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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 855, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646725

RESUMO

The effect of different proportions of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) silage (CPS) and intermittent water supply (IWS) to crossbreed goats' diets on carcass traits and meat quality were evaluated. The IWS caused a reduction (p = 0.03) in the percentage of leg fat in the animals. The rib eye area, carcass weight, and physical-chemical characteristics were not affected (p > 0.05) by the CPS or IWS. The IWS reduced (p = 0.04) the elongase enzyme activity. The CPS inclusion in the diet reduced C22:0 (p = 0.01), some branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA), C20:1 (p = 0.03), c13-C18:1 (p = 0.01) fatty acids. Therefore, in situations of water scarcity, an intermittent water supply of up to 48 h and diets with up to 42% cactus pear silage, can be adopted in goat feedlot, without affecting carcass traits and meat quality.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Silagem , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Cabras , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos , Carne/análise , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 501, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627306

RESUMO

Penghu cactus (Opuntia dillenii [Ker.] Haw) is a cactus plant that commonly grows in Penghu Island, Taiwan, Republic of China (ROC). However, still lack of scientific study on the Opuntia dillenii [Ker.] Haw extract on skin-whitening-associated tyrosinase activity and melanin production. The activities of its extract in melanogenesis were investigated in this article. In this experiment, we used an extract from the Penghu cactus (Opuntia dillenii [Ker.] Haw) to study its tyrosinase inhibition, anti-melanin generation, UV-protection effects and wound healing capacity in B16-F10 melanocytes. Without reducing cell growth greatly or causing cell death, 20 g/L cactus extract effectively inhibited the melanin production of B16-F10 cells, and melanogenesis was induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. The cactus extract could also promote cell proliferation. Cactus extract treatment decreased the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and increased that of transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß). Thus, it could reduce cell melanin production and promote cell growth but by also reducing IGF-1 and VEGF mRNA expression, may reduce wound scarring and prevent tumor proliferation and swelling. Increasing TGF-ß mRNA expression can help increase collagen to remove wrinkles and help in wound healing. Skin patch test results agreed with in vitro results with B16-F10 melanoma cells. The cactus extract significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and reduced melanin production, showing a whitening effect on skin tests. Cactus may be a good natural candidate for inhibiting melanin production and promoting cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Melanoma Experimental , Opuntia , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Melanócitos , Melaninas , RNA Mensageiro , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 178: 107653, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404461

RESUMO

Cactophilic species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster (repleta group) comprise an excellent model group to investigate genomic changes underlying adaptation to extreme climate conditions and host plants. In particular, these species form a tractable system to study the transition from chemically simpler breeding sites (like prickly pears of the genus Opuntia) to chemically more complex hosts (columnar cacti). Here, we report four highly contiguous genome assemblies of three species of the buzzatii cluster. Based on this genomic data and inferred phylogenetic relationships, we identified candidate taxonomically restricted genes (TRGs) likely involved in the evolution of cactophily and cactus host specialization. Functional enrichment analyses of TRGs within the buzzatii cluster identified genes involved in detoxification, water preservation, immune system response, anatomical structure development, and morphogenesis. In contrast, processes that regulate responses to stress, as well as the metabolism of nitrogen compounds, transport, and secretion were found in the set of species that are columnar cacti dwellers. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that those genomic changes brought about key mechanisms underlying the adaptation of the buzzatii cluster species to arid regions in South America.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Opuntia , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 264-272, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In several countries, the cactus plant (Opuntia ficus-indica (L). Mill.) has received renewed attention because of its ecological, socio-economic and environmental role. In this study, prickly pear vinegar was produced employing two types of acetification processes: surface and submerged culture. Both acetification processes were performed at different temperatures (30, 37, 40 °C) by using two different species of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter malorum and Gluconobacter oxydans). Polyphenols and volatile compounds analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively, were considered as the main variables to determine the effect of the acetification process on the quality of the vinegar. RESULTS: As a result, 15 polyphenols and 70 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the vinegar samples produced by both acetification processes. The results showed that the surface acetification method led to an increase in the concentration of phenolic components, which was higher than that in the submerged process. However, a significant increase in volatile compounds predominated by esters and acids was observed when submerged culture acetification was employed, whereas alcohols were predominant in surface culture vinegars. Moreover, multivariate statistical analysis showed that the components that mostly contributed to the differentiation between all vinegar samples were the volatile compounds. CONCLUSION: It has been proved that prickly pear vinegar could be successfully produced at higher temperatures than usual, by employing thermotolerant bacteria, and that the type of acetification method significantly affects the final quality of the vinegar produced. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Opuntia/química , Ácido Acético/análise , Fermentação , Polifenóis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
5.
J Food Sci ; 88(1): 161-174, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524774

