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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(9): 3191-3197, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018086

RESUMO

Schematic diagrams have been important tools in Ophthalmology for ages. These are vital tools to document ocular pathologies, assist in the comparison of clinical records on follow-up visits, serve as standardized means of communication between ophthalmologists, educating trainees and postgraduates, and helping in the easy follow-up of disease course over a period. There are standardized color codes for depicting different pathologies in the anterior and posterior segments. The understanding of these guidelines allows proper documentation of findings and helps in standardizing ophthalmic care. This method of documentation is beneficial as this is a less expensive tool, provides immediate records at a glance, allows distinctive marking of clinical findings not possible to document with clinical photographs, and can help in medico-legal cases as well. This article focuses on highlighting the standard guidelines that will be useful for training ophthalmologists. This article primarily focuses on various color-codings for anterior and posterior segment schematic representations, along with a brief touch on the importance of color-coding in glaucoma and standardized eye drop (vials) color codes as per the American Academy of Ophthalmology guidelines. We believe this can be taken as a template for future reference by all trainees, postgraduates, fellows, and clinician ophthalmologists in their day-to-day clinical practice.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Oftalmologistas , Oftalmologia , Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(9): 3247-3252, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018095

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to determine the content and intent of posts published under popular ophthalmology hashtags and to determine whether these posts were educational for ophthalmologists. Methods: A web-based, cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate the top public posts of five popular hashtags on three consecutive days by two ophthalmology specialists. The first 100 relevant English posts of each hashtag were studied. Selected hashtags were #Ophthalmology, #ophthalmosurgery, #ophthalmologyresident, #ophthalmologist, and #ophthalmicphotography. Posts were classified according to the type of post, post author, post intent, and whether the post was educational. Posts deemed educational were then categorized separately using the same classification system as above to determine whether there were defining characteristics of educational posts. Results: One thousand posts were recorded and analyzed and a total of 500 posts were included in the study. The majority of posts 79.8% (n = 399), were by medical doctors with 95% (n = 379) being ophthalmology specialists. Sixty-three percent of posts (n = 315) were deemed educational, 25% promotional (n = 127), and 12% (n = 58) were entertainment posts. Medical retina (n = 119) and anterior segment (n = 90) were the most common subspecialties explored. #ophthalmicphotography (P = 0.001) was the hashtag with the highest number of educational posts (n = 91). The least educational hashtag was #ophthalmologist with only 44% of posts (n = 44) that were deemed to be educational. One hundred percent of glaucoma posts (n = 19), 98% of cornea posts (n = 41), and 99% of medical retina posts (n = 118) were found to be educational which was significantly more educational than the other topics posted (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Ophthalmologists are the main authors of posts in popular ophthalmology hashtags. The majority of posts were educational posts with promotional posts being the second most common intent. The authors conclude that while Instagram is a possible source of ancillary education for the visual specialty of ophthalmology, careful selection of hashtags and post authors are needed for maximum benefit.


Assuntos
Oftalmologistas , Oftalmologia , Mídias Sociais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e053560, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationships between axial length and intraoperative complications in patients undergoing cataract surgery. DESIGN: Cohort analysis of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists' National Ophthalmology Database (RCOphth NOD). SETTING: 110 National Health Service Trusts in England, Health Boards in Wales, Independent Sector Treatment Centres and Guernsey. PARTICIPANTS: 820 354 patients, aged 18 years or older, undergoing cataract surgery. Eligible operations were those from centres with at least 50 operations with a recorded axial length measurement and age at surgery between 1 April 2010 and 31 August 2019. INTERVENTIONS: Phacoemulsification where the primary intention was cataract surgery alone. OUTCOME MEASURES: Posterior capsule rupture (PCR) and other recorded intraoperative complications. RESULTS: 1 211 520 eligible operations were performed by 3210 surgeons. The baseline axial length was <21 mm (short eyes) for 17 170 (1.4%) eyes, 21-28 mm (medium eyes) for 1 182 513 (97.6%) eyes and >28 mm (long eyes) for 11 837 (1.0%) eyes. The median age at surgery was younger for patients with long eyes than those with short or medium eyes. The rate of any intraoperative complication was higher for short eyes than medium or long with complication rates of 4.5%, 2.9% and 3.3%, respectively (p<0.001). PCR occurred in 1.40% surgeries overall, and in 1.53%, 1.40% and 1.61% of short, medium and long eyes, respectively (p=0.043, not significant at the 1% level). CONCLUSIONS: Overall PCR rates for cataract surgery in RCOphth NOD contributing centres are lower than previously reported and there is little change in PCR rates by axial length. Short eyes were more likely to have an intraoperative complication than medium or long eyes.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Oftalmologistas , Oftalmologia , Facoemulsificação , Catarata/epidemiologia , Extração de Catarata/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Acuidade Visual
5.
Nepal J Ophthalmol ; 14(27): 93-102, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996908

