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1.
2.
Biophys J ; 120(20): 4301-4304, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509502

RESUMO

Evanescent-wave scattering is a topic in classical electrodynamics and in the study of colloidal particles near a boundary. However, how such near-surface scattering at subcellular refractive-index heterogeneities degrades the excitation confinement in biological total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy has not been well studied. An elegant theoretical work by Axelrod and Axelrod now addresses this very relevant question and reveals that-even when scattered-evanescent light preserves some of its surprising optical properties.


Assuntos
Optometria , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Refratometria
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473744

RESUMO

In monocular see-through augmented reality systems, each eye is stimulated differently by a monocular image that is superimposed on the binocular background. This can impair binocular fusion, due to interocular conflict. As a function of visual characteristics, the latter can have a greater or lesser impact on user comfort and performance. This study tested several visual characteristics of a binocular background and a monocular element during an exposure that reproduced the interocular conflict induced by a monocular see-through near-eye display. The aim was to identify which factors impact the user's performance. Performance was measured as target tracking and event detection, identification, fixation time, and latency. Our results demonstrate that performance is a function of the binocular background. Furthermore, exogenous attentional stimulation, in the form of a pulse with different levels of contrast applied to the monocular display, appears to preserve performance in most background conditions.


Assuntos
Anisometropia/fisiopatologia , Realidade Aumentada , Visão Binocular , Visão Monocular , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Óculos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Optometria/instrumentação , Optometria/métodos , Refração Ocular , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
4.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(9): 1039-1044, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469928

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of the most impactful articles, authors, institutions, countries, and journals in myopia management provides a useful baseline reference for clinicians, researchers, and funding agencies in respect of this emerging field.This work aims to assemble publication metrics for myopia management to identify the most impactful articles, authors, institutions, countries, and journals in this emerging field of research. A search of the titles of articles was undertaken on the Scopus database to identify myopia management-related articles. The 25 most highly cited articles were determined from the total list of 1064 articles found. Rank-order lists by count were assembled for the top 25 in each of four categories: authors, institutions, countries, and journals. A subject-specific myopia management-related h-index (hMM-index) was derived for the entire field, in addition to each of the four categories, to serve as measures of impact in the field. Top 15 lists were generated for each category ranked by hMM-index and tabulated for consideration. An article by Christine Wildsoet and colleagues, describing choroidal and scleral mechanisms of compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks, has generated the most citations (412); Earl Smith is the most impactful author (hMM = 19); the University of Houston produces the most impactful articles (hMM = 31); the United States is the most highly ranked country (hMM = 60); and Optometry and Vision Science is the most impactful journal. Although still in its infancy, myopia management is a topic of emerging interest in the clinical and scientific ophthalmic literature. Impactful authors, institutions, countries, and journals are identified. Optometry is revealed as the leading profession in relation to the publication of myopia management-related articles.


Assuntos
Miopia , Optometria , Bibliometria , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/terapia , Estados Unidos
5.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(8): 573-579, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344117

RESUMO

The number of contact lens wearers is ever-growing in China. In order to promote the safety of wearing contact lenses, the Society of Contact Lens Safety Monitoring & Vision Health of Chinese Health Association has conducted extensive discussions on the diagnosis and treatment of adverse reactions of contact lens wear, including the definition, classification, contact lens-related inducements, and therapeutic principles and methods, on the basis of referencing relevant literature and summarizing clinical practice experience, combined with the opinions of experts from relevant professional groups of the Ophthalmology Branch of the Chinese Medical Association. After repeated letter reviews and revisions, this expert consensus is formed for the reference and use of optometry practitioners and clinicians. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 573-579).


