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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805273

RESUMO

Even though an extensive body of previous research has examined the association between received intergenerational support and the well-being outcomes of older adults in a wide variety of contexts, few studies have been conducted to explore the impacts of intergenerational support on elders' subjective well-being, especially the intermediary mechanisms in this process. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by exploring the mediating role of optimism in the association between received intergenerational support and subjective well-being among the elderly in China, as well as the sex differences that exist between males and females. The findings show that the intergenerational support received from adult children is positively related to subjective well-being and that this relationship is partly mediated by optimism. Meanwhile, no significant sex difference was found in the interrelations between intergenerational support, optimism, and subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Otimismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Crianças Adultas , Idoso , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805321

RESUMO

COVID-19 in Malaysia has significantly affected the higher education system of the country and increased the level of distress among university students. Empirical evidence proposed that environment quality is associated with university students' life satisfaction during COVID-19. It was found that hope and optimism are linked with greater life satisfaction in general. Although past literature has reported the effects of hope and optimism on life satisfaction, there are limited studies examining the underlying mechanism among Malaysian private university students. Therefore, the current study offers the preliminary understanding of the intervening role of hope and optimism on the relationship between environmental quality and life satisfaction among private university students in Malaysia. A total of 133 private university students in Malaysia were recruited through homogenous convenience sampling. Partial least square structure equation modeling (SmartPLS) was used to analyze the mediation models. The results revealed that only hope mediated the relationship between environmental quality and life satisfaction, but not optimism. Hence, it is proposed that mental health providers should focus on providing hope-related interventions to university students in confronting COVID-19 challenges and ultimately improving life satisfaction.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Otimismo/psicologia , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between life event stress and depressive symptoms has not been analyzed in the general population before. METHODS: In the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, we assessed the association of 1.) the presence of important life events and 2.) life event stress, with the amount of depressive symptoms in univariable linear regressions and in multivariable regressions adjusted for age and sex (model 1) and age, sex and optimism as important determinants of coping with life events (model 2). Presence of life events and life event stress were assessed with the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), optimism with the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), and depressive symptoms with the 15-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: Of the total cohort of 4,814 participants, 1,120 had experienced important life events during the previous 6 months. Presence of important life events was significantly associated with higher CES-D scores (B = 2.6, 95%CI = 2.2 to 3.0, p < .001; model 2) compared to absence of life events. Associations were stronger for women than for men and for pessimists than for optimists. Among the participants with important life events, median (Q1; Q3) stress-score was 45.0 (39.0; 63.0). Stress-scores >Q3 were significantly associated with higher CES-D scores (2.2, 1.1 to 3.3, < .001) with a stronger association in pessimists than in optimists. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing life-changing events is associated with depression. Women and individuals with pessimistic personality are especially vulnerable which should be considered in prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Depressão , Pessimismo , Adaptação Psicológica , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Otimismo
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269707, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679247

RESUMO

A large literature at the crossroads of biology and cognitive psychology has shown that individuals hold generally positive expectations about future events. Despite this evidence, to date it remains unclear whether optimism has positive or negative implications for entrepreneurial activities. We examine this question in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, which provides a unique way to study the role of optimism on the (in)ability of firms to overcome exogenous shocks. Using a large-scale longitudinal survey covering 1,632 UK firms, we find that entrepreneurs who score high on optimism were more likely to innovate and make organizational changes to their firms during the Covid-19 outbreak. Moreover, optimistic entrepreneurs experienced higher revenue growth during the pandemic. Collectively, our study sheds light on one of the psychological factors explaining why some firms can prosper and some others struggle in the wake of an external shock.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Otimismo/psicologia , Personalidade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742324