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cortical visual impairment (CVI) in children is a retro chiasmal visual tract disorder where there is with an impairment in the visual acuity and/or functionality of vision-guided task, including motor planning in the presence of normal ocular findings or minimal ocular morbidity. The study was conducted to assess the knowledge about CVI among ophthalmologists practicing in Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. Data collection was done by administering a preformed, validated questionnaire that was sent via email to all the ophthalmologists registered under the Nepal Ophthalmic Society. The email mentioned the aim of the study along with the questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 146 (37.82%) ophthalmologists responded to the questionnaire. Forty four percent of the participants were general ophthalmologists, 28% were pediatric ophthalmologists and 67% were ophthalmologists from other subspecialty. The median age of participants was 37.6 years. Most of the ophthalmologist had a good knowledge about the cause, common risk factors, clinical risk factors, management and prognosis of CVI. However only 29.5% of participants were aware of the investigation of choice for diagnosing CVI and 31.7% were aware of the leading causes of visual impairment in the developed countries. The study also established that the knowledge score was higher in pediatric ophthalmologists than the general ophthalmologist and ophthalmologists from other specialties. CONCLUSION: Most of the ophthalmologists had a good knowledge about the cause, common risk factors, clinical features, management and prognosis of CVI. However only a limited number of participants were aware of the investigation of choice for diagnosing CVI and the leading causes of visual impairment in the developed countries. Majority of the participants rarely examined patients with CVI which does not correlate with the high prevalence of perinatal hypoxia, the commonest cause of CVI, in our country.


Assuntos
Cegueira Cortical , Encefalopatias , Oftalmologistas , Baixa Visão , Adulto , Cegueira Cortical/diagnóstico , Cegueira Cortical/epidemiologia , Cegueira Cortical/etiologia , Encefalopatias/complicações , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Baixa Visão/diagnóstico , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/etiologia
7.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 66(2): 198-208, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935086

RESUMO

The diagnosis of bilateral panuveitis was made in a 9-year-old girl who was referred to our hospital for blurred vision accompanied by periorbital and abdominal pain. Endothelial dusting, vitreous haze and optic nerve edema were deemed as signs of involvement of all segments of the eye. The bloodwork results were suggestive of infectious uveitis, with elevated inflammatory markers and the patient was treated with IV antibiotics. Cerebral-CT was normal, screening for common infectious causes of uveitis and cultures were negative. There was no history of autoimmune disease, and autoimmune antibody tests were negative. Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome induced panuveitis, secondary to SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS), was suspected by the infectious disease consultant. The syndrome commonly affects school-age children and represents a generalized inflammatory response in the body that appears about one month after the initial infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Initial symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, eye redness, rashes, dizziness, accompanied by laboratory evidence of inflammation unexplained by any other plausible cause. The patient's coronavirus IgG titer was positive, while the RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 virus, taken from the nasopharyngeal swab, was negative. As all the other investigations turned out negative, COVID-19 was the only presumptive cause for the pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). A diagnosis of probable COVID-19 induced uveitis was made and the patient started IV Dexamethasone, followed by oral steroids that were gradually tapered and made a full recovery. The aim of this report was to shed light and enrich the scarce literature available on Uveitis as a sign of pediatric inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 infection. Abbreviations: ACE2 = Angiotensin converting enzyme 2, ANA = Antinuclear antibodies, c-ANCA, p-ANCA = Cytoplasmic and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies, BCVA = Best corrected visual acuity, CMV = Cytomegalovirus, COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019, CRE = Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, CRP = C-Reactive Protein, EBV = Epstein Barr virus, ESBL = Extended spectrum beta-lactamase, ESR = Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, FCoV = Feline coronavirus, MDR = Multidrug resistant, MRSA = methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MHV = mouse hepatitis virus, MIS-C = multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, NSAID = Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NT pro BNP = precursor natriuretic brain peptide, PIMS-TS = Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2, RNFL = Retinal nerve fiber layer, SARS CoV-2 = severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SD-OCT = Spectral domain optical coherence tomography, VRE = Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Oftalmologistas , Pan-Uveíte , Dor Abdominal , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Pan-Uveíte/diagnóstico , Pan-Uveíte/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e055061, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798521

