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1.
Plant Physiol ; 190(1): 500-515, 2022 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758633

RESUMO

Leaf angle is an important agronomic trait determining maize (Zea mays) planting density and light penetration into the canopy and contributes to the yield gain in modern maize hybrids. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying leaf angle beyond the ZmLG1 (liguleless1) and ZmLG2 (Liguleless2) genes. In this study, we found that the transcription factor (TF) ZmBEH1 (BZR1/BES1 homolog gene 1) is targeted by ZmLG2 and regulates leaf angle formation by influencing sclerenchyma cell layers on the adaxial side. ZmBEH1 interacted with the TF ZmBZR1 (Brassinazole Resistant 1), whose gene expression was also directly activated by ZmLG2. Both ZmBEH1 and ZmBZR1 are bound to the promoter of ZmSCL28 (SCARECROW-LIKE 28), a third TF that influences leaf angle. Our study demonstrates regulatory modules controlling leaf angle and provides gene editing targets for creating optimal maize architecture suitable for dense planting.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays , Organogênese Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Zea mays/genética
2.
Mol Plant ; 15(7): 1098-1119, 2022 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662674

RESUMO

Plants produce a rich diversity of biological forms, and the diversity of leaves is especially notable. Mechanisms of leaf morphogenesis have been studied in the past two decades, with a growing focus on the interactive roles of mechanics in recent years. Growth of plant organs involves feedback by mechanical stress: growth induces stress, and stress affects growth and morphogenesis. Although much attention has been given to potential stress-sensing mechanisms and cellular responses, the mechanical principles guiding morphogenesis have not been well understood. Here we synthesize the overarching roles of mechanics and mechanical stress in multilevel and multiple stages of leaf morphogenesis, encompassing leaf primordium initiation, phyllotaxis and venation patterning, and the establishment of complex mature leaf shapes. Moreover, the roles of mechanics at multiscale levels, from subcellular cytoskeletal molecules to single cells to tissues at the organ scale, are articulated. By highlighting the role of mechanical buckling in the formation of three-dimensional leaf shapes, this review integrates the perspectives of mechanics and biology to provide broader insights into the mechanobiology of leaf morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Organogênese Vegetal , Plantas , Morfogênese , Folhas de Planta , Estresse Mecânico
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(27): e2202669119, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763576

RESUMO

Induction of a pluripotent cell mass, called callus, from detached organs is an initial step in in vitro plant regeneration, during which phytohormone auxin-induced ectopic activation of a root developmental program has been shown to be required for subsequent de novo regeneration of shoots and roots. However, whether other signals are involved in governing callus formation, and thus plant regeneration capability, remains largely unclear. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis calcium (Ca2+) signaling module CALMODULIN IQ-MOTIF CONTAINING PROTEIN (CaM-IQM) interacts with auxin signaling to regulate callus and lateral root formation. We show that disruption of IQMs or CaMs retards auxin-induced callus and lateral root formation by dampening auxin responsiveness, and that CaM-IQM complexes physically interact with the auxin signaling repressors INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE (IAA) proteins in a Ca2+-dependent manner. We further provide evidence that the physical interaction of CaM6 with IAA19 destabilizes the repressive interaction of IAA19 with AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7), and thus regulates auxin-induced callus formation. These findings not only define a critical role of CaM-IQM-mediated Ca2+ signaling in callus and lateral root formation, but also provide insight into the interplay of Ca2+ signaling and auxin actions during plant regeneration and development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Sinalização do Cálcio , Organogênese Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628391