RESUMO

Betalains are plant pigments with biological properties and can be used instead of synthetic colorants to confer color and functional properties to foods. The objective of this work was to carry out the chemical characterization of two varieties of prickly pear of Opuntia ficus-indica, one of yellow-orange coloration (Mandarina) and the other of purple coloration (Vigor), through measurements of chemical parameters and color in pulp, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, and betalain content. Considering the thermolability of betalains and their potential applications in food, the thermal stability and activation energy of betacyanins from Vigor variety and betaxanthins from the Mandarina variety were also evaluated and compared with those from beetroot, the main source of betalains. Results for chemical characterization agreed with previous prickly pear reports of other regions, while the thermal degradation kinetics of betalains showed a first-order degradation pattern with respect to time and temperature treatment. Betacyanins from Vigor prickly pear showed similar thermal stability to those from beetroot, which was reflected in similar values of activation energy, while betaxanthins from Mandarina prickly pear showed a higher stability, and therefore a higher activation energy, than those from beetroot. Based on the results, the prickly pear varieties used in this study can be considered as a good source of betalains with potential applications in food and, in addition, the methodology for the evaluation of thermostability can be used to compare the stability of betalains from different sources in a temperature range of 50-90°C. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The varieties of prickly pear used in this study can be considered a good source of red-purple and yellow-orange easily extractable pigments. In addition, we report a methodology that can be used for the evaluation of the thermal stability of these pigments and to compare this stability between different plant sources. Gaining knowledge on betalain thermal stability will make it possible to propose specific applications, for example, in processed foods requiring different pigment stabilities.


Assuntos
Betalaínas , Opuntia , Betalaínas/análise , Betalaínas/química , Frutas/química , Betacianinas/análise , Opuntia/química , Betaxantinas/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verduras
6.
Biotechnol Prog ; 38(6): e3289, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537258

RESUMO

To address climate change, liquid biofuels are an essential alternative to fossil fuels, especially for transportation. The carboxylate platform uses methane-arrested anaerobic digestion (MAAD) to ferment biomass to carboxylic acids, which can be chemically converted to liquid fuels via the carboxylate platform. Most biomass sources require expensive pretreatments to remove lignin; however, prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes have low lignin content and therefore do not require pretreatment. Furthermore, this sugar-rich feedstock is readily digested to high concentrations of carboxylic acids. At various substrate concentrations, batch MAAD of prickly pear cladodes yielded primarily acetic, butyric, and caproic acids. From these batch data, continuum particle distribution modeling (CPDM) simulated four-stage countercurrent digestion. At a non-acid volatile solid (NAVS) concentration of 100 g/Lliq , CPDM predicts a high total acid concentration of 93 g/L and conversion of 0.93 g NAVSdigested /NAVSfed at a volatile solid loading rate of 6 g/(Lliq ·d) and liquid retention time of 35 days. Without chemical pretreatment, co-digestion, or in situ product removal, prickly pear produced high yields, biomass conversion, product concentration, and selectivity compared to previously studied lignocellulosic feedstocks.


Assuntos
Lignina , Opuntia , Fermentação , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Anaerobiose , Metano , Ácidos , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa
7.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557773

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence supporting a role for enhanced macrophage cholesterol efflux in ameliorating atherosclerosis. Opuntia dillenii Haw. polysaccharide (ODP-Ia), the most important functional component obtained from Opuntia dillenii Haw. stem, has anti-atherosclerosis effects. Therefore, we propose that ODP-Ia could promote cholesterol efflux via the PPARγ-LXRα signaling pathway. In this study, THP-1 foam cells derived from macrophages were treated with different concentrations of ODP-Ia, GGPP (antagonist of LXRα) and GW9662 (antagonist of PPARγ), with or without 15 nmol ODP-Ia. The total cholesterol content in the cells was measured. The mRNA of ABCA1, ABCG1, PPARγ, LXRα and their protein levels in the foam cells were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results showed that ODP-Ia plays a role in significantly promoting cholesterol efflux (p < 0.05) by upregulating the expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, PPARγ, PPARα and LXRα. Meanwhile, PPARγ and LXRα antagonists dramatically interfered the cholesterol efflux mediated by ODP-Ia (p < 0.05) and dramatically inhibited the upregulating effect of ODP-Ia on the expression of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 at both protein and mRNA levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ODP-Ia promotes cholesterol efflux in the foam cells through activating the PPARγ-LXRα signaling pathway. This bioactivity suggested that ODP-Ia may be of benefit in treating atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Células Espumosas , Opuntia , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Opuntia/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558525

