tulsa, Oklahoma massacre, the birth of superfetated twins, twin comedians and script writers and Indian twins' tragic loss to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Irmãos , Idoso , Sepultamento , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infanticídio , Masculino , Oklahoma , SARS-CoV-2 , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 490, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258666

RESUMO

Field portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRFS) has become increasingly prevalent for in situ detection of trace metals, as it is both rapid and cost effective. The accuracy of in situ XRFS analyses has been questioned due to possible interferences from elevated soil moisture and organic content. In this study, three metal analysis protocols (Cd, Pb, Zn) were compared for surface soil samples collected near the Tar Creek Superfund Site in northeastern Oklahoma. The protocols included the use of a field portable XRF spectrometer for in situ analyses and on homogenized, pulverized, air-dried soil samples sieved to < 250-µm fraction in the laboratory. A subset of soil samples was also analyzed after microwave-assisted hot HNO3 digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analyses. Moisture content and loss-on-ignition (as a surrogate for organic matter) were determined for each sample. Soil moisture exceeding 10% in situ caused underreporting of field XRF readings when compared to the laboratory XRF readings. Relationships between concentrations determined by laboratory XRFS and ICP-OES for Pb (r2 = 0.96) and Zn (r2 = 0.91) were not statistically different (p < 0.025 for both analytes). A strong relationship between ICP-OES analyses of Zn and Cd (r2 = 0.93) allowed prediction of Cd concentrations for additional samples not analyzed by ICP-OES. This study recommends that XRFS field readings be used for initial screening only and that samples analyzed via field portable XRFS be homogenized, air dried, sieved and re-analyzed in the laboratory to yield the most accurate results.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração , Oklahoma , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204363

RESUMO

The influence of community-built environments on physical activity (PA) support in Early Childhood Education settings (ECEs) is unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine associations between community PA environments and ECE classroom PA practices. We included licensed Oklahoma ECE directors serving 3-to-5-year-old children. Parks and playground locations were exported from Google Earth. National Walkability Index was derived from 2010 US Census data. ArcMap 10.6 was used to geocode ECE locations, which were within an Activity Desert if no parks/playgrounds were located within a 1-mile radius or if Walkability Index was 10.5 or below. Classroom PA practices were determined by using the Nutrition and PA Self-Assessment tool (NAP SACC). Barriers to implementing practices were reported. Most Head Starts (n = 41; 80.3%), center-based childcare settings (CBC; n = 135; 87.0%), and family childcare homes (FCCHs; n = 153; 96.4%) were in an Activity Desert. Parks/playgrounds within a 10-mile buffer were correlated with classroom PA practices in FCCHs only (p < 0.001). Activity Desert status was not related to classroom PA practices for any ECE context (p > 0.029). While FCCHs may be the most vulnerable to lack of park and playground access, overall findings suggest ECEs provide a healthful micro-environment protective of the typical influence of community-built environments.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Oklahoma
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(28): 1004-1007, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264910

RESUMO

The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was identified in India in late 2020 and has subsequently been detected in approximately 60 countries (1). The B.1.617.2 variant has a potentially higher rate of transmission than other variants (2). During May 12-18, 2021, the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) Acute Disease Service (ADS) was notified by the OSDH Public Health Laboratory (PHL) of 21 SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 specimens temporally and geographically clustered in central Oklahoma. Public health surveillance data indicated that these cases were associated with a local gymnastics facility (facility A). OSDH ADS and local health department staff members reinterviewed persons with B.1.617.2 variant-positive laboratory results and conducted contact tracing. Forty-seven COVID-19 cases (age range = 5-58 years), including 21 laboratory-confirmed B.1.617.2 variant and 26 epidemiologically linked cases, were associated with this outbreak during April 15-May 3, 2021. Cases occurred among 10 of 16 gymnast cohorts* and three staff members; secondary cases occurred in seven (33%) of 26 interviewed households with outbreak-associated cases. The overall facility and household attack rates were 20% and 53%, respectively. Forty (85%) persons with outbreak-associated COVID-19 had never received any COVID-19 vaccine doses (unvaccinated); three (6%) had received 1 dose of Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech ≥14 days before a positive test result but had not received the second dose (partially vaccinated); four persons (9%) had received 2 doses of Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech or a single dose of Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine ≥14 days before a positive test result (fully vaccinated). These findings suggest that the B.1.617.2 variant is highly transmissible in indoor sports settings and within households. Multicomponent prevention strategies including vaccination remain important to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, including among persons participating in indoor sports† and their contacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ginástica , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281030

