Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.270
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21675, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737389

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 led to death of millions of people worldwide. To stave off the spread of the virus, the authorities in the US employed different strategies, including the mask mandate order issued by the states' governors. In the current work, we defined a parameter called average death ratio as the monthly average of the number of daily deaths to the monthly average number of daily cases. We utilized survey data to quantify people's abidance by the mask mandate order. Additionally, we implicitly addressed the extent to which people abide by the mask mandate order, which may depend on some parameters such as population, income, and education level. Using different machine learning classification algorithms, we investigated how the decrease or increase in death ratio for the counties in the US West Coast correlates with the input parameters. The results showed that for the majority of counties, the mask mandate order decreased the death ratio, reflecting the effectiveness of such a preventive measure on the West Coast. Additionally, the changes in the death ratio demonstrated a noticeable correlation with the socio-economic condition of each county. Moreover, the results showed a promising classification accuracy score as high as 90%.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/tendências , California , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Oregon , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Washington
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1608-1612, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793417

RESUMO

Population-based rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and related health care utilization help determine estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and averted illnesses, especially since the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant began circulating in June 2021. Among members aged ≥12 years of a large integrated health care delivery system in Oregon and Washington, incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations were calculated by COVID-19 vaccination status, vaccine product, age, race, and ethnicity. Infection after full vaccination was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test result ≥14 days after completion of an authorized COVID-19 vaccination series.* During the July-September 2021 surveillance period, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred among 4,146 of 137,616 unvaccinated persons (30.1 per 1,000 persons) and 3,009 of 344,848 fully vaccinated persons (8.7 per 1,000). Incidence was higher among unvaccinated persons than among vaccinated persons across all demographic strata. Unvaccinated persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more than twice as likely to receive ED care (18.5%) or to be hospitalized (9.0%) than were vaccinated persons with COVID-19 (8.1% and 3.9%, respectively). The crude mortality rate was also higher among unvaccinated patients (0.43 per 1,000) than in fully vaccinated patients (0.06 per 1,000). These data support CDC recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination, including additional and booster doses, to protect individual persons and communities against COVID-19, including illness and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant (1).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(6): 499-506, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750124

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We undertook a study to assess whether implementing 7 evidence-based strategies to build improvement capacity within smaller primary care practices was associated with changes in performance on clinical quality measures (CQMs) for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A total of 209 practices across Washington, Oregon, and Idaho participated in a pragmatic clinical trial that focused on building quality improvement capacity as measured by a validated questionnaire, the 12-point Quality Improvement Capacity Assessment (QICA). Clinics reported performance on 3 cardiovascular CQMs-appropriate aspirin use, blood pressure (BP) control (<140/90 mm Hg), and smoking screening/cessation counseling-at baseline (2015) and follow-up (2017). Regression analyses with change in CQM as the dependent variable allowed for clustering by practice facilitator and adjusted for baseline CQM performance. RESULTS: Practices improved QICA scores by 1.44 points (95% CI, 1.20-1.68; P <.001) from an average baseline of 6.45. All 3 CQMs also improved: aspirin use by 3.98% (average baseline = 66.8%; 95% CI for change, 1.17%-6.79%; P = .006); BP control by 3.36% (average baseline = 61.5%; 95% CI for change, 1.44%-5.27%; P = .001); and tobacco screening/cessation counseling by 7.49% (average baseline = 73.8%; 95% CI for change, 4.21%-10.77%; P <.001). Each 1-point increase in QICA score was associated with a 1.25% (95% CI, 0.41%-2.09%, P = .003) improvement in BP control; the estimated likelihood of reaching a 70% BP control performance goal was 1.24 times higher (95% CI, 1.09-1.40; P <.001) for each 1-point increase in QICA. CONCLUSION: Improvements in clinic-level performance on BP control may be attributed to implementation of 7 evidence-based strategies to build quality improvement capacity. These strategies were feasible to implement in small practices over 15 months.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Idaho , Oregon , Atenção Primária à Saúde
4.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 109(3): 472-477, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629977