RESUMO

Leaf morphogenesis requires precise regulation of gene expression to achieve organ separation and flat-leaf form. The poplar KNOTTED-like homeobox gene PagKNAT2/6b could change plant architecture, especially leaf shape, in response to drought stress. However, its regulatory mechanism in leaf development remains unclear. In this work, gene expression analyses of PagKNAT2/6b suggested that PagKNAT2/6b was highly expressed during leaf development. Moreover, the leaf shape changes along the adaxial-abaxial, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal axes caused by the mis-expression of PagKNAT2/6b demonstrated that its overexpression (PagKNAT2/6b OE) and SRDX dominant repression (PagKNAT2/6b SRDX) poplars had an impact on the leaf axial development. The crinkle leaf of PagKNAT2/6b OE was consistent with the differential expression gene PagBOP1/2a (BLADE-ON-PETIOLE), which was the critical gene for regulating leaf development. Further study showed that PagBOP1/2a was directly activated by PagKNAT2/6b through a novel cis-acting element "CTCTT". Together, the PagKNAT2/6b-PagBOP1/2a module regulates poplar leaf morphology by affecting axial development, which provides insights aimed at leaf shape modification for further improving the drought tolerance of woody plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Populus , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Organogênese Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563355

RESUMO

Root and tuber crops are of great importance. They not only contribute to feeding the population but also provide raw material for medicine and small-scale industries. The yield of the root and tuber crops is subject to the development of stem/root tubers, which involves the initiation, expansion, and maturation of storage organs. The formation of the storage organ is a highly intricate process, regulated by multiple phytohormones. Gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA), as antagonists, are essential regulators during stem/root tuber development. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the roles of GA and ABA during stem/root tuber development in various tuber crops.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Giberelinas , Produtos Agrícolas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Organogênese Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Tubérculos
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 97, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bougainvillea is a popular ornamental plant with brilliant color and long flowering periods. It is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The primary ornamental part of the plant is its colorful and unusual bracts, rich in the stable pigment betalain. The developmental mechanism of the bracts is not clear, and the pathway of betalain biosynthesis is well characterized in Bougainvillea. RESULTS: At the whole-genome level, we found 23,469 protein-coding genes by assembling the RNA-Seq and Iso-Seq data of floral and leaf tissues. Genome evolution analysis revealed that Bougainvillea is related to spinach; the two diverged approximately 52.7 million years ago (MYA). Transcriptome analysis of floral organs revealed that flower development of Bougainvillea was regulated by the ABCE flower development genes; A-class, B-class, and E-class genes exhibited high expression levels in bracts. Eight key genes of the betalain biosynthetic pathway were identified by homologous alignment, all of which were upregulated concurrently with bract development and betalain accumulation during the bract initiation stage of development. We found 47 genes specifically expressed in stamens, including seven highly expressed genes belonging to the pentose and glucuronate interconversion pathways. BgSEP2b, BgSWEET11, and BgRD22 are hub genes and interacted with many transcription factors and genes in the carpel co-expression network. CONCLUSIONS: We assembled protein-coding genes of Bougainvilea, identified the floral development genes, and constructed the gene co-expression network of petal, stamens, and carpel. Our results provide fundamental information about the mechanism of flower development and pigment accumulation in Bougainvillea, and will facilitate breeding of cultivars with high ornamental value.


Assuntos
Betalaínas/biossíntese , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Nyctaginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nyctaginaceae/genética , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216479

RESUMO

Plant growth and development are closely related to phosphate (Pi) and auxin. However, data regarding auxin response factors (ARFs) and their response to phosphate in maize are limited. Here, we isolated ZmARF4 in maize and dissected its biological function response to Pi stress. Overexpression of ZmARF4 in Arabidopsis confers tolerance of Pi deficiency with better root morphology than wild-type. Overexpressed ZmARF4 can partially restore the absence of lateral roots in mutant arf7 arf19. The ZmARF4 overexpression promoted Pi remobilization and up-regulated AtRNS1, under Pi limitation while it down-regulated the expression of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes AtDFR and AtANS. A continuous detection revealed higher activity of promoter in the Pi-tolerant maize P178 line than in the sensitive 9782 line under low-Pi conditions. Meanwhile, GUS activity was specifically detected in new leaves and the stele of roots in transgenic offspring. ZmARF4 was localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm of the mesophyll protoplast and interacted with ZmILL4 and ZmChc5, which mediate lateral root initiation and defense response, respectively. ZmARF4 overexpression also conferred salinity and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Overall, our findings suggest that ZmARF4, a pleiotropic gene, modulates multiple stress signaling pathways, and thus, could be a candidate gene for engineering plants with multiple stress adaptation.


