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1.
Environ Pollut ; 296: 118766, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973377

RESUMO

Rare earth elements inevitably release into the soil due to their widespread application. However, it is unclear how they affect the soil animals. The study surveyed the growth and physiological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed into artificial soils spiked with La, Ce, and their mixture, and actual mine soil collected from an abandoned La-Ce mining area (Mianning, Sichuan). The results showed that the 1000-1200 mg/kg combined exposure in two soils induced significant histopathological and phenotypic changes of earthworms. Concentration significantly affected the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein of E. fetida and the effects differentiated with the prolonging duration. These indicators were negatively affected under the La stress ≥800 mg/kg (SOD, POD, and protein), the 1200 mg/kg (SOD), Ce stress ≥1000 mg/kg (protein), and the combination ≥800 mg/kg (SOD, POD) and ≥1000 mg/kg (protein). Artificial combination had -15.04% (SOD), 8.87% (POD), 5.64% (MDA), and -8.34% (protein) difference compared with the contamination soil, respectively. Overall, E. fetida respond sensitively under the La and Ce stress, the antioxidant defense system and the lipid peroxidation were stimulated, and the artificial soil might overestimate eco-toxicological effect.


Assuntos
Cério , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cério/toxicidade , Lantânio/toxicidade , Malondialdeído , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131945, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426272

RESUMO

Vermicomposting of food waste amended with biochar and cow dung was studied during a 90-day composting period. The improvement of the vermicomposting process by adding three mangrove fungal species as additional amendments were studied. The use of mangrove fungi Acrophialophora jodhpurensis as a bio-catalytic actor during vermicomposting proved to be beneficial in terms of final compost quality (available N, P and K) and the shortening of the composting period. All three fungal species, however, reached the neutral pH at the end of the composting period and appeared to be beneficial. Heavy metal (Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) concentrations decreased throughout the composting process. Food waste can be treated using vermicomposting with biochar, cow dung and the mangrove fungi A. jodhpurensis. The final vermicomposting product is suitable for agricultural use.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos , Fungos , Sordariales
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118283, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619177

RESUMO

A passive sampler in the soil environment is a relatively novel technique and has had quite limited applications, especially for pesticides. Oleic acid-embedded cellulose acetate membranes (OECAMs) were developed to evaluate the bioavailability of epoxiconazole (EPO) to earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The uptake of EPO by OECAMs (R2 = 0.975) and earthworms (R2 = 0.938) was compared and found to follow a two-compartment kinetic model. EPO sampling by OECAMs reached equilibrium (94%) within 2 d. OECAM could be used to determine the concentration of EPO in soil porewater. Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (R2 = 0.990) was observed between the EPO concentrations in earthworms and the OECAMs. The EPO concentrations in the porewater and OECAMs were lower in soils with a higher organic matter (OM) content. The EPO concentrations in the porewater, earthworms, and OECAMs decreased by 64.4, 49.0, and 56.1%, respectively, in the presence of 0.5% biochar, compared with the control. Furthermore, the use of OECAMs versus earthworms for soil testing also allows you to avoid factors that increase variance in organisms, such as avoidance behaviors or feeding. Therefore, OECAMs show good potential for use as a passive sampler to evaluate the bioavailability of EPO.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Epóxi , Ácido Oleico , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triazóis
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113849, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619586