RESUMO

Background: Health science education needs images that represent both the diversity of patients served and the diversity of its students and clinicians. To begin to address this need, a nurse educator and librarian collaborated to launch the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) Educational Use Photo Diversity Repository. This online resource provides educators of health professional students with access to photos of pathophysiological conditions in skin of various colors so their students can increase their awareness of issues related to health and diversity and prepare themselves for more effective clinical work with their future patients. Case Presentation: The OHSU Educational Use Photo Diversity Repository became a university-wide project, leveraging the thoughts of an image advisory board, clinicians, faculty members, administrators, and students. Key considerations were given to the workflows used to submit photos as well as the controlled vocabulary for submitting images. The repository was started with photos already in existence, with future plans to have images taken specifically for the repository. Conclusions: This repository is playing an important role as OHSU and the health sciences in general reflect on the role of systemic racism in health care and clinical education. Negotiating issues of consent, patient health information, and privacy around using different technologies to take photos is a complex and ongoing process. The repository provides opportunities for closely examining these processes and creating improvements that result in more equitable education.


Assuntos
Docentes de Enfermagem , Universidades , Atenção à Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Oregon
5.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(6): 747-757, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Latinos are disproportionately vulnerable to severe COVID-19 due to workplace exposure, multigenerational households, and existing health disparities. Rolling out COVID-19 vaccines among vulnerable Latinos is critical to address disparities. This study explores vaccine perceptions of Latino families to inform culturally centered strategies for vaccine dissemination. METHOD: Semistructured telephone interviews with Latino families (22 mothers and 24 youth, 13-18 years old) explored COVID-19 vaccine perceptions including (1) sources of information, (2) trust of vaccine effectiveness and willingness to get vaccinated, and (3) access to the vaccine distribution. We identified thematic patterns using immersion-crystallization. RESULTS: We found that (1) 41% expressed optimism and willingness to receive the vaccine coupled with concerns about side effects; (2) 45% expressed hesitancy or would refuse vaccination based on mistrust, myths, fear of being used as "guinea pigs," and the perceived role of politics in vaccine development; (3) families "digested" information gathered from social media, the news, and radio through intergenerational communication; and (4) participants called for community-led advocacy and "leading by example" to dispel fear and misinformation. Optimistic participants saw the vaccine as a way to protect their families, allowing youth to return to schools and providing safer conditions for frontline essential workers. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally centered vaccine promotion campaigns may consider the Latino family unit as their target audience by providing information that can be discussed among parents and youth, engaging a range of health providers and advocates that includes traditional practitioners and community health workers, and disseminating information at key venues, such as schools, churches, and supermarkets.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adolescente , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cobaias , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Oregon , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
6.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(10): 280, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561685
7.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(6): 1348-1353, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554378

RESUMO

Over 8100 people living with HIV (PLWH) in Oregon are at risk of acquiring COVID-19, and communities of color are disproportionately impacted by both COVID-19 and HIV. This study identifies factors associated with a positive COVID-19 test among PLWH in Oregon, with the goal of promoting health equity. We probabilistically linked COVID-19 laboratory results with laboratory-confirmed HIV cases. Crude and adjusted risk ratios of having a COVID-19 diagnosis were calculated for each covariate. Almost 6% of the 2390 PLWH tested for COVID-19 had a positive COVID-19 result. PLWH with positive results tended to identify as American Indian/Alaska Native or Hispanic/Latinx. Younger (age < 50) immigrant PLWH were more than twice as likely to have a positive COVID-19 result than did older (age ≥ 50) US-born PLWH. The pandemic has magnified disparities among American Indian/Alaska Native, Latinx, and younger immigrant PLWH. Dismantling institutional racism and redistributing power are strategies that could be considered to help reduce health disparities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Infecções por HIV , Racismo , Teste para COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oregon , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469430

