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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(9): 1929-1931, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997528

RESUMO

Nannizziopsis spp., fungi responsible for emerging diseases, are rarely involved in human bone and joint infections. We present a rare case of septic arthritis with necrotizing cellulitis caused by N. obscura in a patient in France who had undergone kidney transplant. Rapid, aggressive medical and surgical management led to a favorable outcome.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa , Fasciite Necrosante , Onygenales , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , França , Humanos
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12303, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853982

RESUMO

The ascomycete fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) is the causative agent of ophidiomycosis (Snake Fungal Disease), which has been detected globally. However, surveillance efforts in the central U.S., specifically Texas, have been minimal. The threatened and rare Brazos water snake (Nerodia harteri harteri) is one of the most range restricted snakes in the U.S. and is sympatric with two wide-ranging congeners, Nerodia erythrogaster transversa and Nerodia rhombifer, in north central Texas; thus, providing an opportunity to test comparative host-pathogen associations in this system. To accomplish this, we surveyed a portion of the Brazos river drainage (~ 400 river km) over 29 months and tested 150 Nerodia individuals for the presence of Oo via quantitative PCR and recorded any potential signs of Oo infection. We found Oo was distributed across the entire range of N. h. harteri, Oo prevalence was 46% overall, and there was a significant association between Oo occurrence and signs of infection in our sample. Models indicated adults had a higher probability of Oo infection than juveniles and subadults, and adult N. h. harteri had a higher probability of infection than adult N. rhombifer but not higher than adult N. e. transversa. High Oo prevalence estimates (94.4%) in adult N. h. harteri has implications for their conservation and management owing to their patchy distribution, comparatively low genetic diversity, and threats from anthropogenic habitat modification.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Dermatomicoses , Onygenales , Animais , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Humanos , Serpentes/microbiologia , Simpatria
3.
PLoS Biol ; 20(6): e3001676, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737674

RESUMO

Snake fungal disease (SFD; ophidiomycosis), caused by the pathogen Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), has been documented in wild snakes in North America and Eurasia, and is considered an emerging disease in the eastern United States of America. However, a lack of historical disease data has made it challenging to determine whether Oo is a recent arrival to the USA or whether SFD emergence is due to other factors. Here, we examined the genomes of 82 Oo strains to determine the pathogen's history in the eastern USA. Oo strains from the USA formed a clade (Clade II) distinct from European strains (Clade I), and molecular dating indicated that these clades diverged too recently (approximately 2,000 years ago) for transcontinental dispersal of Oo to have occurred via natural snake movements across Beringia. A lack of nonrecombinant intermediates between clonal lineages in Clade II indicates that Oo has actually been introduced multiple times to North America from an unsampled source population, and molecular dating indicates that several of these introductions occurred within the last few hundred years. Molecular dating also indicated that the most common Clade II clonal lineages have expanded recently in the USA, with time of most recent common ancestor mean estimates ranging from 1985 to 2007 CE. The presence of Clade II in captive snakes worldwide demonstrates a potential mechanism of introduction and highlights that additional incursions are likely unless action is taken to reduce the risk of pathogen translocation and spillover into wild snake populations.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Onygenales , Animais , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Genética Populacional , Serpentes/genética , Estados Unidos
4.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 23(5): 365-381, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557038

RESUMO

Ascosphaera apis spores containing a dark-colored pigment infect honeybee larvae, resulting in a large-scale collapse of the bee colony due to chalkbrood disease. However, little is known about the pigment or whether it plays a role in bee infection caused by A. apis. In this study, the pigment was isolated by alkali extraction, acid hydrolysis, and repeated precipitation. Ultraviolet (UV) analysis revealed that the pigment had a color value of 273, a maximum absorption peak at 195 nm, and a high alkaline solubility (7.67%) and acid precipitability. Further chemical structure analysis of the pigment, including elemental composition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), proved that it was a eumelanin with a typical indole structure. The molecular formula of melanin is C10H6O4N2, and its molecular weight is 409 Da. Melanin has hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, and phenolic groups that can potentially chelate to metal ions. Antioxidant function analyses showed that A. apis melanin had a high scavenging activity against superoxide, hydroxyl, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and a high reducing ability to Fe3+. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that A. apis melanin was located on the spore wall. The spore wall localization, antioxidant activity, and metal ion chelating properties of fungal melanin have been suggested to contribute to spore pathogenicity. However, further infection experiments showed that melanin-deficient spores did not reduce the mortality of bee larvae, indicating that melanin does not increase the virulence of A. apis spores. This study is the first report on melanin produced by A. apis, providing an important background reference for further study on its role in A. apis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Onygenales , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Larva , Melaninas , Estrutura Molecular
5.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 290-297, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245359