RESUMO

Engine oil consists of hazardous substances that adversely affect the environment and soil quality. Bioremediation (employing organisms) is an appropriate technique to mitigate engine oil pollution. In the present study, the earthworm species, Drawida modesta (epigeic) and Lampito mauritii (anecic) were used to restore the soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from used engine oil. Four treatments were set up in addition to positive and negative controls. A maximum of 68.6% PAHs and 34.3% TPHs removal in the treatment with soil (1 kg), cow dung (50 g), used engine oil (7.5 mL) and earthworms was recorded after 60 days. Undoubtedly, earthworms effectively removed PAHs and TPHs from the oil-contaminated soil. PAHs were more strongly accumulated in D. modesta (16.25 mg kg-1) than in L. mauritii (13.25 mg kg-1). Further, histological analysis revealed the epidermal surface irregularity, cellular disintegration, and cellular debris in earthworms. The pH (6.3%), electrical conductivity (12.7%), and total organic carbon (35.4%) were significantly (at P < 0.05) decreased after 60 days; while, total nitrogen (62%), total potassium (76.2%), and total phosphorus (19.2%) were substantially increased at the end of the experiment. The seed germination assay with fenugreek indicates that germination percentage (95%), and germination index (179), were dramatically increased in earthworm inoculated treatments when compared to the negative control (without earthworms). The results reveal that there is a great scope for utilizing the earthworms, D. modesta and L. mauritii for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs and TPHs.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bovinos , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113076, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915218

RESUMO

The increasing production and applications of graphene oxide (GO) inevitably lead to its entry into the environment. However, its potential toxicity to soil invertebrates is not yet completely known. Herein, the harmful effects of GO on the growth, survival, reproduction, and ultrastructure of earthworms were thoroughly evaluated through acute and chronic toxicity experiments. In the acute toxicity experiments, earthworms were exposed to different concentrations of GO using two test methods: filter paper contact test and natural soil contact test. The lethal concentrations (LC50) for GO at 24-h and 48-h exposure were 2.52 and 2.36 mg mL-1, respectively, in the filter paper contact test and the LC50 on day 14 was 68.8 g kg-1 in the natural soil test. Histopathological observation demonstrated that serious skin and intestinal damage occurred with increasing GO concentrations. In the chronic toxicity test, earthworm growth rate and reproduction were investigated after exposure to 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 GO in natural soil for 28 and 56 d. Earthworm growth was significantly inhibited after 7, 14, 21 and 28 d of GO exposure. The effect was more significant with increasing GO concentrations and exposure days. Moreover, GO exposure significantly decreased the reproductive capacity of earthworms. When earthworms were exposed to 20 g kg-1 GO for 56 d, the number and hatching rate of cocoons and the number of juveniles decreased by approximately half compared with the control. These findings indicate the potential health risk of GO to E. fetida under high concentrations and long exposure times in soil. Thus, the potential risks associated with the application of GO should receive considerable attention. This study can provide valuable information for assessing the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials in terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Ecossistema , Grafite , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
6.
Environ Pollut ; 295: 118687, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920043

RESUMO

Remediation of hydrophobic organic contaminants using activated carbon is an effective means by which to clean up contaminated areas. Predicting remediation success using laboratory experimentation with soil, however, is unclear. Current remediation efforts involving activated carbon addition to floodplain soils downstream of the Velsicol Chemical Corporation Superfund Site (VCCSS) have offered the opportunity to directly compare in situ activated carbon remediation with laboratory experimentation. The objective of the current study was to compare bioaccumulation of DDT, DDD, and DDE (DDX) residues by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to laboratory-aged (LA) or field-aged (FA) soils from four locations. Samples were evaluated at 0-, 3-, and 9-months post-remediation to determine the ability of laboratory studies to predict in situ remediation. Floodplain soils downstream from the VCCSS were amended with 2% by weight activated carbon in the field and the laboratory, and then aged for 3- or 9-months. At 0-, 3-, and 9-months bioaccumulation assays were conducted with LA and FA soils and tissue concentrations were compared within study sites. In both LA and FA soils, activated carbon caused significant reductions (37.01-92.94%) in bioaccumulated DDX in earthworms. Field-collected worms showed a similar trend in reduction of bioaccumulated DDX, suggesting activated carbon remediation was successful in reducing bioavailable DDX for native organisms within the floodplain soils. The rate of reduction in bioavailable DDX, however, was significantly faster in LA soils (ß = -0.189, p < 0.0001) compared to FA soils (ß = -0.054, p < 0.0038). Differences in temperature and methods of activated carbon incorporation between LA and FA soils may account for the differences in remediation rate, suggesting laboratory experiments may overpredict the extent or speed in which remediation occurs in the field. Therefore, use of laboratory studies in predicting success of activated carbon remediation may be most effective when conditions mimic field remediation as closely as possible.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , DDT/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126242, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744029