RESUMO

Prior research has found the differential strength of optimism and pessimism in predicting physical health. However, whether similar findings would be obtained in predicting subjective well-being and the possible underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study examined the relative strength of optimism and pessimism in predicting adolescent life satisfaction and depression, and further explored the possible mediating mechanisms from the perspective of emotion regulation. A sample of 2672 adolescents (Mage = 13.54 years, SD = 1.04; 55.60% boys) completed a survey assessing optimism and pessimism, the habitual use of reappraisal and acceptance strategies, life satisfaction, and depression. The results from dominance analysis revealed that the presence of optimism was more powerful than the absence of pessimism in predicting adolescent life satisfaction, while the absence of pessimism was more powerful than the presence of optimism in predicting adolescent depression. Moreover, mediation models showed that reappraisal and acceptance mediated both the link between optimism and life satisfaction and the link between pessimism and depression. These findings suggest possible avenues for intervening in different aspects of adolescent subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267500, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior work indicates a robust relationship between coffee consumption and lower depression risk, yet no research has examined links with psychological well-being (e.g., happiness, optimism). This study tested whether coffee intake is prospectively associated with greater psychological well-being over time. Secondarily, associations in the reverse direction were also examined to determine whether initial levels of psychological well-being were related to subsequent coffee consumption. METHODS: Among women in the Nurses' Health Study, coffee consumption was examined in 1990 and 2002 in relation to sustained levels of happiness reported across multiple assessments from 1992-2000 (N = 44,449) and sustained levels of optimism assessed from 2004-2012 (N = 36,729). Associations were tested using generalized estimating equations with a Poisson distribution adjusted for various relevant covariates. Bidirectional relationships were evaluated in secondary analyses of baseline happiness (1992) and optimism (2004) with sustained moderate coffee consumption across multiple assessments through 2010. RESULTS: Compared to minimal coffee consumption levels (<1 cup/day), moderate consumption (1-3 cups/day) was unrelated to happiness, whereas heavy consumption (≥4 cups/day) was associated with a 3% lower likelihood of sustained happiness (relative risk, RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99). Only moderate coffee consumption was weakly associated with a greater likelihood of sustained optimism (RR1-3cups/day = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00-1.06). Secondary analyses showed high levels of optimism but not happiness levels were modestly associated with increased likelihood of sustained moderate coffee intake (RRoptimism = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10; RRhappiness = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.99-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: Associations between psychological well-being and coffee consumption over up to two decades were largely null or weak. Although coffee consumption may protect individuals against depression over time, it may have limited impact on facets of psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Café , Otimismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(2): 364-369, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic affects all aspects of the population including children, elderly, and vulnerable people. The aim of this study is to examine, for the first time, the relationship optimism-pessimism levels of mothers and anxiety level of children in turkey during COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Optimism-Pessimism Scale and Preschool Anxiety Scale were used to collect data from a representative sample of 33,362 mothers with children aged 3-6 years. RESULTS: Of the parents, 53% of them reported that their children were slightly anxious due to COVID-19 pandemic. Lower optimism and higher pessimism were significantly related with higher levels of children's anxiety including social, generalized, separation, and overall anxiety as well as obvious fear. Group comparison analysis indicated that very anxious children reported the highest level of different types of anxiety and fear compared to less anxious and not at all anxious children. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that mental health of children has been adversely affected during the pandemic and this has important implications for designing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing anxiety levels of children and determining protective and risk factors associated with anxiety in the face of adversity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessimismo , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Otimismo , Pandemias
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627417

RESUMO

Physical education (PE) lessons offer an excellent opportunity to encourage participation and learning for students with and without disabilities. However, there are still barriers that prevent educative inclusion (EI) from being achieved, with negative attitudes being one of the major issues. This study aimed to explore students without disabilities' attitudes toward their peers with disabilities in the second stage of Primary Education, examining possible differences according to sex (male or female) and school location (urban or rural). The Scale of Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities in Physical Education-Primary Education (SASDPE-PE), a four-item instrument with a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), was administered to 545 Spanish students aged 9 to 12 years old. The results revealed that girls and students from rural schools showed more positive attitudes toward their peers with disabilities during the PE lessons; differences were significant in both cases. Thus, according to our findings, the SASDPE-PE is a practical tool to assess attitudes, even after an attitude-change programme. Furthermore, PE attitude-change programmes should be implemented, especially considering male students and those enrolled in urban schools.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Educação Física e Treinamento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Otimismo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627612