Assuntos
Fosfatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Organogênese Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais , Zea mays/fisiologia
9.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 63(4): 535-549, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137197

RESUMO

Leaf morphogenetic activity determines its shape diversity. However, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanism in maintaining leaf morphogenetic capacity is still limited. In tomato, gibberellin (GA) negatively regulates leaf complexity by shortening the morphogenetic window. We here report a tomato BRI1-EMS-suppressor 1 transcription factor, SlBES1.8, that promoted the simplification of leaf pattern in a similar manner as GA functions. OE-SlBES1.8 plants exhibited reduced sensibility to exogenous GA3 treatment whereas showed increased sensibility to the application of GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol. In line with the phenotypic observation, the endogenous bioactive GA contents were increased in OE-SlBES1.8 lines, which certainly promoted the degradation of the GA signaling negative regulator, SlDELLA. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis uncovered a set of overlapping genomic targets of SlBES1.8 and GA, and most of them were regulated in the same way. Expression studies showed the repression of SlBES1.8 to the transcriptions of two GA-deactivated genes, SlGA2ox2 and SlGA2ox6, and one GA receptor, SlGID1b-1. Further experiments confirmed the direct regulation of SlBES1.8 to their promoters. On the other hand, SlDELLA physically interacted with SlBES1.8 and further inhibited its transcriptional regulation activity by abolishing SlBES1.8-DNA binding. Conclusively, by mediating GA deactivation and signaling, SlBES1.8 greatly influenced tomato leaf morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Organogênese Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Plant Physiol ; 188(3): 1563-1585, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986267

RESUMO

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root hairs develop as long tubular extensions from the rootward pole of trichoblasts and exert polarized tip growth. The establishment and maintenance of root hair polarity is a complex process involving the local apical production of reactive oxygen species generated by A. thaliana nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein C/ROOT HAIR-DEFECTIVE 2 (AtRBOHC/RHD2). Loss-of-function root hair defective 2 (rhd2) mutants have short root hairs that are unable to elongate by tip growth, and this phenotype is fully complemented by GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP)-RHD2 expressed under the RHD2 promoter. However, the spatiotemporal mechanism of AtRBOHC/RHD2 subcellular redistribution and delivery to the plasma membrane (PM) during root hair initiation and tip growth are still unclear. Here, we used advanced microscopy for detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of vesicular compartments containing GFP-RHD2 and characterization of their movements in developing bulges and growing root hairs. These compartments, identified by an independent molecular marker mCherry-VTI12 as the trans-Golgi network (TGN), deliver GFP-RHD2 to the apical PM domain, the extent of which corresponds with the stage of root hair formation. Movements of TGN/early endosomes, but not late endosomes, were affected in the bulging domains of the rhd2-1 mutant. Finally, we revealed that structural sterols might be involved in the accumulation, docking, and incorporation of TGN compartments containing GFP-RHD2 to the apical PM of root hairs. These results help in clarifying the mechanism of polarized AtRBOHC/RHD2 targeting, maintenance, and recycling at the apical PM domain, coordinated with different developmental stages of root hair initiation and growth.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação , Tricomas/genética
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052451