RESUMO

Vermicomposting eco-friendly converts lignocellulosic wastes into bio-organic fertilizer. Cellulose is the most abundant carbohydrate in lignocellulose. Glycoside hydrolase family 6 (GH6) plays a key role in the early step of cellulose degradation, which is essential for stabilizing lignocellulose. This study intends to quantify the abundance of GH6 gene and to clarify the succession of GH6 cellulase-producing microbial communities during vermicomposting. 100% of maize stover (A) and maize stover and cow dung at 60:40 ratio (B) were used. The results showed that different native genera were observed in the starting materials. Cellulomonas and Cellulosimicrobium were dominant genera harboring GH6 gene. The peak relative abundance of Cellulomonas was 76% and 30% in B and A during vermicomposting phase, and the corresponding values of Cellulosimicrobium was 36% and 37%. Earthworms increased the abundance of GH6 gene, which reached 1.51E + 09 from 3.46E + 08 copies/g in B. The results partially interpreted promoting effect of earthworms.


Assuntos
Celulase , Microbiota , Oligoquetos , Animais , Bovinos , Celulase/genética , Feminino , Solo , Zea mays
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 811: 152285, 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933047

RESUMO

The toxicity of various organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) is of increasing concern. However, there is still a lack of research on the toxicity of OPFRs to terrestrial invertebrates and its metabolism in vivo. Herein, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to soil spiked with 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg/kg tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP, a typical alkyl OPFRs) for 28 d to study the biological responses to the exposure and metabolism of TBOEP. TBOEP exposure inhibited the activity of acetyl-cholinesterase (64.4-68.6% of that in the control group), increased the energy consumption level, and affected calcium-dependent pathways of E. fetida, which caused a 3.6-12.4% reduction in the weight gain rate (developmental toxicity), a 10.6-69.4% reduction in the number of juveniles (reproduction toxicity), and neurotoxicity to E. fetida. The 5 mg/kg TBOEP exposure caused a significant accumulation of malondialdehyde (1.68 times higher than that in the control group) in E. fetida, which indicated that the balance of oxidation and anti-oxidation of E. fetida was broken. Meanwhile, E. fetida maintained the absorption and metabolic abilities to TBOEP under the environmental condition. The removal rate of soil TBOEP was increased by 25.1-35.5% by the presence of E. fetida. Importantly, TBOEP could accumulate in E. fetida (0.09-76.0 µg/kg) and the activation of cytochrome P450 and glutathione detoxification pathway promoted the metabolism of TBOEP in E. fetida. These findings link the biological responses and metabolic behavior of earthworms under pollution stress and provide fundamental data for the environmental risk assessment and pollution removal of OPFRs in soil.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Fosfatos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
9.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343920

RESUMO

Soil bacterial community (SBC) and fertility are pivotal for the evaluation of phytoremediation performance. Although affected by earthworms (E) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), little is known about the impacts of the E-AMF interaction on the variation of SBC and fertility in cadmium (Cd)-spiked soil. We elucidated these impacts in rhizosphere soil of Solanum nigrum L. Loss of nutrient availability, and SBC diversity was observed in Cd-polluted soil. AMF increased available phosphorous (AP), whereas E increased available potassium (AK). In soils with 60 and 120 mg/kg Cd, the contents of AK, AP, and soil organic matter (SOM) increased by 7.0-19.7%, 23.7-25.5%, and 11.5-17.4%, respectively; and the residual Cd after remediation decreased by 7.9-8.5% in soils treated with EAM compared to untreated soil. EAM-treated soil had higher alpha diversity estimators compared to uninoculated soil. The predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 72.5-84.0%. Redundancy analysis showed that total carbon (TC), SOM, pH, and C/N ratio were key factors determining SBC at the phylum level, explaining 26.9, 24.1, 15.1, and 14.8% of the total variance, respectively. These results suggested that EAM affected SBC composition by altering SOM, TC, and C/N ratio. The E-AMF cooperation ameliorates soil nutrients, SBC diversity, and composition, facilitating phytoextraction processes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Fertilidade , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131707, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365170