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and progressive joint dysfunction. Opuntia littoralis (OL) has a high nutritional content and is thought to offer a number of health advantages. We aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic potential of OL extracts against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We designed three OL cladode fractions from the concentrated aqueous extract: hexane, ethyl acetate (EAE), and hydro alcohol (HAE). We investigated the nitric oxide and MDA levels of EAE against lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells; then, we administered EAE to the mice with CIA to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects against RA. HPLC analysis of the OL extracts showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds in EAE. Treatment with EAE (10 and 20 mg/100 g body weight of mice) after 10 days of immunization with collagen showed a significant inhibition of joint inflammation, paw swelling, and edemas. MDA and cytokine levels (IL-1ß, IL-6R, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23) were significantly reduced. EAE effectively ameliorated COX-2, NF-kB, STAT-3, PTEN, and RANKL expression. OL-EAE therapy significantly upregulated the expression of miR-28 and miR-199a. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory actions of OL-EAE altered the cellular localization of the inflammatory mediators, therefore preventing joint inflammation via partial epigenetic and metabolic regulations in experimental mice.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , MicroRNAs , Opuntia , Camundongos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Colágeno
9.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364040

RESUMO

Acacia (AG) and cactus gums (CG) were mixed into wheat flour at the 3% and 6% levels. The flour blends were tested for their pasting, dough development, and extensibility behaviors. The blends were used to make cookies, which were then evaluated for their physical, textural, and sensory qualities. Both types of gum reduced the setback viscosities, water absorption, and farinograph quality numbers while increasing the water retention capacity, dough development time, and extensibility. The thickness and diameter of the cookies decreased in the presence of the cactus gum, while the acacia gum resulted in greater thickness and diameter. The addition of more gums increased the hardness of the cookies while decreasing their fracturability. All the cookie types were acceptable for all the sensory attributes studied. When compared to the control, the panelists preferred the color of the cookies with a higher level of gum. Overall, the presence of gums in the formulation resulted in the development of cookies with improved technological and sensory attributes. Likewise, the cookies with higher levels of gum can deliver 6% more soluble fiber without compromising their overall acceptability.


Assuntos
Acacia , Fabaceae , Opuntia , Farinha , Triticum , Fibras na Dieta , Água
10.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364395

RESUMO

Opuntia ficus-indica biological effects are attributed to several bioactive metabolites. However, these actions could be altered in vivo by biotransformation reactions mainly via gut microbiota. This study assessed gut microbiota effect on the biotransformation of O. ficus-indica metabolites both in vitro and ex vivo. Two-time aliquots (0.5 and 24 h) from the in vitro assay were harvested post incubation of O. ficus-indica methanol extract with microbial consortium, while untreated and treated samples with fecal bacterial culture from the ex vivo assay were prepared. Metabolites were analyzed using UHPLC-QTOF-MS, with flavonoid glycosides completely hydrolyzed in vitro at 24 h being converted to two major metabolites, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid and phloroglucinol, concurrent with an increase in the gallic acid level. In case of the ex vivo assay, detected flavonoid glycosides in untreated sample were completely absent from treated counterpart with few flavonoid aglycones and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid in parallel to an increase in piscidic acid. In both assays, fatty and organic acids were completely hydrolyzed being used as energy units for bacterial growth. Chemometric tools were employed revealing malic and (iso)citric acids as the main discriminating metabolites in vitro showing an increased abundance at 0.5 h, whereas in ex vivo assay, (iso)citric, aconitic and mesaconic acids showed an increase at untreated sample. Piscidic acid was a significant marker for the ex vivo treated sample. DPPH, ORAC and FRAP assays were further employed to determine whether these changes could be associated with changes in antioxidant activity, and all assays showed a decline in antioxidant potential post biotransformation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Opuntia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Glicosídeos , Biotransformação
11.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432601