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Globally, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged adults. Early detection and treatment of DR is essential for preventing sight loss. Services must be available, accessible and acceptable to patients if we are to ensure they seek such care. OBJECTIVES: To understand patients' knowledge and attitudes towards laser versus antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections to treat DR in Vietnam, and to identify factors Vietnamese ophthalmologists consider when making treatment decisions. METHODS: This is a descriptive qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 18 patients (12 from Ho Chi Minh City and 6 from Hanoi) plus individual interviews with 24 ophthalmologists working in eye clinics in these cities. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: In total, 10/24 (41.7%) ophthalmologists were female, and their median age was 41 years (range 29-69 years). The median age of patients was 56.5 years (range 28-72 years), and 7/18 (38.9%) were female. Briefly, factors that influence DR treatment decisions for ophthalmologists are medical considerations (ie, severity of disease, benefits and risks), availability (ie, treatment and resources) and patient-related factors (ie, costs and adherence). Patient's perceived barriers and facilitators to treatments were based on patient and family related factors (ie, treatment and transportation costs) and previous treatment experiences (ie, positive and negative). Recommendations by all participants included ensuring that both laser and anti-VEGF injections are widely available across the country and controlling costs for patients and the healthcare system. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing DR treatment costs, optimising treatments options, and expanding the network of clinics offering treatment outside metropolitan areas were the main issues raised by participants. These findings can help inform policy changes in Vietnam and may be generalisable to other low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Degeneração Macular , Oftalmologistas , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira/etiologia , Cegueira/prevenção & controle , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vietnã
14.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 45(7): 771-783, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718568

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Filler-induced blindness (FIB) is the most threatening complication following periocular injection. To date, no standard of care has been established. The goal of this study is to report a new case of FIB with partial visual recovery and present our personalized algorithm for treatment based on fluorescein angiography findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case report with 24 months follow-up and treatment algorithm. RESULTS: Our patient experienced complete vision loss to no light perception following forehead lipofilling. Retinal angiography identified a posterior ciliary artery occlusion. Antiplatelet medication, steroids and intraocular pressure lowering medications were administrated, followed by hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). Visual acuity improved to +0.8 logMar. The HBOT treatment was monitored by fluorescein angiogram. Based on this case and on the ophthalmic literature on retinal and ciliary artery occlusion, we established a personalized FIB protocol guided by fluorescein angiography. CONCLUSION: Although prevention remains the best treatment, all physicians should be prepared to manage FIB. Prompt management at the office guided by written protocols, as well as emergency kits, are essential. In referral centers, personalized treatment should be undertaken based on fluorescein angiography findings.


Assuntos
Oftalmologistas , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana , Algoritmos , Cegueira/induzido quimicamente , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/etiologia
15.
BMJ ; 377: o1484, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724988
16.
West Afr J Med ; 39(6): 563-567, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of diagnosis of ophthalmic disorders as well as the adequacy of referral of patients with ophthalmic disorders for specialist eye care by the general practitioners (GP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a hospital-based descriptive study. Patients selected by systematic random sampling at the General Out-Patient Department (GOPD) of a tertiary hospital were evaluated by the ophthalmologist after they had been independently assessed by the General Practitioners. Diagnoses and referral decisions of the GP were compared with those of the ophthalmologist using Kappa Statistics. RESULTS: A total of 382 patients were studied while 22 GPs participated in the study. Ocular disorders were found by the ophthalmologist in 112 (29.3%) patients while the remaining 270 (70.7%) were normal . Only 36 (32.1%) of those with ocular disorders had a diagnosis of ocular disorders by the General Practitioners. A correct diagnosis was made by the GPs for 18 (16.1%) patients (k=0.102, p =0.001); and the highest diagnostic agreement was obtained for conjunctivitis (k=0.464, P= 0.001). No patient with posterior segment disorder was diagnosed by the GPs. Majority (81%; k = 0.616, p=0.001) of referrals were in agreement with expected referral decision. However, 28 (25.0%) under-referrals and 16 (19.0%) over-referrals were noted. CONCLUSION: About one-third of all the patients assessed had an ocular disorder, but the general practitioners detected these disorders only one-third of the time; a correct diagnosis of ocular disorders was made in only 16.1%, while no posterior segment disease was diagnosed. Wrong referral decisions were made in up to one-third of patients. Regular update courses for general practitioners on ophthalmic evaluation will help address these observed deficiencies.