RESUMO

2-Pentanone is an excellent organic solvent and extractant, which is widely used in industrial production. 2-Pentanone is harmful to soil organisms when it enters the soil. However, current studies have not clarified the response of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) to 2-Pentanone and its mechanism. In this study, the response of earthworm antioxidant enzyme SOD to 2-Pentanone and its molecular mechanism was investigated at organism molecular levels. The results showed that the SOD activity of earthworms under 2-Pentanone stress was significantly inhibited, and the inability of superoxide anion radicals (·O2-) to be scavenged in time might be one of the reasons for the increase of lipid peroxidation. Under 2-Pentanone exposure conditions, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme closely related to SOD, and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of earthworms were activated to resist oxidative damage. On the other hand, the observation of earthworm microstructure provided evidence of a direct risk of 2-Pentanone on earthworm body wall tissues. Molecular-level assays have shown that 2-pentanone altered the secondary structure of SOD, which further led to the loosening of the SOD backbone structure and the extension of the polypeptide chain. On the other hand, 2-pentanone quenched the endogenous fluorescence of SOD in the form of static quenching and formed the 2-pentanone/SOD complex. Molecular simulation results suggested that 2-pentanone tended to bind on the surface of SOD rather than close to the active site, and it is speculated that the alteration of SOD structure is the key reason for the change in its activity. This study enriches the toxicological data of 2-Pentanone on soil organisms, thus responding to the current concerns about its ecological risk.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pentanonas , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 126982, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461537

RESUMO

Terrestrial invertebrates are often used as indicator organisms in ecological risk assessments. However, determining the risk of metals to invertebrates is laborious and time-consuming due to the lengthy testing and ethical approval procedures. In this study, a review of the literature was conducted to provide toxicity data for two standard soils (OECD and LUFA 2.2). An attempt was made to establish models for predicting the toxicity of elements to invertebrates using quantitative ion character-activity relationships (QICARs). In OECD soil, the element toxicity of four groups (Enchytraeus albidus mortality and reproduction, Folsomia candida and Eisenia fetida reproduction) showed significant correlations with atomic number, atomic mass and atomic ionization potential (0.852 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.989, P < 0.05). For LUFA 2.2 soil, polarization force parameters and boiling point were most significant parameters for toxicity values of F. candida and Enchytraeus crypticus, respectively (0.866 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.962, P < 0.05). Finally, QICAR models were established, and LC50 or EC50 of elements were predicted. Then, models were verified using standard and natural soils, and showed that errors between observed and predicted logLC50/EC50 were mostly < 0.5 orders of magnitude. Thus, the developed QICAR models have potential for predicting the toxicity of elements for soils.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Invertebrados , Metais/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 126999, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461538

