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2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 83-97, ene.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155516

RESUMO

Partimos do trabalho em uma instituição de acolhimento para crianças e adolescentes propondo uma escuta orientada pela psicanálise. Considerando as tensões entre instituição e psicanálise, a questão que nos orienta é de que forma a transferência pode contribuir para uma instauração de escuta, que permitirá a elaboração da situação de vulnerabilidade desses sujeitos. Utilizamos como método de pesquisa a revisão bibliográfica associada à psicanálise aplicada e recorremos aos fragmentos de recordação das situações vividas no cotidiano institucional. Concluiu-se que há um lugar de escuta sob transferência a ser considerada na instituição e que o Plano Individual de Atendimento (PIA) necessita ser efetivado sob transferência, para que seja implementado como instrumento que valorize o surgimento das singularidades dos acolhidos.


We started from work at a host institution for children and adolescents, proposing a listening guided by psychoanalysis. Considering the tensions between institution and psychoanalysis, the question that guides us is how the transfer can contribute to establishing a listening that will allow the elaboration of the situation of vulnerability of these subjects. We used as a research method the bibliographic review associated with applied psychoanalysis and we also used fragments of remembrance of the situations experienced in the institutional daily life. It was concluded that there is a place of listening under the transfer to be considered in the institution and that the Individual Assistance Plan needs to be carried out under the transfer in order to be implemented as an instrument that values the emergence of the singularities of the sheltered.


Partimos desde el trabajo en una institución de acogida para niños y adolescentes proponiendo una escucha orientada por el psicoanálisis. Considerando las tensiones entre institución y psicoanálisis, la cuestión que nos orienta es de qué forma la transferencia puede contribuir al establecimiento de un escuchar que permitirá la elaboración de la situación de vulnerabilidad de esos sujetos. Utilizamos como método de investigación la revisión bibliográfica asociada al psicoanálisis aplicado y recurrimos a los fragmentos de recuerdos de las situaciones de la vida cotidiana institucional. Concluimos que hay un lugar de escucha bajo transferencia a ser considerado en la institución y que el Plan Individual de Atención necesita ser efectivado bajo transferencia para que sea implementado como un instrumento que valore el surgimiento de las singularidades de los acogidos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Psicanálise , Atenção , Orfanatos , Vulnerabilidade a Desastres , Albergado , Acolhimento , Criança Acolhida , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
3.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(3): 14-22, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103585

RESUMO

Children who live in orphanages represent a population particularly vulnerable to transmissible diseases. Handwashing interventions have proven efficacy for reducing the rate of transmission of common infectious diseases. Few studies have analyzed the delivery of health interventions for children in orphanages in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap, we conducted an ecological assessment and piloted a handwashing intervention in an orphanage in rural Malawi, focusing on caregiver knowledge and behaviors, child handwashing behaviors, and disease incidence. A secondary study aim was to demonstrate program feasibility for a future randomized controlled trial. Orphanage caregivers participated in a three-module educational intervention on handwashing based on WHO recommendations and workshops on how to teach the curriculum to children. Seventeen orphanage caregivers and 65 children were monitored for handwashing behavior and child disease incidence. Friedman's tests were conducted to compare changes in caregiver knowledge and behaviors. Child handwashing behaviors and surveillance of child disease incidence were measured pre- and post-intervention. There were significant increases in caregiver hand hygiene knowledge. At six months post-intervention, handwashing with soap increased significantly among caregivers (p < 0.001) and was observed in children. The incidence of acute respiratory infections decreased from 30% to 6% post-intervention, resulting in an 80% decrease. The incidence of diarrhea decreased from 9.2% to 6.2% post-intervention, resulting in a 33% decrease. A brief educational intervention may improve handwashing knowledge and behaviors and help to decrease the incidence of common infectious diseases in an orphanage in rural Malawi. In addition, the caregiver uptake of the intervention demonstrated feasibility for future studies.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos , Orfanatos , Criança , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Malaui/epidemiologia
4.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(1): 61-66, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of disinfection measures on the incidence of common diseases in children welfare institute during the epidemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and provide a basis for the daily disinfection management of children welfare institute. METHODS: This study surveyed and analyzed common diseases among children under the age of 14 in one social children welfare institute in Shanxi Province from January to May in 2018-2020 by the year-on-year method. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of respiratory diseases in 2020 was a significantly negative growth compared with 2018 and 2019. There was no obvious pattern of changes in digestive diseases group. CONCLUSION: In view of the above anti-epidemic measures, it indicates that the children gathering institutions should strengthen effective personal protection and public health management to reduce infectious disease among children.