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Oftalmologia , Optometria , China , Consenso , Lentes de Contato/efeitos adversos , Humanos
8.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 168: 33-42, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391820

RESUMO

We present a single case who can change pupil size on command with dilation of pupil diameter of around 0.8 mm, and constriction of around 2.4 mm. Using modern pupillometric and optometric techniques in combination with measuring electrodermal activity, various indirect mechanisms possibly mediating this phenomenon were tested: accommodation, brightness, increases in arousal by increased mental effort. None of these behavioral tests could support an indirect strategy as the mode of action, although it seems plausible that the case could have learned to gain control over the pupillary response by decoupling pupil size changes from accommodation and vergence in the near triad: Even at maximal accommodation, the case voluntarily constricted his pupil without changing vergence and could improve visual acuity by >6 diopters. Using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging we found involvement of brain regions generating and mediating volitional impulses. Changes of the left pupil size were associated with increased activation of parts of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, adjacent premotor areas, and supplementary motor area. It still remains open where these neural signals enter the final pathway, either innervating the pupil's dilator directly, or more indirectly by inhibiting the parasympathetically innervated antagonistic sphincter, and vice versa for constriction. To conclude, so far none of potential - conscious or unconscious - indirect strategies, may it be accommodative or vergence efforts or mental efforts and imaginations, could be observed or inferred to be fully responsible, suggesting direct voluntary control of pupil size in the present case.


Assuntos
Optometria , Pupila , Constrição , Dilatação , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Percepção
10.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(8): 865-866, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460446
11.
Clin Exp Optom ; 104(6): 684-690, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233585

RESUMO

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Examination of the literature can help answer the age-old question of the extent to which rigid contact lenses can be considered an art versus a science. BACKGROUND: This work aims to assemble rigid contact lens-related publication metrics to identify the most impactful papers, authors, institutions, countries and journals. METHODS: A search was undertaken of the Scopus database to identify rigid contact lens-related articles published since this lens type was first described in 1949. The 25 most highly cited papers were determined from the total list of 1,823 papers found. Rank-order lists by count were assembled for the 'top 25' in each of four categories: authors, institutions, countries and journals. A subject-specific rigid contact lens h-index (hRL-index) was derived for each author, institution, country and journal to serve as a measure of impact in the field. A short list of the top constituents in each category were ranked by hRL-index and tabulated. RESULTS: The most highly cited paper (467 citations) is entitled 'Risk factors and prognosis for corneal ectasia after LASIK', by Randleman et al. Karla Zadnik (hRL = 20; 32 papers) and Richard Hill (h = 10; 50 papers) are most impactful and prolific authors, respectively. The Ohio State University (hRL = 24; 96 papers) is the most impactful and prolific institution and the United States (hRL = 51; 680 papers) is the most impactful and prolific country. Optometry and Vision Science (hRL = 30; 233 papers) is the most impactful journal. CONCLUSIONS: Impactful authors, institutions, countries and journals in the field of rigid lenses are identified. Although there is perhaps an artistic element to rigid contact lens fitting, the solid literature base underpinning the field of rigid contact lenses revealed here belies the notion that rigid lenses fitting is more of an art than a science.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Doenças da Córnea , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Optometria , Bibliometria , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(8): 914-921, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294254

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited research on burnout among students and faculty of health professions programs. This study was designed to assess burnout among students and faculty at a college of pharmacy (COP), college of optometry (COO), and school of physician assistant studies (SPAS). METHODS: The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL) was distributed to faculty and students at Marshall B Ketchum University (MBKU) COP, COO, and SPAS. Scores for burnout, compassion satisfaction, and secondary traumatic stress were compared between programs, faculty, and students. RESULTS: Median secondary traumatic stress scores were statistically higher for respondents (students and faculty) in the SPAS (24 [interquartile range (IQR) 17-27]) vs. respondents in the COP (20 [IQR 18-26]) and COO (19 [IQR 16-22]). Faculty had statistically higher median compassion satisfaction scores (41 [IQR 34-44]) vs. students (36 [IQR 32-40]), while students had statistically higher median burnout scale scores compared to faculty (27 [IQR 23-32] vs. 21 [IQR 17-26]). There was no difference in secondary traumatic stress between students and faculty, and there were no differences in compassion satisfaction or burnout between programs. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that students in the COP, COO, and SPAS had higher burnout scores when compared to faculty at the study institution. These results suggest that efforts to address burnout should first focus on students. SPAS students and faculty may require specific efforts to address secondary trauma.