RESUMO

Ophidiomyces ophidiicola is an emerging fungal pathogen associated with infections in snakes across North America. Although documented in Pennsylvania, O. ophidiicola has not been found at Powdermill Nature Reserve (PNR) in southwestern Pennsylvania, where the snake assemblage has been studied since 2002 and several species have recently declined. We surveyed for O. ophidiicola and putative ophidiomycosis at PNR. We screened five species of free-ranging, wild snakes (n=34) for suspected ophidiomycosis by visually checking for dermatitis and swabbing for the presence of O. ophidiicola DNA. We found a moderate prevalence of snakes with skin lesions (n=15) but a low prevalence of snakes with O. ophidiicola DNA in traditional PCR assays (n=2). Both positive snakes belonged to the same species and only one presented with lesions. When quantitative PCR screens were performed on duplicate swabs, 19 snakes were positive for O. ophidiicola DNA, with positive individuals in two species. Mark-recapture methods revealed seasonal variability in disease dynamics for sampled snakes. One individual presented with less than five skin lesions and tested negative in May 2020, had more than five lesions with a high fungal DNA load in June 2020, and no lesions with a low fungal DNA load in July 2020. We also found that snakes sampled from under the same cover object at the same time either all tested positive or all negative, including one instance involving two species. Our results underscore the value of using multiple screening techniques for O. ophidiicola surveillance and repeated sampling of individuals to understand the dynamics of ophidiomycosis in wild populations as compared to single method and single timepoint approaches.


Assuntos
Onygenales , Animais , DNA Fúngico , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Serpentes/microbiologia
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(5-6): 1919-1932, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179629

RESUMO

Partially hydrolyzed konjac powder (PHKP) can be used to increase the daily intake of dietary fibers of consumers. To produce PHKP by enzymatic hydrolysis, a novel ß-mannanase gene (McMan5B) from Malbranchea cinnamomea was expressed in Pichia pastoris. It showed a low identity of less than 52% with other GH family 5 ß-mannanases. Through high cell density fermentation, the highest ß-mannanase activity of 42200 U mL-1 was obtained. McMan5B showed the maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 75 °C, respectively. It exhibited excellent pH stability and thermostability. Due to the different residues (Phe214, Pro253, and His328) in catalytic groove and the change of ß2-α2 loop, McMan5B showed unique hydrolysis property as compared to other ß-mannanases. The enzyme was employed to hydrolyze konjac powder for controllable production of PHKP with a weight-average molecular weight of 22000 Da (average degree of polymerization 136). Furthermore, the influence of PHKP (1.0%-4.0%) on the qualities of steamed bread was evaluated. The steamed bread adding 3.0% PHKP had the maximum specific volume and the minimum hardness, which showed 11.0% increment and 25.4% decrement as compared to the control, respectively. Thus, a suitable ß-mannanase for PHKP controllable production and a fiber supplement for steamed bread preparation were provided in this study. KEY POINTS: • A novel ß-mannanase gene (McMan5B) was cloned from Malbranchea cinnamomea and expressed in Pichia pastoris at high level. • McMan5B hydrolyzed konjac powder to yield partially hydrolyzed konjac powder (PHKP) instead of manno-oligosaccharides. • PHKP showed more positive effect on the quality of steamed bread than many other dietary fibers including konjac powder.