RESUMO

Illegal cannabis cultivation on public lands has emerged as a major threat to wildlife in California and southern Oregon due to the rampant use of pesticides, habitat destruction, and water diversions associated with trespass grow sites. The spatial distribution of cultivation sites, and the factors influencing where they are placed, remain largely unknown due to covert siting practices and limited surveillance funding. We obtained cannabis grow-site locality data from law enforcement agencies and used them to model the potential distribution of cultivation sites in forested regions of California and southern Oregon using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) methods. We mapped the likely distribution of trespass cannabis cultivation sites and identified environmental variables influencing where growers establish their plots to better understand the cumulative impacts of trespass cannabis cultivation on wildlife. We overlaid the resulting grow-site risk maps with habitat distribution maps for three forest species of conservation concern: Pacific fisher (Pekania pennanti), Humboldt marten (Martes caurina humboldtensis), and northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Results indicate that cannabis cultivation is fairly predictably distributed on public lands in low to mid-elevation (~800-1600m) forests and on moderate slopes (~30-60%). Somewhat paradoxically, results also suggest that growers either preferred sites inside of recently disturbed vegetation (especially those burned 8-12 years prior to cultivation) or well outside (>500m) of recent disturbance, perhaps indicating avoidance of open edges. We ground-truthed the model by surveying randomly selected stream courses for cultivation site presence in subsets of the modeling region and found previously undiscovered sites mostly within areas with predicted high likelihood of grow-site occurrence. Moderate to high-likelihood areas of trespass cultivation overlapped with 40 to 48% of modeled habitats of the three sensitive species. For the endangered southern Sierra Nevada fisher population, moderate-high likelihood growing areas overlapped with over 37% of modeled fisher denning habitat and with 100% of annual female fisher home ranges (mean overlap = 48.0% + 27.0 SD; n = 134) in two intensively studied populations on the Sierra National Forest. Locating and reclaiming contaminated cannabis grow sites by removing all environmental contaminants should be a high priority for resource managers.


Assuntos
Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Florestas , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , California , Oregon
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Addiction consult services (ACS) engage hospitalized patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) in care and help meet their goals for substance use treatment. Little is known about how ACS affect mortality for patients with OUD. The objective of this study was to design and validate a model that estimates the impact of ACS care on 12-month mortality among hospitalized patients with OUD. METHODS: We developed a Markov model of referral to an ACS, post-discharge engagement in SUD care, and 12-month drug-related and non-drug related mortality among hospitalized patients with OUD. We populated our model using Oregon Medicaid data and validated it using international modeling standards. RESULTS: There were 6,654 patients with OUD hospitalized from April 2015 through December 2017. There were 114 (1.7%) drug-related deaths and 408 (6.1%) non-drug related deaths at 12 months. Bayesian logistic regression models estimated four percent (4%, 95% CI = 2%, 6%) of patients were referred to an ACS. Of those, 47% (95% CI = 37%, 57%) engaged in post-discharge OUD care, versus 20% not referred to an ACS (95% CI = 16%, 24%). The risk of drug-related death at 12 months among patients in post-discharge OUD care was 3% (95% CI = 0%, 7%) versus 6% not in care (95% CI = 2%, 10%). The risk of non-drug related death was 7% (95% CI = 1%, 13%) among patients in post-discharge OUD treatment, versus 9% not in care (95% CI = 5%, 13%). We validated our model by evaluating its predictive, external, internal, face and cross validity. DISCUSSION: Our novel Markov model reflects trajectories of care and survival for patients hospitalized with OUD. This model can be used to evaluate the impact of other clinical and policy changes to improve patient survival.