RESUMO

Soils contaminated by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) pose long-term sources to adjacent water bodies and soil invertebrates. The study investigated the stabilization using a modified clay adsorbent (FLUORO-SORB100®) in reducing the bioaccumulation of 13 anionic PFAS by earthworms (Eisenia fetida), as compared to coal-based granular activated carbon. The target PFAS included four perfluoroalkyl sulfonates such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), six perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (e.g., perfluorooctanoate PFOA), and three (X:2) fluorotelomer sulfonates. Laboratory-spiked surface soil and the soil collected from a site contaminated by aqueous film-forming foams were examined. Both adsorbents resulted in reduced earthworm PFAS body burdens at the end of the 28-day uptake phase. The highest adsorbent amendment concentration (4 w/w%) was most effective, achieving >95% reduction of PFAS body burden. Soil leaching tests indicated better immobilization performance by the clay adsorbent for most analytes; in comparison, the activated carbon performed better at reducing total PFAS body burdens, possibly owing to the avoidance of larger-sized particles by earthworms. Strong positive logarithm relationships were observed between leachate concentrations and earthworm body burdens for most PFAS in the spiked soil. The study demonstrated that stabilization of PFAS using modified clay adsorbents can achieve concurrent benefits of lowering leachability and reducing bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Argila , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127079, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488102

RESUMO

Sorption/desorption of two organic compounds (OCs), phenanthrene (PHE), and 1-nitronaphthalene (1-Nnap) on three polar and one nonpolar polypropylene (PP) microplastics (MPs) and earthworm bioaccumulation of MP associated PHE were systematically studied. Poly-butylene succinate (PBS) with the lowest glass transition temperature (Tg) showed the highest sorption toward PHE and 1-Nnap (Kd: 25,639 ± 276 and 1673 ± 28.8 L kg-1, respectively), while polylactic acid (PLA) with the highest Tg showed the least sorption (182 ± 5 and near 0), confirming that hydrophobic partition was the main driving force of sorption. However, polar interactions also contributed to the preferential sorption of 1-Nnap on polar poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Moreover, small particle size favored the sorption of MPs and simulated weathering enhanced sorption on MPs with medium/high Tg. As for desorption, slight hysteresis was observed in most cases with near-zero hysteresis index (HI), and PHE generally had higher HI than 1-Nnap. The simulated digestive solution could further promote the desorption of PHE. The PHE concentrations in earthworms with the presence of 5% PBS or PP MPs in soil were 1.50-2.35 or 1.59-1.75 times that of the control without MPs; and PBS MPs with the smallest particle size showed the greatest enhancement. The results of this study confirmed that polar MPs could strongly but reversibly sorb both polar and nonpolar OCs and hence promote the bioaccumulation of OCs to soil organisms.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Animais , Bioacumulação , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150279, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600205

RESUMO

The growing contamination of arsenic and plastics has severely effects on the soil fauna health, including shifts of gut microbiota community. A few studies have focused on effects of microplastics and metal(loid) in soil and fauna gut microbiome. However, the environmental effect of nanoplastics and arsenic on the earthworm gut microbiota, especially on arsenic biotransformation in the gut, remain largely unknown. Here, a microcosm study was performed to explore the effects of nanoplastics and arsenic on the microbiota characteristics in earthworm Metaphire vulgaris gut using Illumina high throughput sequencing, and to investigate changes in the gut microbiota-mediated arsenic biotransformation genes (ABGs) by using high-throughput quantitative PCR. Our results demonstrated that the concentration of arsenic in the earthworm body tissues after exposure to arsenic and nanoplastics was significantly lower from that with arsenic alone exposure. Moreover, the clearly different bacterial community was observed in the soil compared with the earthworm gut, which was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes at phylum level. Arsenic exposure significantly disturbed bacterial community structure in the earthworm gut, but exposure to nanoplastics did not induce gut microbiota changes. More interestingly, nanoplastics can relieve adverse effect of arsenic on the gut microbiota possibly by adsorbing arsenic. In addition, a total of 16 ABGs were detected, and predominant genes involved in arsenic reduction and transport process were observed in the earthworm guts. In short, this study provides a new picture of the effects of nanoplastics and arsenic on the gut microbiota and arsenic biotransformation in soil fauna gut.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Solo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150760, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619195