RESUMO

Sweet potato is a tuberous root crop with strong environmental stress resistance. It is beneficial to study its storage root formation and stress responses to identify sweet potato stress- and storage-root-thickening-related regulators. Here, six conserved miRNAs (miR156g, miR157d, miR158a-3p, miR161.1, miR167d and miR397a) and six novel miRNAs (novel 104, novel 120, novel 140, novel 214, novel 359 and novel 522) were isolated and characterized in sweet potato. Tissue-specific expression patterns suggested that miR156g, miR157d, miR158a-3p, miR167d, novel 359 and novel 522 exhibited high expression in fibrous roots or storage roots and were all upregulated in response to storage-root-related hormones (indole acetic acid, IAA; zeaxanthin, ZT; abscisic acid, ABA; and gibberellin, GAs). The expression of miR156g, miR158a-3p, miR167d, novel 120 and novel 214 was induced or reduced dramatically by salt, dehydration and cold or heat stresses. Moreover, these miRNAs were all upregulated by ABA, a crucial hormone modulator in regulating abiotic stresses. Additionally, the potential targets of the twelve miRNAs were predicted and analyzed. Above all, these results indicated that these miRNAs might play roles in storage root development and/or stress responses in sweet potato as well as provided valuable information for the further investigation of the roles of miRNA in storage root development and stress responses.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Organogênese Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Secas , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Sódio , Transcriptoma
12.
Plant Cell ; 34(1): 228-246, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459922

RESUMO

Bryophytes are nonvascular spore-forming plants. Unlike in flowering plants, the gametophyte (haploid) generation of bryophytes dominates the sporophyte (diploid) generation. A comparison of bryophytes with flowering plants allows us to answer some fundamental questions raised in evolutionary cell and developmental biology. The moss Physcomitrium patens was the first bryophyte with a sequenced genome. Many cell and developmental studies have been conducted in this species using gene targeting by homologous recombination. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has recently emerged as an excellent model system with low genomic redundancy in most of its regulatory pathways. With the development of molecular genetic tools such as efficient genome editing, both P. patens and M. polymorpha have provided many valuable insights. Here, we review these advances with a special focus on polarity formation at the cell and tissue levels. We examine current knowledge regarding the cellular mechanisms of polarized cell elongation and cell division, including symmetric and asymmetric cell division. We also examine the role of polar auxin transport in mosses and liverworts. Finally, we discuss the future of evolutionary cell and developmental biological studies in plants.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Bryopsida/fisiologia , Polaridade Celular , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Marchantia/fisiologia , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico , Bryopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biologia Celular , Divisão Celular , Crescimento Celular , Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Marchantia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organogênese Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 63(1): 104-119, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791413

RESUMO

The synthetic strigolactone (SL) analog, rac-GR24, has been instrumental in studying the role of SLs as well as karrikins because it activates the receptors DWARF14 (D14) and KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) of their signaling pathways, respectively. Treatment with rac-GR24 modifies the root architecture at different levels, such as decreasing the lateral root density (LRD), while promoting root hair elongation or flavonol accumulation. Previously, we have shown that the flavonol biosynthesis is transcriptionally activated in the root by rac-GR24 treatment, but, thus far, the molecular players involved in that response have remained unknown. To get an in-depth insight into the changes that occur after the compound is perceived by the roots, we compared the root transcriptomes of the wild type and the more axillary growth2 (max2) mutant, affected in both SL and karrikin signaling pathways, with and without rac-GR24 treatment. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR, reporter line analysis and mutant phenotyping indicated that the flavonol response and the root hair elongation are controlled by the ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and MYB12 transcription factors, but HY5, in contrast to MYB12, affects the LRD as well. Furthermore, we identified the transcription factors TARGET OF MONOPTEROS 5 (TMO5) and TMO5 LIKE1 as negative and the Mediator complex as positive regulators of the rac-GR24 effect on LRD. Altogether, hereby, we get closer toward understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlay the rac-GR24 responses in the root.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flavonóis/genética , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Plant Physiol ; 188(1): 425-441, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730809