Assuntos
Cadeias de Markov , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(8): e1009351, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460813

RESUMO

Decision-making about pandemic mitigation often relies upon simulation modelling. Models of disease transmission through networks of contacts-between individuals or between population centres-are increasingly used for these purposes. Real-world contact networks are rich in structural features that influence infection transmission, such as tightly-knit local communities that are weakly connected to one another. In this paper, we propose a new flow-based edge-betweenness centrality method for detecting bottleneck edges that connect nodes in contact networks. In particular, we utilize convex optimization formulations based on the idea of diffusion with p-norm network flow. Using simulation models of COVID-19 transmission through real network data at both individual and county levels, we demonstrate that targeting bottleneck edges identified by the proposed method reduces the number of infected cases by up to 10% more than state-of-the-art edge-betweenness methods. Furthermore, the proposed method is orders of magnitude faster than existing methods.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Oregon/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais
13.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(4): 470-475, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this brief report were to examine the extent to which early onset of cannabis use by parents and their children, and intergenerational continuity in early-onset cannabis use by parents and children, differ as a function of parent age at birth of first child. METHOD: A total of 795 parent-child dyads (57% male parents and 49% male children) were compiled from three intergenerational studies: Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (OYS-3GS), Rochester Youth Development Study and Rochester Intergenerational Study (RYDS-RIGS), and Seattle Social Development Project-The Intergenerational Project (SSDP-TIP). Parents and children identified as non-Hispanic White (29% and 22%, respectively), Black (55% and 47%), and Hispanic (8% and 11%). Early-onset cannabis use was defined as initiation at or before age 15. Time-varying effect models were fit to examine the research questions. RESULTS: Among parents, earlier initiation of cannabis use was associated with an earlier entry into parenthood. Moreover, parents' later age at first birth was predictive of a lower prevalence of early-onset cannabis use among their children. Last, regarding intergenerational continuity, parental early onset of cannabis use increased the likelihood of child early-onset use, but only among older parents (i.e., later age at first birth). CONCLUSIONS: We provide a nuanced examination of the associations between parental and child early-onset cannabis use as a function of parents' age at first birth and describe a novel approach to incorporating parent's age at first birth into models of intergenerational continuity.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Adolescente , Ordem de Nascimento , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oregon , Pais
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403411

RESUMO

Large-scale excavations conducted by Smithsonian Institution archaeologists and avocational archaeologists during the 1960s and 1970s at three sites in Seaside, Oregon, resulted in the recovery of a diverse range of material culture curated by multiple institutions. One site, known as Palmrose (35CLT47), provides compelling evidence for the presence of one of the earliest examples of a rectangular plank house along the Oregon Coast. Previous research suggests habitation of the Palmrose site occurred between 2340 cal BC to cal AD 640. However, recent research highlights significant chronometric hygiene concerns of previously reported radiocarbon dates for the Seaside area, calling into question broader regional chronologies. This paper presents a revised chronology for the Palmrose site based on 12 new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates of ancient cervid bones. I evaluate these new dates and previously reported radiocarbon dates from the site, applying chronometric hygiene assessments and Bayesian statistics to build a refined chronology for the Palmrose site. Calibration of the 12 AMS radiocarbon dates suggests an initial occupation range from 345-55 cal BC and a terminal occupation range from cal AD 225-340-. Bayesian modeling of the Palmrose sequence suggests initial occupation may have spanned from 195-50 cal BC and the terminal occupation from cal AD 210-255. Modeling suggests the maximum range of occupation may span from 580-55 cal BC to cal AD 210-300 based on the start and end boundary calculations. Bayesian modeling of radiocarbon dates directly associated with the plank house deposits suggests the plank house's occupation may have spanned from 160-1 cal BC to cal AD 170-320. The new radiocarbon dates significantly constrain the Palmrose habitation and alter regional chronologies.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Pesquisa , Calibragem , Geografia , Oregon , Datação Radiométrica
15.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(6): 4073, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241436