Assuntos
Optometria , Farmácia , Assistentes Médicos , Esgotamento Psicológico , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Universidades
13.
Public Health ; 196: 107-113, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide evidence on the therapeutic prescribing activity by community optometrists in Scotland and to determine its impact on workload in general practice and ophthalmology clinics. STUDY DESIGN: Scottish administrative healthcare data for a 53-month period (November 2013-April 2018) were used to analyse non-medical prescribing practice by optometrists. METHODS: Using interrupted time-series regression (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average), we assessed the impact of optometrist prescribing on ophthalmology outpatient attendances and general practice prescribing for eye disorders. RESULTS: A total of 54,246 items were prescribed by 205 optometrists over the study period. Since the commencement of data recording, optometrist prescribing activity increased steadily from a baseline of zero to 1.2% of all ophthalmic items prescribed. Neither the monthly number of items prescribed nor the size of optometric workforce were associated with a reduction in ophthalmology outpatient appointments over time. CONCLUSIONS: Optometrists increasingly contribute to community ophthalmic prescribing in Scotland, releasing capacity and lessening general practice, but not secondary care workload. There appears to be an underutilisation of optometrists related to the management of dry eye, which represents an opportunity to release further capacity.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Oftalmologia , Optometristas , Optometria , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
14.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(5): 500-511, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973918

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Planning for the effective delivery of eye care, on all levels, depends on an accurate and detailed knowledge of the optometric workforce and an understanding of demographic/behavioral trends to meet future needs of the public. PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to assess the current and future supply of doctors of optometry and to examine in-depth trends related to (1) demographic shifts, (2) sex-based differences, (3) differences in practice behaviors in between self-employed and employed optometrists, and (4) the concept of additional capacity within the profession. METHODS: The 2017 National Optometry Workforce Survey (31 items) was distributed to 4050 optometrists, randomly sampled from a population of 45,033 currently licensed and practicing optometrists listed in the American Optometric Association's Optometry Master Data File. A stratified sampling method was applied to the population of optometrists using primary license state, age, and sex as variables to ensure a representative sample. RESULTS: With a response rate of 29% (1158 responses), the sample ensured a 95% confidence interval with a margin of error of <5%. Key results include finding no significant differences between men and women for hours worked (38.9 vs. 37.5), productivity (patient visits per hour, 2.0 vs. 1.9), or career options/professional growth satisfaction with 65% for both. The data indicate a likely range of additional patient capacity of 2.29 to 2.57 patients per week (5.05 to 5.65 million annually profession-wide). CONCLUSIONS: The optometric workforce for the next decade is projected to grow 0.6 to 0.7% more annually than the U.S. population. The study found additional capacity for the profession more limited than previously suggested. Findings also illustrate an evolving/equitable workforce based on sex, in terms of both productivity and satisfaction. The trend toward employed versus self-employed was marked with 44% reporting they are employed, up from 29% in 2012.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Optometristas/provisão & distribuição , Optometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prática Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
J Optom ; 14(4): 346-354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967018

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study describes the design and application of a range of online clinical vignettes for measuring the impact of Continuing Education and Training (CET) and identifying unwarranted variation in optometric decision-making concerning referrals to secondary care. METHODS: Twenty computerised vignettes were developed to assess clinical and referral management decisions taken in primary care optometry. The online system was specifically designed to present vignettes (ten pre-CET and ten post-CET) that avoided prompting correct answers. The main study group was qualified optometrists (N = 31) who chose any CET options available to United Kingdom optometrists over six months. Participants submitted a record of the CET undertaken, which was compared with an anonymised General Optical Council (GOC) reference sample. The vignettes were also completed by newly-qualified (N = 18) and pre-registration (N = 11) groups. RESULTS: CET had no significant correlation (p = 0.37) with improvement in optometric clinical decision-making and referral practice (qualified group). Selection bias affected this group who had more CET points (p = 0.008) and peer discussion points (p = 0.003) than the GOC reference sample. Results were indicative due to small sample sizes. Newly-qualified practitioners were significantly more likely to refer than the qualified group (p = 0.004). Number of referrals decreased with time since qualification (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Computerised vignettes are a useful tool for comparing referral decisions between groups. Recruiting clinicians for time-consuming vignette studies is challenging. Strategies to reduce unwarranted variation in optometry, including support for newly-qualified optometrists, require further investigation.