RESUMO

Metribuzin and tebuconazole have been widely used in agriculture for several decades. Apart from endocrine disruption, little is known about their toxicological effects on organisms without thyroid organs, at the transcriptional level. To explore this toxicity, model earthworm species Eisenia fetida, hatched from the same cocoon and cultured under identical environmental conditions, were independently exposed to the two chemicals at non-lethal concentrations in OECD artificial soil for 48 h after exposure. RNA-seq technology was used to analyze and compare the gene expression profiles of earthworms exposed to metribuzin and tebuconazole. The functions of differentially expressed genes and their standard response patterns of upregulated and downregulated expression for both pesticides were verified. The findings demonstrated that metribuzin and tebuconazole are both potentially toxic to earthworms. Toxicological effects mainly involved the nervous system, immune system, and tumors, at the transcriptional level, as well as the induction of cytochrome P450-dependent detoxification and oxidative stress. In addition, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase gene was identified as a biomarker, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was verified to be a part of the adverse outcome pathway of metribuzin and tebuconazole and their structural analogs.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Oligoquetos/genética , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triazinas , Triazóis
16.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132491, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624352

RESUMO

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer or modifier in artificially-manufactured products. Though the rapid biotransformation of phthalates in microbes and plants have been well documented, it is less studied yet in terrestrial animals, e.g. earthworm. In this study, the major biotransformation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in Eisenia fetida was illustrated using in vitro incubation of earthworm crude enzymes. DEP could be substantially biotransformed into phthalate monoester (MEP) and a small amount of phthalic acid (PA) through esterolysis, which was verified to be driven by endogenous carboxylesterase. Despite the inferior contribution, the oxidation of DEP might also occur under the initiated electron transfer by NADPH coenzyme. The dominant metabolite MEP showed a higher inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than DEP with EC50 of 0.0082 ± 0.0016 mmol/L, so the higher ecological risks of MEP would be marked. The inhibition effect of PA was validated to be even stronger than MEP though it was slightly generated. The direct binding interaction with SOD was proved to be an important molecular event for regulation of SOD activity. Besides the static quenching mechanism, the caused conformational changes including despiralization of α-helix and spatial reorientation of tryptophan were spectrally believed to affect binding and underlie inhibition efficiency of SOD activity.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Animais , Biotransformação , Ésteres , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Plastificantes , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151255, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710424

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Eisenia fetida (Savigny), added to an acidic soil contaminated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs; As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Zn) and amended with a softwood-derived biochar (2 and 5% w/w), on the mobility of PTEs and soil health (i.e. nutrient availability, enzyme activity and soil basal respiration). The PTEs bioaccumulation by E. fetida and the acute ecotoxicity effects of the amended soils were also evaluated. The interaction between earthworms and biochar led to a significant increase in soil pH, organic matter, dissolved organic carbon content, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable Ca compared to the untreated soil. Moreover, the water-soluble and readily exchangeable PTE fraction decreased (with the exception of Sb) between 1.2- and 3.0-fold in the presence of biochar and earthworms. Earthworms, biochar, and their combination, led to a reduction of phosphomonoesterase activity which in soils amended with biochar and earthworms decreased between 2.2- and 2.5-fold with respect to the untreated soil. On the other hand, biochar and earthworms also enhanced soil basal respiration and protease activity. Although the survival rate and the weight loss of E. fetida did not change significantly with the addition of 2% biochar, adding the highest biochar percentage (5%) resulted in a survival rate that was ~2-fold lower and a weight loss that was 2.5-fold higher than the other treatments. The PTE bioaccumulation factors for E. fetida, which were less than 1 for all elements (except Cd), followed the order Cd > As>Zn > Cu > Pb > Sb and were further decreased by biochar addition. Overall, these results highlight that E. fetida and biochar, especially at 2% rate, could be used for the restoration of soil functionality in PTE-polluted environments, reducing at the same time the environmental risks posed by PTEs, at least in the short time.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 151221, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717991