Assuntos
Amorphophallus , beta-Manosidase , Amorphophallus/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mananas/química , Onygenales , Pichia/genética , Pós , beta-Manosidase/química , beta-Manosidase/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3078, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197501

RESUMO

Dermatophytic pathogens are a source of disturbance to the host microbiome, but the temporal progression of these disturbances is unclear. Here, we determined how Snake Fungal Disease, caused by Ophidiomyces ophidiicola, resulted in disturbance to the host microbiome. To assess disease effects on the microbiome, 22 Common Watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) were collected and half were inoculated with O. ophidiicola. Epidermal swabs were collected weekly for use in microbiome and pathogen load characterization. For the inoculated treatment only, we found a significant effect of disease progression on microbial richness and Shannon diversity consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. When explicitly accounting for differences in assemblage richness, we found that ß-diversity among snakes was significantly affected by the interaction of time and treatment group, with assemblages becoming more dissimilar across time in the inoculated, but not the control group. Also, differences between treatments in average microbiome composition became greater with time, but this interactive effect was not evident when accounting for assemblage richness. These results suggest that changes in composition of the host microbiome associated with disease largely occur due to changes in microbial richness related to disease progression.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Colubridae/microbiologia , Epiderme/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Onygenales/patogenicidade , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2142, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136194

RESUMO

The process of dispersal of the potentially disease-causing, geophilic and keratinolytic fungal strain Aphanoascus keratinophilus (the perfect, sexual stage of Chrysosporium keratinophilum) by the rook Corvus frugilegus was studied. The source of A. keratinophilus strains was pellets of the rook, thus far not considered a carrier of this particular opportunistic pathogen. Pellets collected from breeding colonies of rooks were analysed in terms of the occurrence of keratinolytic fungi with the application of the native keratin bait method. Among the 83 rook pellets analysed, 24 (29%) were infected by keratinophilic fungi. Pure cultures of the fungi were identified to species based on traditional morphological features. Traditional mycological identification was verified by the PCR-RFLP molecular identification method as well as DNA sequencing. The obtained results showed the presence of 90 Aphanoascus keratinophilus strains, 6 Chrysosporium tropicum strains, and 3 Chrysosporium pannicola strains. The PCR melting profile (PCR-MP) method was used to identify intraspecies variations of the 90 analysed A. keratinophilus strains. The dispersal of genotypes and possible pathways of A. keratinophilus dispersal and infection via rook pellets were analysed.


Assuntos
Corvos/microbiologia , Micoses/transmissão , Onygenales/genética , Animais , Polônia
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(2): 764-775, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638294

RESUMO

Fungal infection is an emerging threat to reptiles. The main pathogens are fungi of the genera Nannizziopsis, Paranannizziopsis and Ophidiomyces. The clinical symptoms range from mild skin lesions to the dissemination of internal organs and even death. Most of the reported cases are from Europe, North America and Australia. In this study, we report the Nannizziopsis guarroi infection in one captive inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), one captive green iguana (Iguana iguana) and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola infection in one wild red-banded snake (Dinodon rufozonatum) and one wild Chinese cobra (Naja atra) in Taiwan. The infections were confirmed by the presence of fungal elements in the tissue. The pathogens were identified based on their morphological and DNA sequence characteristics. The susceptibility profiles of the fungal strains to nine antifungal drugs were obtained using broth microdilution methods. The presence of both fungal species in Asia highlights the urgent need for surveillance and close monitoring of reptile infections to prevent them from spreading and to the possible collapse of reptile populations in the wild.


Assuntos
Onygenales , Animais , Onygenales/genética , Répteis , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 83(3): 256-263, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the antifungal susceptibility of Nanniziopsis guarroi isolates and to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of orally administered terbinafine in bearded dragons. ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult bearded dragons. PROCEDURES: 4 isolates of N guarroi were tested for antifungal susceptibility. A compounded oral solution of terbinafine (25 mg/mL [20 mg/kg]) was given before blood (0.2 mL) was drawn from the ventral tail vein at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after administration. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The antifungal minimum inhibitory concentrations against N guarroi isolates ranged from 4,000 to > 64,000 ng/mL for fluconazole, 125 to 2,000 ng/mL for itraconazole, 125 to 2,000 ng/mL for ketoconazole, 125 to 1,000 ng/mL for posaconazole, 60 to 250 ng/mL for voriconazole, and 15 to 30 ng/mL for terbinafine. The mean ± SD peak plasma terbinafine concentration in bearded dragons was 435 ± 338 ng/mL at 13 ± 4.66 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations remained > 30 ng/mL for > 24 hours in all bearded dragons and for > 48 hours in 6 of 8 bearded dragons. Mean ± SD terminal half-life following oral administration was 21.2 ± 12.40 hours. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Antifungal susceptibility data are available for use in clinical decision making. Results indicated that administration of terbinafine (20 mg/kg, PO, q 24 to 48 h) in bearded dragons may be appropriate for the treatment of dermatomycoses caused by N guarroi. Clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy of such treatment.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Onygenales , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Lagartos/microbiologia , Terbinafina
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(4): 1421-1428, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799317