RESUMO

Bibliometric analysis is a well-established approach to quantitatively assess scholarly productivity. However, there have been few assessments of research productivity on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to date. The aim of this study was to analyze global research productivity through original articles published in journals indexed by the Web of Science from 1971 to 2020. Bibliometric data was obtained from the Science Citation Index Expanded in the Web of Science Core Collection database. Only original articles published between 1971 and 2020 on SLE were included in the analysis. Over the 50-year period, publication production in SLE research has steadily increased with a mean annual growth rate of 8.0%. A total of 44,967 articles published in 3435 different journals were identified. The journal Lupus published the largest number of articles (n = 3371; 8.0%). A total of 148 countries and regions contributed to the articles. The global productivity ranking was led by the United States (n = 11,244, 25.0%), followed by China (n = 4893, 10.9%). A three-field plot showed that the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation and the Johns Hopkins University together contributed 18.5% of all articles from the United States. A co-occurrence network analysis revealed five highly connected clusters of SLE research. In conclusion, this bibliometric analysis provided a comprehensive overview of the status of SLE research, which could enable a better understanding of the development in this field in the past 50 years.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Bibliometria , China , Humanos , Oklahoma
11.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 74: 101978, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer mortality among American Indian (AI) people varies widely, but factors associated with cancer mortality are infrequently assessed. METHODS: Cancer deaths were identified from death certificate data for 3516 participants of the Strong Heart Study, a population-based cohort study of AI adults ages 45-74 years in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Cancer mortality was calculated by age, sex and region. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess independent associations between baseline factors in 1989 and cancer death by 2010. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 15.3 years, the cancer death rate per 1000 person-years was 6.33 (95 % CI 5.67-7.04). Cancer mortality was highest among men in North/South Dakota (8.18; 95 % CI 6.46-10.23) and lowest among women in Arizona (4.57; 95 % CI 2.87-6.92). Factors independently associated with increased cancer mortality included age, current or former smoking, waist circumference, albuminuria, urinary cadmium, and prior cancer history. Factors associated with decreased cancer mortality included Oklahoma compared to Dakota residence, higher body mass index and total cholesterol. Sex was not associated with cancer mortality. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer mortality overall (1.56/1000 person-years), but no lung cancer deaths occurred among Arizona participants. Mortality from unspecified cancer was relatively high (0.48/100 person-years; 95 % CI 0.32-0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Regional variation in AI cancer mortality persisted despite adjustment for individual risk factors. Mortality from unspecified cancer was high. Better understanding of regional differences in cancer mortality, and better classification of cancer deaths, will help healthcare programs address cancer in AI communities.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Nativos Estadunidenses , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oklahoma , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Allied Health ; 50(2): 130-139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061933

RESUMO

AIMS: In 2017, the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), which reimburses qualifying food expenses for Family Child Care Home (FCCH) providers, was substantially enhanced. This study's purpose was to explore the perceptions of Oklahoma FCCH providers of these enhancements and to determine current meal practices as an opportunity to foster collaborations between educators, service providers, and health and nutrition professionals. METHODS: This mixed-methods study included a cross-sectional survey (n=30) and semi-structured interviews (n=30) and menu analysis (n=25) of FCCH providers participating in the CACFP. RESULTS: There were 30 survey and interview respondents. Five main themes emerged from the qualitative interviews with providers: 1) they are satisfied, but... ; 2) base meals on what is creditable; 3) choose foods that children will eat; 4) serve what they perceive as healthy; and 5) have limited food preparation time. Quantitative menu analysis indicates most menus met minimum requirements of the CACFP. However, only 4% served a vegetable/fruit for snack; 27% served family-style meals; and 20% limited pre-fried foods. The providers expressed frustrations with CACFP implementation, and they demonstrated limited knowledge of child nutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Providers want to do what is best for children while saving money and time. Collaborative practice between allied health, nutrition, and CACFP service providers and child educators would likely assist FCCH providers in meeting nutrition best practices.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Creches , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Oklahoma , Percepção
13.
Contraception ; 104(3): 262-264, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore racial/ethnic disparities in family planning telehealth use. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed telehealth and in-clinic visits (n = 3142) from ten family planning clinics (April 1-July 31, 2020) by race/ethnicity and month. RESULTS: Telehealth comprised 1257/3142 (40.0%) of overall visits. Telehealth was used by 242/765 (31.6%) of Black/African American and 31/106 (29.2%) multiracial patients. Patients with unknown (162/295, 54.9%), White (771/1870, 41.2%), and other (51/106, 48.1%) identities comprised the majority of telehealth visits. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found differences in telehealth use during the COVID-19 pandemic response. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding barriers and facilitators to telehealth is critical to reducing disparities in access.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Arkansas , Grupos Étnicos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Kansas , Grupos Minoritários , Missouri , Oklahoma , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 668642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055727