RESUMO

Tropical agriculture produces large amounts of lignocellulosic residues that can potentially be used as a natural source of value-added products. The complexity of lignocellulose makes industrial-scale processing difficult. New processing techniques must be developed to improve the yield and avoid this valuable resource going to waste. Hemicelluloses comprise a variety of polysaccharides with different backbone compositions and decorations (such as methylations and acetylations), and form part of an intricate framework that confers structural stability to the plant cell wall. Organisms that are able to degrade these biopolymers include earthworms (Eisenia fetida), which can rapidly decompose a wide variety of lignocellulosic substrates. This ability probably derives from enzymes and symbiotic microorganisms in the earthworm gut. In this work, two substrates with similar C/N ratios but different hemicellulose content were selected. Palm fibre and coffee husk have relatively high (28%) and low (5%) hemicellulose contents, respectively. A vermicomposting mixture was prepared for the earthworms to feed on by mixing a hemicellulose substrate with organic market waste. Xylanase activity was determined in earthworm gut and used as a selection criterion for the isolation of hemicellulose-degrading bacteria. Xylanase activity was similar for both substrates, even though their physicochemical properties principally pH and electrical conductivity, as shown by the MANOVA analysis) were different for the total duration of the experiment (120 days). Xylanolytic strains isolated from earthworm gut were identified by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Our results indicate that the four Actinobacteria, two Proteobacteria, and one Firmicutes isolated are active participants of the xylanolytic degradation by microbiota in the intestine of E. fetida. Most bacteria were more active at pH 7 and 28 °C, and those with higher activities are reported as being facultatively anaerobic, coinciding with the microenvironment reported for the earthworm gut. Each strain had a different degradative capacity.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Intestinos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo
19.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 114057, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749085

RESUMO

The contamination of soil with heavy metals is known to affect the yield the soil fertility, which in turn affects the growth of agricultural crops. This study investigates the role of coconut shell biochar (CSB) and earthworms (Eudrilus euginea) in the bioremediation and growth of Palak spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) in cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil. The soils were amended with different combinations of CSB and earthworms and incubated for 35 days. Later, the soil samples were analyzed for the changes in the soil properties, soil enzyme activity, and heavy metal contents. It is observed that the treatments with both CSB and earthworms resulted in the improvement of soil properties and soil enzyme activity which was directly related to soil fertility. Meanwhile, the maximum removal of 94.38% of total Cd content in the soil was obtained for the soil sample contain both CSB and earthworms. The improved soil properties resulted in a higher germination percentage of Spinacia oleracea L. seeds in the Cd contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Cocos , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 149994, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798714

RESUMO

Most ecosystem functions attributed to earthworms are mediated by their internal microbiomes, and these are sensitive to disturbances in the external environment. However, few studies have focused on the response of the earthworm gut microbiome to soil chronosequence. Here, we used 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and high-throughput quantitative PCR to investigate the variations in bacterial communities and functional gene abundance in earthworm (Lumbricina sp.) guts and upland soils under 700 years of cultivation. Our results indicated that 700 years of upland cultivation significantly shaped bacterial communities and increased functional traits of microbes in earthworm guts, which were more sensitive to cultivation age compared to the surrounding soils. The earthworm gut bacterial community changed rapidly over the first 300 years of cultivation and then changed slowly in the following centuries. Along with the cultivation age, we also observed that the earthworm gut microbiota was successive towards a copiotrophic strategy (e.g., Xanthobacteraceae, Nocardioidaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, and Bacillaceae) and higher potential functions (e.g., ureC, nirS, nosZ, phoD, and pqqC). Furthermore, canonical correspondence analysis further revealed that soil pH, C:N ratio, soil organic carbon, and total nitrogen were key abiotic drivers shaping earthworm gut bacterial communities. Taken together, this study reveals the succession of bacterial communities and potential functions in earthworm guts within 700 years of upland cultivation, which may provide a broader space for us to rationally exploit and utilize the interactions between soil and earthworm gut microbiotas to benefit the soil nutrient cycling process.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Oligoquetos , Animais , Carbono , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
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