RESUMO

Difficult situations during pregnancy, such as threatened preterm labor, trigger negative experiences in women. The levels of stress experienced and the way individuals cope with it depend on their personal resources, such as optimism, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy, among other factors. The purpose of this paper was to determine the role of dispositional optimism in the relationship between health locus of control and self-efficacy in pregnant women with threatened preterm labor. Dispositional optimism plays the role of mediator in relationships between: (1) internal health control and self-efficacy; and (2) impact of random events on one's health and self-efficacy. Dispositional optimism does not mediate the relationship between the perceived impact of others on one's health and self-efficacy. For women with a high-risk pregnancy, dispositional optimism is a significant resource for coping with the problems they encounter. It changes the direction (from negative to positive) of the association between experiencing the impact of external factors (random events) on one's health and perceived self-efficacy. It prevents the cycle of loss caused by the interpretation of random events as having an impact on one's health, and acts as a mediator to initiate a cycle of gains that leads to greater perceived self-efficacy. Optimistic pregnant women maintain a positive outlook, even when confronted with difficult, negative experiences such as threatened preterm labor.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Autoeficácia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Controle Interno-Externo , Otimismo , Gravidez , Gestantes
12.
Ethics Hum Res ; 44(3): 12-23, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543260

RESUMO

Research participants should be drawn as fairly as possible from the potential volunteer population. Underlying personality traits are underexplored as factors influencing research decision-making. Dispositional optimism, known to affect coping, physical health, and psychological well-being, has been minimally studied with respect to research-related attitudes. We conducted an exploratory, online survey with 151 individuals (with self-reported mental illness [n = 50], physical illness [n = 51], or neither [n = 50]) recruited via MTurk. We evaluated associations between dispositional optimism (assessed with the Life Orientation Test-Revised) and general research attitudes, perceived protectiveness of five research safeguards, and willingness to participate in research using safeguards. Strongly optimistic respondents expressed more positive research attitudes and perceived four safeguards as more positively influencing willingness to participate. Optimism was positively associated with expressed willingness to participate in clinical research. Our findings add to a limited literature on the influence of individual traits on ethically salient research perspectives.


Assuntos
Otimismo , Personalidade , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9060, 2022 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641600

RESUMO

People are overoptimistic about the future of those they like or admire (social optimism bias), expecting significantly more desirable than undesirable outcomes. By contrast, they are pessimistic about those they don't like. To operationalize the (dis)like of social targets, warmth and competence are used as two universal dimensions of social perception. In this pre-registered study, we replicate previous findings while adding two new levels of complexity. First, we make the distinction between the sociality of future outcomes: "alone" outcomes (e.g., enjoying a quiet afternoon by oneself) and "social" outcomes (e.g., enjoying a vacation with the significant other). Second, we investigate the effect of attachment styles on one's expectations for alone and social outcomes toward the social targets. In line with our hypotheses, the sociality of outcomes moderates both the additive and the multiplicative effects of the perceived warmth and competence of social targets on social optimism bias. Diverging from our hypotheses, we find that attachment anxiety and avoidance do not influence the effects of warmth and competence on social optimism bias. However, exploratory analyses reveal that attachment dimensions buffer the magnitude of social optimism bias for highly self-relevant social targets but do not impact social pessimism bias for irrelevant targets.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Comportamento Social , Ansiedade , Humanos , Otimismo , Percepção Social
14.
Soc Work ; 67(3): 228-238, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536549

RESUMO

Social workers are often faced with long working hours, high job demands, and poor work-life balance, which can have detrimental effects on their well-being. It is therefore important to identify the protective factors that enable social workers to flourish and thrive. Psychological capital (PsyCap) is conceptualized as a higher-order core construct that encompasses hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism. This study aims to investigate the impact of PsyCap on social workers' well-being and explore the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. It expands the literature by adopting a multifaceted model of well-being, accounting for the temporal order of variables, including a qualitative component, and examining the effects of PsyCap in an at-risk occupation. A two-wave prospective survey with a three-month interval was conducted with a sample of 400 full-time social workers in Hong Kong, followed by individual in-depth interviews. The quantitative results showed that PsyCap was positively associated with job satisfaction and positive affect, and negatively associated with negative affect and psychological and physical distress. The qualitative results showed that the components of PsyCap share problem-focused processes with cognitive, conative, and affective functions. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed in relation to the social services industry.