RESUMO

Introduction: Objectives of this study were to determine retail and neighborhood characteristics associated with smokeless tobacco (ST) product promotion, price promotion, and storefront advertising among retailers in Oklahoma. Methods: In this statewide point-of-sale study, we collected data from 1,354 ST retailers. Using store characteristics and census tract information, we estimated summary statistics and adjusted prevalence ratios during 2019-2020. Results: Of ST retailers audited, 11.0% demonstrated ST youth promotion, 43.0% ST price promotions, and 19.6% ST storefront advertising. The adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) for convenience stores was higher for all three ST strategies: youth promotion (aPR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.9, 6.2), price promotion (aPR = 3.8, 95% CI 2.9, 5.0), and storefront advertising (aPR=16.4, 95% CI 6.7, 40.3) compared to other store types. Metropolitan tobacco retailers had higher aPRs for youth promotion (aPR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.12 2.6) and storefront advertising (aPR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2, 1.9). Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest there are currently ample opportunities for youth and adults at risk for tobacco initiation to be exposed to ST products in the retail environment. Convenience stores, more likely to be found and utilized in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas, are disproportionately more likely to engage in marketing strategies that could lure youth into trying smokeless tobacco.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidade , Comércio , Humanos , Oklahoma
15.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112378, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827022

RESUMO

In North America, challenges associated with human-black bear (Ursus americanus) interactions have increased in recent decades. We used the structural equation modeling framework to understand how psychological factors such as perceived benefits, risks, social trust, salient value similarities, and locus of control interacted and described human tolerance of black bears in Oklahoma. Our results suggested that trust in the state wildlife agency's ability to manage black bears significantly affected both risk and benefits perception. The spatial hotspot analysis showed that residents of metropolitan areas had more positive attitudes toward black bears compared to rural residents, and more trust in the state wildlife management agency's ability to manage black bear populations. Trust in the state wildlife agency was low in rural areas, and specifically southeastern Oklahoma. Conversely, risk perception was higher in rural areas near one of the state's two extant black bear populations than in metropolitan areas removed from black bear ranges. We suggest that managers focus efforts on building strong relational foundations for trust between wildlife management personnel and rural residents in addition to demonstrating competence in black bear management techniques.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos , América do Norte , Oklahoma
16.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(2): 226-238, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888184

RESUMO

Objectives: Our objective was to provide data contrasting commercial tobacco retailing in Tribal versus non-Tribal jurisdictions, in 3 states. These data may be relevant for US Food and Drug Administration regulation of Tribal retailing. Methods: With Tribal permission, observations were made on commercial tobacco advertising, product variety, pricing, and retail concept for stores within and just outside Tribal jurisdictions in areas of Arizona (AZ), California (CA), and Oklahoma (OK). Results: A total of 87 Tribal (20 AZ, 53 CA, 14 OK) and 67 (10, 43, 14) non-Tribal retailer visits were completed. There was substantial variation across tribes, with sales in AZ and most CA Tribal jurisdictions handled at convenience stores, whereas OK Tribal retailing was done mostly in specialized tobacco-specialty shops. Electronic cigarettes were ubiquitous across Tribal and non-Tribal outlets. Advertising and breadth of cigarette offerings was most extensive in the tobacco specialty retailers of Tribal OK. Surprisingly, Tribally manufactured cigarettes were found only at some CA Tribal retailers. Conclusions: Some Tribal commercial tobacco outlets actually price above their non-Tribal competitors and there is substantial variation in retailing strategy across Tribal jurisdictions. Tribal governments can continue to evaluate and reform commercial tobacco retailing so as to improve Tribal health.