RESUMO

Approximately six years of underwater noise data recorded from the Regional Cabled Array network are examined to study long-term trends. The data originate from station HYS14 located 87 km offshore of Newport, OR. The results indicate that the third-octave band level centered at 63 Hz and attributable to shipping activity is reduced in the spring of 2020 by about 1.6 dB relative to the mean of the prior five years, owing to the reduced economic activity initiated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The results are subtle, as the noise reduction is less than the typical seasonal fluctuation associated with warming ocean surface temperatures in the summer that reduces mode excitation support at typical ship source depths, causing a repeated annual level change on the order of 4 dB at shipping frequencies. Seasonality of the noise contribution near 20 Hz from fin whales is also discussed. Corroboration of a COVID-19 effect on shipping noise is offered by an analysis of automatic identification system shipping data and shipping container activity for Puget Sound, over the same six-year period, which shows a reduction in the second quarter of 2020 by ∼19% and ∼17%, respectively, relative to the mean of the prior five years.


Assuntos
Acústica , COVID-19 , Humanos , Oregon , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Navios
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208930

RESUMO

Water is an unpredictable and often overallocated resource in the American West, one that strains policy makers to come up with viable, and politically acceptable policies to mitigate water management concerns. While large federal reclamation projects once dominated western water management and provided ample water for large scale agricultural development as well as the urbanization of the West, water engineering alone is no longer sufficient or, in some cases, a politically acceptable policy option. As demand for water in the West increases with an ever-growing population, climate change is presenting a more challenging and potentially untenable, reality of even longer periods of drought and insufficient water quantity. The complexity of managing water resources under climate change conditions will require multifaceted and publicly acceptable strategies. This paper therefore examines water policy preferences of residents in four western states: Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho. Using a public survey conducted in these states in 2019, we examine preferences pertaining to infrastructural, education, incentives and regulation specifically examining levels of support for varying policies based on climate change and environmental efficacy beliefs as well as geography, demographic variables, and political ideology. Results show support for all water policies surveyed, with the exception of charging higher rates for water during the hottest part of summer. The most preferred water policies pertained to tax incentives. Some variation of support exists based on gender, education, environmental values, efficacy, state residency and belief in anthropogenic climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água , Política Ambiental , Oregon , Política Pública , Washington
18.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 55: 103172, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence supports that cannabinoids reduce self-reported spasticity and neuropathic pain in people with MS (PwMS), and legal access to cannabis for medical and recreational use continues to rise. However, there are limited data regarding patterns of cannabis use and perceived benefits of cannabis among PwMS in the US. This study describes the prevalence of cannabis use, routes of administration, perceived benefit of cannabis for MS, and characteristics associated with cannabis use and perception of benefit among a population of PwMS living in two states where cannabis is legal for both medical and recreational use. METHODS: A survey about treatments used by PwMS, focusing on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was sent to PwMS living in Oregon and Southwest Washington. This survey included questions about current and past cannabis use, route of cannabis administration, and perceived benefits, as well as personal demographics. RESULTS: Of the 1188 returned surveys, 1000 had at least 75% complete survey responses and also completed the questions about current and past cannabis use. Thirty percent (n=303) of respondents reported currently using cannabis, 21% (n=210) used in the past but not currently, and 49% (n=487) had never used cannabis. Among current users, rates of use by smoking, vaping, topicals, tinctures and oils, or edibles were similar (35-46%), and most (59%) reported using multiple routes of administration. Most (64-78%, varying by route) current and past users reported cannabis being very or somewhat beneficial for their MS. The odds of current cannabis use were higher in PwMS who: 1) were younger (OR 2.24 [95% CI 1.39-3.61] for those age 18-40 compared with age >60]; 2) had lower household income (OR 3.94 [95% CI 2.55-6.09] with annual income <$25k compared with those with >$100k); 3) had secondary progressive MS (OR 1.77 [95% CI 1.07-2.92]); and 4) had more than minimal MS disability (OR 2.05 [95% CI 1.03-4.10] for those using a walker compared to those with none/minimal disability). The odds of perceiving cannabis as beneficial for MS were higher in: 1) younger individuals (OR 5.61 [95% CI 2.62-11.98] for those age 18-40 compared with age >60); 2) those with lower household income (OR 3.35 [95% CI 1.65-6.80] with annual income <$25k compared with those with >$100k), 3) those not currently using disease modifying therapies (OR 2.32 [95% CI 1.30-4.13]), and 4) those with the greatest disability (OR 17.96; [95% CI 2.00-161.22]). CONCLUSION: In this survey, 30% of PwMS reported currently using cannabis for their MS, mostly by multiple routes of administration, and most of these people report this being helpful for their MS. People who were younger, had lower household income, had progressive disease, and had more than minimal disability were more likely to use cannabis and report it was beneficial for their MS. People who were not using disease modifying therapies were also more likely to report benefit from cannabis use.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Esclerose Múltipla , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Oregon/epidemiologia , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214027