RESUMO

Highly efficient tissue repair is pivotal for surviving damage-associated stress. Plants generate callus upon injury to heal wound sites, yet regulatory mechanisms of tissue repair remain elusive. Here, we identified WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 13 (WOX13) as a key regulator of callus formation and organ adhesion in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). WOX13 belongs to an ancient subclade of the WOX family, and a previous study shows that WOX13 orthologs in the moss Physcomitrium patens (PpWOX13L) are involved in cellular reprogramming at wound sites. We found that the Arabidopsis wox13 mutant is totally defective in establishing organ reconnection upon grafting, suggesting that WOX13 is crucial for tissue repair in seed plants. WOX13 expression rapidly induced upon wounding, which was partly dependent on the activity of an AP2/ERF transcription factor, WOUND-INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION 1 (WIND1). WOX13 in turn directly upregulated WIND2 and WIND3 to further promote cellular reprogramming and organ regeneration. We also found that WOX13 orchestrates the transcriptional induction of cell wall-modifying enzyme genes, such as GLYCOSYL HYDROLASE 9Bs, PECTATE LYASE LIKEs and EXPANSINs. Furthermore, the chemical composition of cell wall monosaccharides was markedly different in the wox13 mutant. These data together suggest that WOX13 modifies cell wall properties, which may facilitate efficient callus formation and organ reconnection. Furthermore, we found that PpWOX13L complements the Arabidopsis wox13 mutant, suggesting that the molecular function of WOX13 is partly conserved between mosses and seed plants. This study provides key insights into the conservation and functional diversification of the WOX gene family during land plant evolution.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Genes Homeobox , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Regeneração/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
15.
Plant Physiol ; 188(1): 220-240, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730814

RESUMO

Stunted growth in saline conditions is a signature phenotype of the Arabidopsis SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE mutants (sos1-5) affected in pathways regulating the salt stress response. One of the mutants isolated, sos4, encodes a kinase that phosphorylates pyridoxal (PL), a B6 vitamer, forming the important coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). Here, we show that sos4-1 and more recently isolated alleles are deficient in phosphorylated B6 vitamers including PLP. This deficit is concomitant with a lowered PL level. Ionomic profiling of plants under standard laboratory conditions (without salt stress) reveals that sos4 mutants are perturbed in mineral nutrient homeostasis, with a hyperaccumulation of transition metal micronutrients particularly in the root, accounting for stress sensitivity. This is coincident with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, as well as enhanced lignification and suberization of the endodermis, although the Casparian strip is intact and functional. Further, micrografting shows that SOS4 activity in the shoot is necessary for proper root development. Growth under very low light alleviates the impairments, including salt sensitivity, suggesting that SOS4 is important for developmental processes under moderate light intensities. Our study provides a basis for the integration of SOS4 derived B6 vitamers into plant health and fitness.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfato de Piridoxal/genética , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética
16.
Plant Physiol ; 188(1): 490-508, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726761