Assuntos
Serviço Social , Assistentes Sociais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Otimismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35559985

RESUMO

Solution-focused brief therapy is a psychotherapeutic model. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of clarity of long-term solutions on positive attitude towards life. In order to examine the effects of the long-term solution image, the conditions for clarifying the long-term and short-term solution images, and not seeking clarification of the solution image were set and randomly assigned. A total of 94 participants who responded to all questions were included in the analysis. The results of this study indicate that clarity of the long-term solution enhances time-oriented attitude. In addition, the clarity of short-term solutions increases the reality of their goals. Furthermore, solution-building and, positive, and ideal levels of life were shown to increase after implementation, regardless of the condition. These results indicate that clarification of the long-term solution expands the positive attitude of valuing limited time.


Assuntos
Atitude , Otimismo , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Nutr Res ; 103: 21-29, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453043

RESUMO

Legumes are a traditional healthy staple food in Latin America, with great potential for use in diet-related chronic disease prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate attitudes about legume consumption and associations with dietary intake. Adult participants from the Puerto Rico Assessment of Diet, Lifestyle, and Diseases, who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire and a legumes questionnaire (n = 229) were included. A 25-item Likert scale was used to assess agreement with stated attitudes regarding legumes consumption. Exploratory factor analysis produced 3 factors: (1) taste and perceived benefits; (2) barriers and negative attitudes; and (3) social support and cultural beliefs. A combined attitudes scale was computed, with higher scores indicating more positive attitudes toward legumes. Adjusted linear regression models examined associations between each factor and the combined scale with legumes intake, rice intake, and ratio of legumes to rice intake. Significant positive associations were observed for the taste and perceived benefits factor (ß = 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.21) and the social support and cultural beliefs factor (ß = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.07-0.22) with legume intake. The social support and cultural beliefs factor was also associated with a higher ratio of legumes to rice intake (ß = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.04-3.14). A 3-unit increase in the combined attitudes scale (corresponding to 1 additional positive attitude) was associated with a 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01-0.05) higher servings/day legume intake. The barriers and negative attitudes factor was inversely associated with rice intake (ß = -0.10; 95% CI, -0.02 to -0.17) and positively associated with ratio of legumes to rice intake (ß = 1.55; 95% CI, 0.03-3.07). Nutritional programs to increase legume intake as a healthy staple food among Puerto Ricans and Hispanic/Latino populations should emphasize building positive attitudes, especially those related to taste, perceived benefits, social support, and cultural beliefs, while diminishing barriers and negative attitudes.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Adulto , Dieta , Humanos , Otimismo , Porto Rico , Verduras
18.
Vet Rec ; 190(7): 266, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362603
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 670, 2022 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimism-the generalized expectation that good things will happen-is a promising health asset. Mounting evidence indicates that there are specific associations between optimism and survival rates. However, for public health purposes, it is critical to consider whether the relationship between optimism and survival holds for older adults as a whole and to explore the role of health behaviors as potential mediators. METHODS: Prospective data were obtained from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Optimism was measured in 2008, and survival was measured by survival time of the interviewees during the whole observation period from 2008 to 2018. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to evaluate the association between optimism and survival among the elderly. The mediating effect analysis method was used to explore the potential mediating role of health behaviors on the association between optimism and survival. RESULTS: Compared to less optimistic older adults, optimistic individuals were associated with lower odds of mortality (HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89 - 0.99). Health behaviors are key elements that play a positive role in survival (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.94 - 0.96). Health behaviors played an intermediary role in the relationship between optimism and mortality, and the mediating effect was -0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Optimism and health behaviors were broadly and robustly associated with a lower risk of mortality. Health behaviors mediate the relationship between optimism and mortality. Appropriate intervention should be carried out on optimism and health behaviors among elderly people to improve the likelihood of health in aging.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Otimismo , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Lancet ; 399(10334): 1457, 2022 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430011

Assuntos
Otimismo , Humanos
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