Assuntos
Optometristas , Optometria , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reino Unido
17.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(4): 299-304, 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832055

RESUMO

Atropine is a classical drug with a wide use in clinical practice. In ophthalmology, atropine can be used for cycloplegia before optometry, and the treatment of amblyopia, iridocyclitis, malignant glaucoma, etc. In recent years, the "old drugs with new application " research and application of atropine for myopia prevention and control has become a hotspot and the efficacy of atropine has been preliminarily recognized. However, before the widely used in clinical, the safety of atropine draws attention. Researches concerning side effects of atropine were searched. The most common problem is photophobia due to dilated pupils, followed by poor near visual acuity, allergy and inflammation, local irritation. Other side effects include withdraw rebound, dry eyes, elevation of intraocular pressure, system reactions, photic damage and toxicity. Among them, some side effects are theoretical yet, and the long-term effects of some side reactions are not clear. Further research and exploration is needed to serve clinical evidence. At present, investigational usage for myopia prevention and control in clinical trials of atropine can be beneficial. Safety observation and efficacy evaluation are equally important in the course of application. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 299-304).


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Miopia , Optometria , Atropina/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Midriáticos/efeitos adversos , Miopia/tratamento farmacológico , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Soluções Oftálmicas
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concern over the high level of stress experienced by students of the caring professions has led to increased attention being paid to the promotion of their resilience. Most earlier studies have focused on the resilience of medical and nursing students. There has been little exploration of the resilience and associated factors of students of other health-care disciplines. The aim of this study was to gather data from students of pre-registration health-care disciplines to identify the factors that influence their resilience. METHOD: Valid questionnaires were used to assess respondents' resilience, self-efficacy, mindfulness, coping and trait positive and negative affect. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariate and general linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 1320 university students from nursing, medical laboratory science, radiography and optometry were recruited. The results showed that the subjects' resilience scores were lower than those of students in Western countries. We found self-efficacy and denial to be the common predictors for students of all disciplines. CONCLUSION: The resilience of students in the four disciplines was predicted by a combination of predictors. Faculties of universities and clinical mentors should collaborate in building resilience in their health-care students and support them to grow both personally and professionally during their careers.


Assuntos
Optometria , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ciência de Laboratório Médico , Radiografia , Estresse Psicológico
20.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(2): 135-141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793438

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (the Eye Hospital) has found its ways to thrive within the contexts of China to become one of the world-leading institutes in providing ophthalmology and optometry training, education, research, and clinical care at the international standards within 2 decades. It is also the only eye institute in China that possesses 3 national-level research centers (National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Optometry and Visual Science, and National Engineering Technology Research Center for Ophthalmology and Optometry). The hospital is instrumental to the unique medical program in which medical graduates could be both medical doctors and optometrists. Over 10% of the eye doctors in China were trained by the hospital. The SCI-indexed journal Eye and Vision, which is the top eye journal from China, was established by the Eye Hospital in 2015. Its recent endeavor entitled "Eye Valley" provides a one-stop platform for innovation and technology incubation, basic research to clinical trial, from US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) registration to drug production, etc. This article reviews the history of development of the Eye Hospital and elaborates its spirit of "making the impossible possible", which has guided it all the way through from an unknown regional to a renowned top-tier hospital with national and global recognition as a first-class institution.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Optometria , China , Hospitais , Humanos , Universidades
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