RESUMO

Plumbago europaea L. is a plant utilized in Palestinian ethnomedicine for the treatment of various dermatological diseases. The current investigation was designed to isolate plumbagin from P. europaea leaves, roots and for the first time from the stems. Moreover, it aimed to evaluate the antimycotic activity against three human fungal pathogens causing dermatophytosis, also against an animal fungal pathogen. The qualitative analysis of plumbagin from the leaves, stems, and roots was conducted using HPLC and spectrophotometer techniques, while the structure of plumbagin was established utilizing Proton and Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Infrared (IR) techniques. The entire plant constituents were determined by GC-MS. Moreover, the antimycotic activity against Ascosphaera apis, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was assessed utilizing the poison food technique method. The percentage of plumbagin recorded in the leaves, stems, and roots was found to be 0.51±0.001%, 0.16±0.001%, and 1.65±0.015%, respectively. The GC-MS examination declared the presence of 59 molecules in the plant extract. The plant extract and pure plumbagin exhibited complete inhibition against all tested dermatophytes at 6.0mg/mL for the extracts and 0.2mg/mL for plumbagin. P. europaea root is the best source of plumbagin and the plant extract could represent a potential drug candidate for the treatment of dermatophytosis infections. Further studies required to design suitable dosage forms from the natural P. europaea root extracts or plumbagin alone, to be utilized for the treatment of dermatological and veterinary ailments.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Naftoquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Plumbaginaceae/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Onygenales/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(3): 909-917, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687507

RESUMO

The tentacled snake (Erpeton tentaculatum) is a viviparous aquatic snake that is a desirable species to exhibit in zoological collections because of its unique appearance and feeding strategies. Despite its presence in zoo collections over the past 50 yr, a comprehensive review of mortality and morbidity in the species has not been published. This study retrospectively reviewed 125 pathology reports from tentacled snakes in a multi-institution zoological collection in New York (The Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx and Central Park zoos) between 1966 and 2017. Just over half of the deaths were due to infectious disease (n = 67; 53.6%), and of these, over half (n = 40; 59.7%) were due to fungal dermatitis. Fungal histomorphology was consistent with Paranannizziopsis spp. in most cases. Death due to bacterial infection was also relatively common (n = 21; 16.8%), and one-third had intralesional bacilli consistent with Mycobacterium spp. (n = 7; 5.6%). The most common comorbidities included gastrointestinal parasitism (n = 44; 35.2%), renal pathology (n = 31; 24.8%), and lipid accumulation of hepatocytes (n = 13; 10.4%). This retrospective review suggests that managing infectious diseases plays a role in the long-term care and survival of captive tentacled snakes.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Dermatomicoses , Onygenales , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , New York/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serpentes
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(3): 997-1002, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687515

RESUMO

A retrospective review of systemic or localized mycotic infections in captive snakes confirmed via biopsy or necropsy from 1983 to 2017 was performed at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) confirmed infection with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) in 36.8% (n = 14) of the 38 mycotic infections. Infections with Oo were evenly distributed over the 35-y period and lacked a sex predilection. There was a period prevalence of 4.5% of completed snake necropsy or biopsy cases that were Oo positive. Species affected included green anaconda (Eunectes murinus, n = 4), garden tree boa (Corallus hortulanus, n = 1), false water cobra (Hydrodynastes gigas, n = 5), yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus, n = 1), eastern milksnake (Lampropeltis triangulum, n = 1), Brazilian rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria cenchria, n = 1), and eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus, n = 1). Histopathology demonstrated one or more of the following: heterophilic to necrotizing epidermitis with or without granulomatous dermatitis (n = 12), granulomatous pneumonia (n = 5), granulomatous endophthalmitis (n = 1), and subcutaneous-intramuscular fungal granuloma (n = 1). This study documents the presence of ophidiomycosis in a captive collection for almost 40 years, despite current literature designating it a recently emerging pathogen.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Micoses , Onygenales , Animais , Micoses/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serpentes
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(3): 1074-1078, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687526