Assuntos
Orfanatos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Proteção da Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Prevalência
5.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883046

RESUMO

Significantly divergent polioviruses (VDPV) derived from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from Sabin strains, like wild polioviruses, are capable of prolonged transmission and neuropathology. This is mainly shown for VDPV type 2. Here we describe a molecular-epidemiological investigation of a case of VDPV type 3 circulation leading to paralytic poliomyelitis in a child in an orphanage, where OPV has not been used. Samples of feces and blood serum from the patient and 52 contacts from the same orphanage were collected twice and investigated. The complete genome sequencing was performed for five polioviruses isolated from the patient and three contact children. The level of divergence of the genomes of the isolates corresponded to approximately 9-10 months of evolution. The presence of 61 common substitutions in all isolates indicated a common intermediate progenitor. The possibility of VDPV3 transmission from the excretor to susceptible recipients (unvaccinated against polio or vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine, IPV) with subsequent circulation in a closed children's group was demonstrated. The study of the blood sera of orphanage residents at least twice vaccinated with IPV revealed the absence of neutralizing antibodies against at least two poliovirus serotypes in almost 20% of children. Therefore, a complete rejection of OPV vaccination can lead to a critical decrease in collective immunity level. The development of new poliovirus vaccines that create mucosal immunity for the adequate replacement of OPV from Sabin strains is necessary.


Assuntos
Poliomielite/virologia , Poliovirus/fisiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Orfanatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poliomielite/sangue , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/transmissão , Poliovirus/genética , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/genética , Vacina Antipólio Oral/imunologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
6.
J Mycol Med ; 30(4): 101013, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811733

RESUMO

We report an outbreak of Trichophyton soudanense causing tinea capitis and corporis in an orphanage in Myanmar. The thirty orphan children were suspected to have anthropophilic tinea but zoonotic tinea could not be excluded as all children were playing with stray dogs. Direct mycological examinations of hair and scalp samples showed filaments but culture assays remained sterile. We revealed T. soudanense as the infectious agent by PCR amplification of extracted fungal DNA and further sequencing of the PCR products. Children were successfully treated by terbinafine and reinfection was prevented by hygiene measures. This case report shed the light on T. soudanense infection on another continent than Africa and on the significant help of PCR identification.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Orfanatos , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha/diagnóstico , Alopecia/diagnóstico , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Alopecia/microbiologia , Animais , Criança , Crianças Órfãs , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
7.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115161, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645554

RESUMO

As the number of Coronavirus Disease (2019) (COVID-19) cases increase globally, countries are taking more aggressive preventive measures against this pandemic. Transmission routes of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) include droplet and contact transmissions. There are also evidence of transmission through aerosol generating procedures (AGP) in specific circumstances and settings. Institutionalized populations without mobility and living in close proximity with unavoidable contact are especially vulnerable to higher risks of COVID-19 infection, such as the elderly in nursing homes, children in orphanages, and inmates in prisons. In these places, higher prevention and control measures are needed. In this study, we proposed prevention and control strategies for these facilities and provided practical guidance for general measures, health management, personal protection measures, and prevention measures in nursing homes, orphanages, and prisons, respectively.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prisões , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Orfanatos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6.1): 48S-52S, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Orphans are at high risk for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and other comorbidities such as malnutrition. We investigated how many orphans suffered from scabies, other NTDs and malnutrition. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive study using medical records of orphans referred to a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from December 2014 to December 2018 was done. Files documenting NTDs were reviewed in detail for age, referral diagnosis, and nutritional status. Nutritional assessment was done using the WHO Standard growth curve, classifying children as stunted (height for age Z score < -2SD or wasted (weight for length Z score < -2SD). RESULTS: Of the 852 orphans referred, 23.1% (196/852) was diagnosed with scabies, amongst which 28.1% (55/196) had multiple episodes. The median age (interquartile range) of the children with scabies was 3 (2-5) months. 85.2% (169/196) of the orphans with scabies were stunted and /or wasted. No other NTDs were reported. All of the scabies cases identified were not documented in the referral letter of the orphanage. CONCLUSIONS: There is ongoing transmission of scabies among children in the orphanage. Amongst orphans with scabies, an alarmingly high percentage was malnourished. Referrals from orphanages may provide an opportunity to detect NTDs and this is being missed.