Assuntos
Comércio , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Nativos Estadunidenses , Arizona , California , Humanos , Marketing , Oklahoma , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(9): e020069, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878888

RESUMO

Background American Indian adults have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with other racial groups. We implemented opportunistic screening to detect silent AF in American Indian adults attending a tribal health system using a mobile, single-lead ECG device. Methods and Results American Indian patients aged ≥50 years followed in a tribal primary care clinic with no history of AF underwent a 30-second ECG. A cardiologist overread all tracings to confirm the diagnosis of AF. After AF was confirmed, patients were referred to their primary care physician for initiation of anticoagulation. Patients seen over the same time period, who were not undergoing screening, served as controls. A total of 1019 patients received AF screening (mean age, 61.5±8.9 years, 62% women). Age and sex distribution of those screened was similar to the overall clinic population. New AF was diagnosed in 15 of 1019 (1.5%) patients screened versus 4 of 1267 (0.3%) patients who were not screened (mean difference, 1.2%; 95% CI, 0.3%-2.2%, P=0.002). Eight of 15 with new screen-detected AF were aged <65 years. Those with screen-detected AF were slightly older and had a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score than those without AF. Fourteen of 15 patients diagnosed with new AF had a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥1 and initiated anticoagulation. Conclusions Opportunistic, mobile single-lead ECG screening for AF is feasible in tribal clinics, and detects more AF than usual care, leading to appropriate initiation of anticoagulation. AF develops at a younger age in American Indian adults who would likely benefit from earlier AF screening. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03740477.


Assuntos
Nativos Estadunidenses/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrilação Atrial/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924792

RESUMO

The nature of the association between dietary restraint and weight has been examined in adult samples, but much less is known about this relationship among children. The current study examined the transactional associations among restrained eating behavior and weight among boys and girls during middle childhood. Data for this study came from 263 children participating in the Families and Schools for Health Project (FiSH), a longitudinal study of the psychosocial correlates of childhood obesity. Participants were interviewed by trained researchers in their third- and fourth-grade year when they completed questionnaires and anthropometric assessments. Dietary restraint was assessed using the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and weight was assessed using Body Mass Index z-scores (BMIz). Bidirectional associations between variables were examined using cross-lagged models controlling for children's sex, ethnicity, and weight in first grade. Results indicated that weight in grade 3 was related to greater dietary restraint in grade 4 (B = 0.20, p = 0.001), but dietary restraint in grade 3 was not associated with weight in grade 4 (B = 0.01, p = 0.64). Neither child sex nor race/ethnicity were associated with BMIz or dietary restraint at either time point. Findings from this study advance the existing limited understanding of eating behavior development among children and show that weight predicts increases in children's dietary restraint in middle childhood.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Oklahoma , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 129-131, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647982

RESUMO

The summer tanager, Piranga rubra (L., 1758) is a medium-sized songbird formerly belonging to the tanager family Thraupidae but now has been placed within the family Cardinalidae. Nothing is known about the coccidian parasites of this stunningly colorful bird. Feces from 2 P. rubra found dead in McCurtain County, Oklahoma were collected and examined for coccidia; 1 was found to be passing a new species of Isospora. Oocysts of Isospora mccurtainensis n. sp. are subspheroidal to ovoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, measure (length × width [L × W]) 21.7 × 19.5 µm, and have a L/W ratio of 1.1; a micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a bilobed and refractile polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal and measure 13.9 × 8.6 µm, L/W 1.6; a knoblike Stieda body is present as well as a distinct sub-Stieda body. The sporocyst residuum is composed of a granular compact cluster with a dense, irregular mass of granules lying between and dispersed among the sporozoites. This is the first coccidian reported from P. rubra and, most important, only the first known from the Cardinalidae in the mainland of the United States.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Isospora/classificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia de Interferência/veterinária , Oklahoma , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos/ultraestrutura
20.
Prog Transplant ; 31(2): 171-173, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722146

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been well-documented to have a variable impact on individual communities and health care systems. We describe the experience of a single organ procurement organization (OPO), located in an area without a large cluster of cases during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. A review of community health data describing the impact of COVID-19 nationally and in Oklahoma was conducted. Additionally, a retrospective review of available OPO data from March 2019-May 2020 was performed. While the amount of donor referrals received and organs recovered by the OPO remained stable in the initial months of the pandemic, the observed organs transplanted vs. expected organs transplanted (O:E) decreased to the lowest number in the 15-month period and organs transplanted decreased as well. Fewer organs from Oklahoma donors were accepted for transplant despite staff spending more time allocating organs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribuição , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...