RESUMO

Three file snakes (Acrochordus granulatus) were delivered to the Moscow Zoo (Russia) from Jakarta (Indonesia). Shortly after arrival, multiple white blisters were detected on their bodies. All three snakes died within a month of arrival. On microscopy, arthrospores and mycelium were seen in exudate from the lesions. Ophidiomyces ophidiicola was isolated from two of three snakes and identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Dermatophyte test medium turned red in positive cultures and can be potentially employed for detection of O. ophidiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease. This is the first report of O. ophidiicola in Russia and the second reported case of ophidiomycosis in file snakes. The possible source of O. ophidiicola in snakes imported from Southeast Asia is discussed.


Assuntos
Onygenales , Animais , Indonésia , Moscou , Federação Russa , Serpentes
15.
J Therm Biol ; 100: 103065, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503803

RESUMO

Snake Fungal Disease (SFD) negatively impacts wild snake populations in the eastern United States and Europe. Ophidiomyces ophidiicola causes SFD and manifests clinically by the formation of heterophilic granulomas around the mouth and eyes, weight loss, impaired vision, and sometimes death. Field observations have documented early seasonal basking behaviors in severely infected snakes, potentially suggesting induction of a behavioral febrile response to combat the mycosis. This study tested the hypothesis that snakes inoculated with Ophidiomyces ophidiicola would seek elevated basking temperatures to control body temperature and behaviorally induce a febrile response. Eastern ribbon snakes (Thamnophis saurita, n = 29) were experimentally or sham inoculated with O. ophidiicola. Seven days after inoculation, snakes were tested on a thermal gradient and the internal body temperature and substrate temperature of each snake was recorded over time. Quantitative PCR was used when snakes arrived, during pre-inoculation, and post-inoculation to test snakes for the presence of O. ophidiicola. Some snakes arrived with O. ophidiicola and were subsequently inoculated, allowing for an assessment of secondary exposure effects. Snake thermoregulatory behavior was compared between 1) O. ophidiicola inoculated vs. sham inoculated treatments, 2) infected vs. disease negative groups, and 3) disease naïve vs. pre-exposed immune response categories. Neither internal nor substrate temperatures differed among initially prescribed, and qPCR recovered disease states, although infected snakes tended to reach a preferred body temperature faster than disease negative snakes. Snakes experiencing their first exposure (disease naïve) sought higher substrate temperatures than snakes experiencing their second exposure (pre-exposed). Here, we recover no evidence for behaviorally induced fever in snakes with SFD but do elucidate a febrile immune response associated with secondary exposure.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Colubridae/fisiologia , Micoses/fisiopatologia , Onygenales/patogenicidade , Animais , Colubridae/microbiologia
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2740-2742, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546163

RESUMO

Emergomyces is a newly described dimorphic fungus genus; it may cause fatal infections in immunocompromised patients, but diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of disseminated emergomycosis caused by the novel species Emergomyces orientalis in a kidney transplant recipient from Tibet. Infection was diagnosed early by metagenomic next-generation sequencing.


Assuntos
Micoses , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metagenômica , Micoses/diagnóstico , Onygenales
17.
Mycologia ; 113(6): 1253-1263, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477498

RESUMO

Nannizziopsis guarroi is an ascomycete fungus associated with a necrotizing dermatitis in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) across both Europe and North America. Clinical signs of the disease include swelling and lesion formation. Lesions develop from white raised bumps on the skin and progress into crusty, yellow, discolored scales, eventually becoming necrotic. The clinical signs are the basis of a colloquial name yellow fungal disease (YFD). However, until now, N. guarroi has not been confirmed as the primary agent of the disease in bearded dragons. In this experiment, we fulfill Koch's postulates criteria of disease, demonstrating N. guarroi as the primary agent of YFD in bearded dragons.