RESUMO

Indicaxanthin (IX) from Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI) has been shown to exert numerous biological effects both in vitro and in vivo, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuro-modulatory activity in rodent models. Our goal was to investigate the eventual neuro-active role of orally assumed fruits containing high levels of IX at nutritionally-relevant amounts in healthy subjects, exploring cortical excitability and plasticity in the human motor cortex (M1). To this purpose, we applied paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) in basal conditions and followed the consumption of yellow cactus pear fruits containing IX or white cactus pear fruits devoid of IX (placebo). Furthermore, resting state-functional MRI (rs-fMRI) preliminary acquisitions were performed before and after consumption of the same number of yellow fruits. Our data revealed that the consumption of IX-containing fruits could specifically activate intracortical excitatory circuits, differently from the placebo-controlled group. Furthermore, we found that following the ingestion of IX-containing fruits, elevated network activity of glutamatergic intracortical circuits can homeostatically be restored to baseline levels following a-tDCS stimulation. No significant differences were observed through rs-fMRI acquisitions. These outcomes suggest that IX from OFI increases intracortical excitability of M1 and leads to homeostatic cortical plasticity responses.


Assuntos
Excitabilidade Cortical , Córtex Motor , Opuntia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Frutas , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363518

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica juice (OFIJ) on performance and biochemical and physiological responses to a 6 min walking test (6MWT) in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty diabetic patients performed a 6MWT at 07:00 h. During each test session, they were asked to drink 70 mL/day of natural OFIJ or placebo (PLA) for 4 days. Results: the results showed that cardiovascular parameters increased significantly after the 6MWT under both conditions. While, cortisol, HbA1c, cholesterol total (CT), triglycerides (TG), as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were not modified between without and with supplementation. Likewise, no significant variation in performance was observed for PLA and OFIJ (p > 0.05). The cardiovascular parameters (heart rate max (HRmax), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP)), lipid profile (CT, TG, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein HDL), hormonal parameters (insulin and glucagon), HbA1c and lactate ([La]) did not present any significant modification either between PLA or OFIJ (p > 0.05). Muscle-damage markers (creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], cortisol, and liver parameters (i.e., oxidative stress marker, γGT, and total bilirubin) as well as glucose (GLC) were affected by supplementation (p < 0.05) before and after the 6MWT, but this change was significant only for OFIJ (p < 0.05). Conclusion: OFIJ had an antioxidant capacity, improved performance of the 6MWT, and reduced muscle-damage markers and glucose level in type 2 diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Opuntia , Humanos , Teste de Caminhada , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose , Poliésteres/uso terapêutico
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233157

RESUMO

Exposure to endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) may lead to a potent inflammatory cytokine response and a severe impairment of metabolism, causing tissue injury. The protective effect provided by cactus seed oil (CSO), from Opuntia ficus-indica, was evaluated against LPS-induced inflammation, dysregulation of peroxisomal antioxidant, and ß-oxidation activities in the brain and the liver. In both tissues, a short-term LPS exposure increased the proinflammatory interleukine-1ß (Il-1ß), inducible Nitroxide synthase (iNos), and Interleukine-6 (Il-6). In the brain, CSO action reduced only LPS-induced iNos expression, while in the liver, CSO attenuated mainly the hepatic Il-1ß and Il-6. Regarding the peroxisomal antioxidative functions, CSO treatment (as Olive oil (OO) or Colza oil (CO) treatment) induced the hepatic peroxisomal Cat gene. Paradoxically, we showed that CSO, as well as OO or CO, treatment can timely induce catalase activity or prevent its induction by LPS, respectively, in both brain and liver tissues. On the other hand, CSO (as CO) pretreatment prevented the LPS-associated Acox1 gene and activity decreases in the liver. Collectively, CSO showed efficient neuroprotective and hepato-protective effects against LPS, by maintaining the brain peroxisomal antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and by restoring hepatic peroxisomal antioxidant and ß-oxidative capacities.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Opuntia/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232458