RESUMO

A previously unrecognized Rickettsia species was isolated in 1976 from a pool of Ixodes pacificus ticks collected in 1967 from Tillamook County, Oregon, USA. The isolate produced low fever and mild scrotal oedema following intraperitoneal injection into male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Subsequent serotyping characterized this isolate as distinct from recognized typhus and spotted fever group Rickettsia species; nonetheless, the isolate remained unevaluated by molecular techniques and was not identified to species level for the subsequent 30 years. Ixodes pacificus is the most frequently identified human-biting tick in the western United States, and as such, formal identification and characterization of this potentially pathogenic Rickettsia species is warranted. Whole-genome sequencing of the Tillamook isolate revealed a genome 1.43 Mbp in size with 32.4 mol% G+C content. Maximum-likelihood phylogeny of core proteins places it in the transitional group of Rickettsia basal to both Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia asembonensis. It is distinct from existing named species, with maximum average nucleotide identity of 95.1% to R. asembonensis and maximum digital DNA-DNA hybridization score similarity to R. felis at 80.1%. The closest similarity at the 16S rRNA gene (97.9%) and sca4 (97.5%/97.6% respectively) is to Candidatus 'Rickettsia senegalensis' and Rickettsia sp. cf9, both isolated from cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). We characterized growth at various temperatures and in multiple cell lines. The Tillamook isolate grows aerobically in Vero E6, RF/6A and DH82 cells, and growth is rapid at 28 °C and 32 °C. Using accepted genomic criteria, we propose the name Rickettsia tillamookensis sp. nov., with the type strain Tillamook 23. Strain Tillamook 23 is available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Rickettsial Isolate Reference Collection (WDCM 1093), Atlanta, GA, USA (CRIRC accession number RTI001T) and the Collection de Souches de l'Unité des Rickettsies (WDCM 875), Marseille, France (CSUR accession number R5043). Using accepted genomic criteria, we propose the name Rickettsia tillamookensis sp. nov., with the type strain Tillamook 23 (=CRIRC RTI001=R5043).


Assuntos
Ixodes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cobaias , Masculino , Oregon , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 91(6): 738-750, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323573

RESUMO

Due to increasing incidence of mental health challenges in college students and its relation to poorer student outcomes (e.g., recruitment, retention, graduation), higher education institutions have turned their attention toward the needs of students experiencing mental health challenges (Collins & Mowbray, 2005). In attempts to ameliorate poorer student outcomes, some states have investigated the impact of mental health on those enrolled in higher education as well as the needs for supports and services for those impacted (e.g., Oregon Higher Education Coordinating Commission [OHECC], Office of Academic Policy and Authorization, 2018). However, despite these initiatives, limited empirical research is available related to the lived experiences of individuals with mental health challenges in higher education settings; including the supports and barriers they may experience while navigating these complex settings. This study begins to address this knowledge gap by using qualitative content analysis to examine and compare key stakeholder lived experiences related to mental health challenges in higher education, including the similarities and differences regarding service and support needs, determinants to usage (support and barriers), and recommendations for future research and improving the continuum of care. Considerations for policy, practice, and future research are provided. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estudantes , Humanos , Oregon , Universidades
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...