Assuntos
Chrysosporium , Lagartos , Micoses , Onygenales , Animais , Lagartos/microbiologia , Micoses/microbiologia
18.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 8): 1019-1026, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342275

RESUMO

The thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea contains a host of enzymes that enable its ability as an efficient degrader of plant biomass and that could be mined for industrial applications. This thermophilic fungus has been studied and found to encode eight lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) from auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9), which collectively possess different substrate specificities for a range of plant cell-wall-related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. To gain greater insight into the molecular determinants defining the different specificities, structural studies were pursued and the structure of McAA9F was determined. The enzyme contains the immunoglobulin-like fold typical of previously solved AA9 LPMO structures, but contains prominent differences in the loop regions found on the surface of the substrate-binding site. Most significantly, McAA9F has a broad substrate specificity, with activity on both crystalline and soluble polysaccharides. Moreover, it contains a small loop in a region where a large loop has been proposed to govern specificity towards oligosaccharides. The presence of the small loop leads to a considerably flatter and more open surface that is likely to enable the broad specificity of the enzyme. The enzyme contains a succinimide residue substitution, arising from intramolecular cyclization of Asp10, at a position where several homologous members contain an equivalent residue but cyclization has not previously been observed. This first structure of an AA9 LPMO from M. cinnamomea aids both the understanding of this family of enzymes and the exploration of the repertoire of industrially relevant lignocellulolytic enzymes from this fungus.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Onygenales/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
19.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(5): 2187-2198, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327850

RESUMO

Seventeen species of fungi belonging to thirteen genera were screened for the ability to carry out the transformation of 7-oxo-DHEA (7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone). Some strains expressed new patterns of catalytic activity towards the substrate, namely 16ß-hydroxylation (Laetiporus sulphureus AM498), Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketone in D-ring to lactone (Fusicoccum amygdali AM258) and esterification of the 3ß-hydroxy group (Spicaria divaricata AM423). The majority of examined strains were able to reduce the 17-oxo group of the substrate to form 3ß,17ß-dihydroxy-androst-5-en-7-one. The highest activity was reached with Armillaria mellea AM296 and Ascosphaera apis AM496 for which complete conversion of the starting material was achieved, and the resulting 17ß-alcohol was the sole reaction product. Two strains of tested fungi were also capable of stereospecific reduction of the conjugated 7-keto group leading to 7ß-hydroxy-DHEA (Inonotus radiatus AM70) or a mixture of 3ß,7α,17ß-trihydroxy-androst-5-ene and 3ß,7ß,17ß-trihydroxy-androst-5-ene (Piptoporus betulinus AM39). The structures of new metabolites were confirmed by MS and NMR analysis. They were also examined for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity in an enzymatic-based assay in vitro test.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona , Fungos , Armillaria , Ascomicetos , Onygenales , Polyporales
20.
J Nat Prod ; 84(7): 1993-2003, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161733

RESUMO

Epigenetic manipulation of a deep-sea sediment-derived Spiromastix sp. fungus using suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) induction resulted in the activation of a terpene-related biosynthetic gene cluster, and nine new guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, spiromaterpenes A-I (1-9), were isolated. Their structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques, in association with the modified Mosher's method, computed electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, and chemical conversion for configurational assignments. Compounds 4-6 exhibited significant effects against the NO production on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia cells BV2, and the preliminary SAR analyses demonstrated that a 2(R),11-diol unit is favorable. The most active 5 abolished LPS-induced NF-κB translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus in BV-2 microglial cells, accompanied by the marked reduction of the transcription levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α dose-dependently in both LPS-induced BV-2 and BV-2 cells, as well as the protein and mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2. This study complements the gap in knowledge regarding the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids at the cellular level and suggests that 5 is promising for further optimization as a multifunctional agent for antineuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Onygenales/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/metabolismo , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Onygenales/genética
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