RESUMO

The chemical composition, investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and antibacterial activity of lipophilic extractives of three varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica roots from Algeria are reported in this paper for the first time. The results obtained revealed a total of 55 compounds, including fatty acids, sterols, monoglycerides and long chain aliphatic alcohols that were identified and quantified. ß-Sitosterol was found as the major compound of the roots of the three varieties. Furthermore, considerable amounts of essential fatty acids (ω3, ω6, and ω9) such as oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were also identified. The green variety was the richest among the three studied varieties. The antibacterial activity, evaluated with disc diffusion method, revealed that lipophilic extracts were effective mainly against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (19~23 mm). Gram-negative strains mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa gave an inhibition zone of 18 mm, which is considered high antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the tested bacteria revealed interesting values against the majority of bacteria tested: 75-100 µg mL-1 for Bacillus sp., 250-350 µg/mL for the two Staphylococcus strains, 550-600 µg mL-1 for E. coli, and 750-950 µg mL-1 obtained with Pseudomonas sp. This study allows us to conclude that the lipophilic fractions of cactus roots possess interesting phytochemicals such as steroids, some fatty acids and long chain alcohols that acted as antibiotic-like compounds countering pathogenic strains.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Opuntia , Fitosteróis , Álcoois/farmacologia , Argélia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Ácidos Linolênicos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Opuntia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 190: 110430, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191498

RESUMO

Gamma irradiation is a powerful tool for modifying the physicochemical properties of polymers. Gamma radiation has been widely used to carry out reactions such as crosslinking, depolymerization, and graft copolymerization, with a wide variety of synthetic and natural polymers. Although gamma irradiation proved to be useful to modify the chemical properties of several polysaccharides, this method has not been applied to mucilage. However, irradiation could bring beneficial changes to mucilage for its use in different applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the radiochemical transformation of mucilage extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica using gamma radiation. Results obtained from FTIR-ATR, pH and electrical conductivity in aqueous solution showed that decarboxylation of mucilage occurs applying a radiation dose from 2 to 12 kGy. Further, it was observed that thermal stability of mucilage was enhanced with a radiation dose of 2 and 6 kGy. The decarboxylation degree was proportional to the radiation dose in the interval of 0-12 kGy. Further, mucilage was irradiated in the presence of acrylic acid forming mucilage/PAA hydrogels with high swelling capacity. The best swelling capacity (734%) was observed for the hydrogel obtained applying 2 kGy of gamma radiation. Hydrogels prepared with higher radiation doses (4-20 kGy) showed lower swelling capacity and higher thermal stability, which suggest a higher crosslinking degree. The experiments performed in this work were performed using 100 mg of mucilage but gamma irradiation allows a high scalability of the process. The usefulness of gamma irradiation relays on the development of a method for preparing hydrogels by an easy and scalable method.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Opuntia/química , Raios gama , Polissacarídeos , Hidrogéis , Polímeros
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 311, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125577

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of four varieties of cactus pear resistant to carmine cochineal as exclusive roughage for lambs on the biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric parameters of kidneys. Twenty-four castrated male crossbred lambs at eight months of age and an initial body weight of 21.0 ± 0.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and six repetitions. The experimental treatments consisted of four diets containing Miúda cactus pear, IPA-Sertânia cactus pear, IPA-F21 cactus pear, or Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (OEM) cactus pear as the only roughage. Blood samples were collected every two weeks (14 d, 28 d, 42 d, and 56 d) to quantify serum urea and creatinine levels. After 72 days of the introduction of the tested diets, the animals were slaughtered and fragments of the kidneys were collected for histological analysis. The serum urea level was higher in animals fed a diet based on the Miúda variety (49.38 mg dL-1), and the serum creatinine levels were lower in the last two collections (P = 0.009). The most frequent histopathological findings in the kidneys were calcification, congestion, glomerular atrophy, presence of luminal cellular debris, and nephrosis, regardless of the cactus pear variety. The Miúda cactus pear and OEM cactus pear varieties caused more severe damage to the nephron components, while the varieties IPA F-21 and IPA-Sertânia caused less significant injuries. The use of IPA-Sertânia and IPA F-21 cactus pear varieties is suggested in lamb's diets, due to the lower impact on the renal parenchyma. However, there was no expressive impairment of renal function, and there was no difference between the cactus pear varieties tested in this study on the weight gain of the animals, and they can all be used to feed feedlot sheep.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Opuntia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carmim , Creatinina , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Ureia
17.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144562