OBJECTIFS: Déterminer le niveau d'accord entre les médecins généralistes (MG) et l'ophtalmologiste dans le diagnostique et l'orientation des patients atteints de troubles oculaires. MATERIAUX ET METHODES: Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive en milieu hospitalier. Les patients sélectionnés par échantillonnage aléatoire systématique au service général de consultation externe d'un hôpital tertiaire ont été évalué par l'ophtalmologiste après avoir été évalués de manière indépendante par les médecins généralistes. Les diagnostiques et les décisions d'orientation du médecin généraliste ont été comparés à ceux de l'ophtalmologiste à l'aide de Kappa Statistique. LE RESULTATS: Au total, 382 patients ont été étudiés. 22 MG ont participé. Des troubles oculaires ont été trouvés par un ophtalmologiste chez 112(29,3%) patients tandis que les autres 270(70,7%) étaient normaux. Seulement 36(32,1%) des personnes atteintes de troubles oculaires ont été diagnostiquées par un médecin généraliste. Le diagnostic correct a été posé par le médecin généraliste pour 18(16,1%) patients (K= 0,102, P= 0,001). La concordance diagnostique la plus élevée a été obtenue pour la conjonctivite (K= 0,102, P = 0,001). Aucun patient présentant un trouble du segment postérieur n'a été diagnostiqué par le médecin généraliste. La majorité (81% ; K = 0,616, P= 0,001) des références étaient en accord avec la décision de référence attendu. Cependant, 28 (25,0%) sur-références se sont produites. CONCLUSION: Environ un tiers de tous les patients évalués présentaient des trouble oculaires, mais le médecin généraliste n'a détecté ces troubles qu'un tiers du temps ; un diagnostic correct de troubles oculaires n'a été posé que dans 16,1% des cas, alors qu'aucune maladie du segment postérieur n'a été diagnostiquée. De mauvaises décisions d'orientation avaient été prises chez près d'un tiers des patients, des cours de mise à niveau régulier pour les médecins généralistes sur l'évaluation ophtalmique permettront de combler les lacunes observées. Mots-clés: Médecin Généraliste, Troubles Oculaires, Diagnostic, Référence, Accord.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Clínicos Gerais , Oftalmologistas , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
17.
Wiad Lek ; 75(5 pt 2): 1408-1414, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758466

RESUMO

The aim - to consider the etiopathogenesis, the main clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria of NF1, and present a clinical case from their practice. The paper analyzes the research findings in recent publications, focused on the studied issue using the methods of continuous sampling, synthesis and generalization, bibliosemantic evaluation and content analysis. In order to attract the attention of family physicians, neurologists, dermatologists, ophthalmologists, surgeons and other specialists, we present our own clinical observation of NF1. The patient was examined using the methods of neurological examination, as well as other laboratory and instrumental methods of research. Early diagnosis and medical examination of patients with NF1 is crucial for predicting and improving the quality of life of patients. NF1 is a complex disease where the cooperation of doctors of different specialties is important. A favorable prognosis for patients is associated with the possibility of early diagnosis of malignant transformation and timely treatment.


Assuntos
Neurofibromatose 1 , Oftalmologistas , Humanos , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Qualidade de Vida
18.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 45(7): 689-699, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to study the perception of physical and emotional health of Spanish ophthalmologists and their health habits, as well as the possible influence of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional, non-randomized and uncontrolled study was carried out among at Spanish ophthalmologists through an online survey of 47 questions on eating habits, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, workload, and perception of physical and emotional state. RESULTS: Of a total of 2,179 ophthalmologists, 260 (11.9%) of whom 55% were men responded to the survey, with a mean age of 52.9±11.4 years. 5.8% were smokers. In total, 51.5% reported good physical health, with a mean Body Mass Index of 24.4kg/m2. Overall, 53.5% reported depression, 66.9% tiredness, 34.6% difficulty sleeping, and 57.3% considered their work hard. Up to 28.5% of those surveyed had thought about leaving their job and 60.8% about reorganizing their workload. In total, 91.9% would continue to choose Ophthalmology as a specialty. In total, 36.2% reported an increase in workload, 42.3% worsening of physical state and 63.8% worsening of emotional state as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Spanish ophthalmologists have a positive perception of their physical and emotional health, despite having life habits that are not always healthy and feeling mostly down. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative influence on the physical and emotional health of ophthalmologists.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oftalmologistas , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 26(9): 4645-4655, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35767498

RESUMO

Ophthalmologists have used fundus images to screen and diagnose eye diseases. However, different equipments and ophthalmologists pose large variations to the quality of fundus images. Low-quality (LQ) degraded fundus images easily lead to uncertainty in clinical screening and generally increase the risk of misdiagnosis. Thus, real fundus image restoration is worth studying. Unfortunately, real clinical benchmark has not been explored for this task so far. In this paper, we investigate the real clinical fundus image restoration problem. Firstly, We establish a clinical dataset, Real Fundus (RF), including 120 low- and high-quality (HQ) image pairs. Then we propose a novel Transformer-based Generative Adversarial Network (RFormer) to restore the real degradation of clinical fundus images. The key component in our network is the Window-based Self-Attention Block (WSAB) which captures non-local self-similarity and long-range dependencies. To produce more visually pleasant results, a Transformer-based discriminator is introduced. Extensive experiments on our clinical benchmark show that the proposed RFormer significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods. In addition, experiments of downstream tasks such as vessel segmentation and optic disc/cup detection demonstrate that our proposed RFormer benefits clinical fundus image analysis and applications.


Assuntos
Oftalmologistas , Disco Óptico , Benchmarking , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
20.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 48(6): 647-648, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703841
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