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) represents the most appropriate tool for next-generation breeding methods in woody plants such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). However, in this species, the SE competence is strongly genotype-dependent and the molecular basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. We explored the genetic and epigenetic basis of SE in grapevine by profiling the transcriptome, epigenome, and small RNAome of undifferentiated, embryogenic, and non-embryogenic callus tissues derived from two genotypes differing in competence for SE, Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon. During the successful formation of embryonic callus, we observed the upregulation of epigenetic-related transcripts and short interfering RNAs in association with DNA hypermethylation at transposable elements in both varieties. Nevertheless, the switch to nonembryonic development matched the incomplete reinforcement of transposon silencing, and the evidence of such effect was more apparent in the recalcitrant Cabernet Sauvignon. Transcriptomic differences between the two genotypes were maximized already at early stage of culture where the recalcitrant variety expressed a broad panel of genes related to stress responses and secondary metabolism. Our data provide a different angle on the SE molecular dynamics that can be exploited to leverage SE as a biotechnological tool for fruit crop breeding.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Epigenômica , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/genética , Células Cultivadas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 133, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium ions (Ca2+) are representative signals of plant wound responses. Wounding triggers cell fate transition in detached plant tissues and induces de novo root organogenesis. While the hormonal regulation of root organogenesis has been widely studied, the role of early wound signals including ROS and Ca2+ remains largely unknown. RESULTS: We identified that ROS and Ca2+ are required for de novo root organogenesis, but have different functions in Arabidopsis explants. The inhibition of the ROS and Ca2+ signals delayed root development in detached leaves. Examination of the auxin signaling pathways indicated that ROS and Ca2+ did not affect auxin biosynthesis and transport in explants. Additionally, the expression of key genes related to auxin signals during root organogenesis was not significantly affected by the inhibition of ROS and Ca2+ signals. The addition of auxin partially restored the suppression of root development by the ROS inhibitor; however, auxin supplementation did not affect root organogenesis in Ca2+-depleted explants. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while both ROS and Ca2+ are key molecules, at least in part of the auxin signals acts downstream of ROS signaling, and Ca2+ acts downstream of auxin during de novo root organogenesis in leaf explants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 604, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. being a rich source of phytochemicals, is a promising high altitude medicinal herb of Himalaya. The medicinal potential is attributed to picrosides i.e. iridoid glycosides, which synthesized in organ-specific manner through highly complex pathways. Here, we present a large-scale proteome reference map of P. kurroa, consisting of four morphologically differentiated organs and two developmental stages. RESULTS: We were able to identify 5186 protein accessions (FDR < 1%) providing a deep coverage of protein abundance array, spanning around six orders of magnitude. Most of the identified proteins are associated with metabolic processes, response to abiotic stimuli and cellular processes. Organ specific sub-proteomes highlights organ specialized functions that would offer insights to explore tissue profile for specific protein classes. With reference to P. kurroa development, vegetative phase is enriched with growth related processes, however generative phase harvests more energy in secondary metabolic pathways. Furthermore, stress-responsive proteins, RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and post-translational modifications (PTMs), particularly phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation play an important role in P. kurroa adaptation to alpine environment. The proteins involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites are well represented in P. kurroa proteome. The phytochemical analysis revealed that marker compounds were highly accumulated in rhizome and overall, during the late stage of development. CONCLUSIONS: This report represents first extensive proteomic description of organ and developmental dissected P. kurroa, providing a platform for future studies related to stress tolerance and medical applications.


Assuntos
Organogênese Vegetal , Picrorhiza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Proteoma , Estresse Fisiológico
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768785

RESUMO

The programs associated with embryonic roots (ERs), primary roots (PRs), lateral roots (LRs), and adventitious roots (ARs) play crucial roles in the growth and development of roots in plants. The root functions are involved in diverse processes such as water and nutrient absorption and their utilization, the storage of photosynthetic products, and stress tolerance. Hormones and signaling pathways play regulatory roles during root development. Among these, auxin is the most important hormone regulating root development. The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway has also been shown to play a key role in root developmental programs. In this article, the milestones and influential progress of studying crosstalk between auxin and TOR during the development of ERs, PRs, LRs and ARs, as well as their functional implications in root morphogenesis, development, and architecture, are systematically summarized and discussed.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Fotossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111060, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620427

RESUMO

Phosphate starvation (-Pi)-induced root hair is crucial for enhancing plants' Pi absorption. Proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinase 13 (PERK13) is transcriptionally induced by -Pi and co-expressed with genes associated with root hair growth. However, how PERK13 participates in -Pi-induced root hair growth remains unclear. Here, we found that PERK13 was transcriptionally responsive to Pi, nitrogen, and iron deficiencies. Loss of PERK13 function (perk13) enhanced root hair growth under Pi/nitrogen limitation. Similar phenotype was also observed in transgenic lines overexpressing PERK13 (PERK13ox). Under -Pi, both perk13 and PERK13ox showed prolonged root hair elongation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Deletion analysis showed, in PERK13ox, the extracellular domain was indispensable for PERK13 in -Pi-induced root hair growth. Different transcription profiles were observed under -Pi between perk13 and PERK13ox with the jasmonate zim-domain genes being repressed in perk13 and genes involved in cell wall remodeling being increased in PERK13ox. Taken together, we demonstrated that PERK13 participates in -Pi-induced root hair growth probably via regulating root hair elongation and the generation of ROS. Our study also suggested PERK13 probably being a vital hub coupling the environmental cues and root hair growth, and might play dual roles in -Pi-induced root hair growth via different processes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fosfatos/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Organogênese Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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