RESUMO

Pectin and mucilage are polysaccharides from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, which are also known as hydrocolloids, with useful properties in industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, and construction, among others. In the present work, cactus hydrocolloids were hydrolyzed characterized using two techniques: first, thin-layer chromatography, to identify the monosaccharides present in the sample, followed by the phenol-sulfuric acid method to determine the monosaccharide content. The hydrolyzing method allowed us to reduce the processing time to 180 min and, considering the identification and quantification procedures, the proposed methodology is much simpler and more cost-effective compared to other methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry. The analysis of the results revealed that the maximum concentration of monosaccharides was obtained after hydrolyzing for 90 min. Under such conditions, with pectin being the main component contained in the cactus hydrocolloids analyzed here, galacturonic acid was found in the largest quantities.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Hidrólise , Monossacarídeos , Opuntia/química , Pectinas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fenóis , Polissacarídeos/química
18.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080220

RESUMO

Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a cactus that is widely cultivated in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia especially in the Taif region due to its favorable weather for growing, and it has benefits as a food and traditional medicine. The aim of the current study was to chemically characterize Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil from Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, using GC-MS and HPLC analysis and evaluate its antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and anticancer activities. Linolenic acid was the dominating fatty acid in OFI oil, followed by oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid. Total tocopherol (α-, ß-, Ɣ-tocopherol) was found to be 24.02 µg/mL. Campesterol was the main phytosterol, followed by γ- & ß -sitosterol, and Stigmasterol. The phenolic components scored 30.5 mg gallic acid equivalent per ml of oil with 89.2% antioxidant activity (% DPPH radical inhibition) at 200 µL/mL of OFI oil. OFI oil showed an inhibition efficacy against microbial strains especially Saccharomyces cervisiae with a diameter (28.3 ± 0.4), MBC (15 µg/mL) and MIC bacteriostatic (10 µg/mL). While OFI oil had no effect against Aspergillus niger, OFI oil showed weak inhibitory activity against A-2780 (Ovarian carcinoma) cell line, although it showed significant inhibitory activity against PC-3 (Prostate carcinoma) cell line. OFI oil exhibited an antiviral effect (22.67 ± 2.79%) at 300 µg/mL of Oil against herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) virus. The bioactive compounds of OFI oil, as well as its main biological activities, make it a promising candidate for the non-communicable disease management.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Opuntia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
19.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956921

RESUMO

Opuntia stricta is a rich source of phenolic compounds. This species generally has strong antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to analyze the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds isolated from Opuntia stricta, including its radical scavenging activities and preventive action against Cd-induced oxidative stress in rats. To assess the protection of prickly pear juice extract (PPJE) against Cd-induced hepato-nephrotoxicity and testicular damage, male albino rats received PPJE (250 mg kg-1) and/or Cd (1 mg kg-1) by oral administration and injection, respectively, for five consecutive weeks. The preventive action of PPJE was estimated using biochemical markers of kidney and liver tissues, antioxidant status, and histological examinations. In the present study, the lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, antioxidant status, and metallothionein levels were determined in different tissues. The chromatographic analysis indicated that PPJE extract is very rich in phenolic compounds such as verbascoside, catechin hydrate, and oleuropein. Our results showed that PPJE-treated rats had significantly (p < 0.05) decreased Cd levels in liver and kidney tissues. In addition, the administration of PPJE induced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in lipid peroxidation of 30.5, 54.54, and 40.8 in the liver, kidney, and testicle, respectively, and an increase in antioxidant status in these tissues. Additionally, PPJE showed a strong ability to protect renal, hepatic, and testicular architectures against Cd exposure. This study revealed that PPJE protects against the toxic effects of Cd, possibly through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Opuntia/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
20.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(21): 1736-1749, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927821

RESUMO

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (OFI) is a plant with numerous beneficial properties known in traditional medicine. It has been a domesticated plant in Latin America, Africa, Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, India and Australia. Nowadays, the research concentrates on natural compounds to lower costs and the possible side effects of synthetic compounds. The use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values, is encouraged. OFI has shown numerous activities due to its high content of antioxidants, including flavonoids and ascorbate, pigments, carotenoids and betalains, phenolic acids and other phytochemical components, such as biopeptides and soluble fibers. The most important effects of OFI are represented by the activity against acne, arthrosis, dermatosis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, high blood pressure, prostatitis, rheumatism, stomachache, tumor, wart, allergy, wound, colitis and some viral diseases. Moreover, a promising role has been suggested in inflammatory bowel disease, colitis and metabolic syndrome. The most recent studies addressed the role of OFI in preventing and treating COVID-19 disease. In light of the above, this review summarizes the biological activities and health benefits that this plant may exert.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Colite , Opuntia , Masculino , Humanos , Opuntia/química , Opuntia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Colite/tratamento farmacológico
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