Assuntos
Crianças Órfãs/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Pesquisa Operacional , Orfanatos/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escabiose/diagnóstico
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447889

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the status of job burnout of nurses for orphans and disabled children in Nanjing and its influencing factors, so as to provide reference for promoting the mental health of nurses for orphans and disabled children. Methods: From February to May, 2017, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 236 nurses working in social welfare institutions for orphans and disabled children in Nanjing, using Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) . It investigated the status of job burnout among nurses of orphans and disabled children, logistic regression analysis was used to explore the effect of occupational stress on the incidence of job burnout of nurses for orphans and disabled children. Results: The results showed that the incidence of job burnout was 67.37% (159/236) , the incidence of job burnout was negatively correlated with behavioral characteristics and family support, the incidence of emotional exhaustion was positively correlated with task control and job monotony (P<0.05) , and negatively correlated with role ambiguity and job satisfaction (P<0.05) . The incidence of depersonalization was negatively correlated with job monotony and peer support (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The nurses of orphans and disabled children have serious job burnout. Occupational stress factors, personality characteristics and relieving factors have influence on the incidence of job burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidado da Criança , Orfanatos , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-05-21. (PAHO/CDE/CE/COVID-19/20-0022).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52167

RESUMO

This technical note presents the main recommendations for collective residential places that provide services to groups of people in vulnerable conditions, such as nursing homes and orphanages, in the areas of drinking water, hand washing, surface cleaning, laundry, ventilation, and management of solid waste. Additionally, recommendations are provided to prepare 0.05% and 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solutions, depending on the needs for cleaning and prevention against SARS-COV-2 and other infectious agents.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Saneamento , Higiene , Resíduos Sólidos , Orfanatos , Casas de Saúde
11.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-05-11. (OPS/CDE/CE/COVID-19/20-0022).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52112

RESUMO

Los ancianatos, orfelinatos y otros lugares residenciales colectivos que prestan servicios a grupos de personas en condiciones de vulnerabilidad son fundamentales para el bienestar de la sociedad. Es muy importante que estos espacios comunitarios cerrados cuenten con condiciones ambientales y de higiene adecuadas para proteger la salud de los cuidadores, visitantes y los residentes (ancianos, niños). Esta nota incluye recomendaciones para proteger la salud durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Instruir a los cuidadores, personal de servicio, residentes, familia y visitantes en las indicaciones de esta ficha técnica.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Orfanatos , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Grupos de Risco , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos
12.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-05-21. (OPAS/BRA/CDE/COVID-19/20-0022).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52305

RESUMO

Os asilos, orfanatos e outros locais de residência coletiva que prestam serviços a grupos de pessoas em condições de vulnerabilidade são fundamentais para o bem-estar da sociedade. É muito importante que esses espaços comunitários fechados tenham condições ambientais e de higiene adequadas para proteger a saúde dos cuidadores, visitantes e residentes (idosos e crianças). Este documento inclui recomendações para proteger a saúde durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Instruir cuidadores, equipe de serviço, residentes, familiares e visitantes com as indicações desta ficha técnica.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Almshouses , SARS-CoV-2 , Higiene , Orfanatos
13.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 20, 2020.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096942

RESUMO

Los ancianatos, orfelinatos y otros lugares residenciales colectivos que prestan servicios a grupos de personas en condiciones de vulnerabilidad son fundamentales para el bienestar de la sociedad. Es muy importante que estos espacios comunitarios cerrados cuenten con condiciones ambientales y de higiene adecuadas para proteger la salud de los cuidadores, visitantes y los residentes (ancianos, niños). Esta nota incluye recomendaciones para proteger la salud durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Instruir a los cuidadores, personal de servicio, residentes, familia y visitantes en las indicaciones de esta ficha técnica.


This technical note presents the main recommendations for collective residential places that provide services to groups of people in vulnerable conditions, such as nursing homes and orphanages, in the areas of drinking water, hand washing, surface cleaning, laundry, ventilation, and management of solid waste. Additionally, recommendations are provided to prepare 0.05% and 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solutions, depending on the needs for cleaning and prevention against SARS-COV-2 and other infectious agents.


Os asilos, orfanatos e outros locais de residência coletiva que prestam serviços a grupos de pessoas em condições de vulnerabilidade são fundamentais para o bem-estar da sociedade. É muito importante que esses espaços comunitários fechados tenham condições ambientais e de higiene adequadas para proteger a saúde dos cuidadores, visitantes e residentes (idosos e crianças). Este documento inclui recomendações para proteger a saúde durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Instruir cuidadores, equipe de serviço, residentes, familiares e visitantes com as indicações desta ficha técnica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Resíduos Sólidos , Saúde Ambiental/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Orfanatos/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração
14.
J Community Psychol ; 48(5): 1583-1602, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227360

RESUMO

This study proposes to examine the phenomenology of home among 46 Israeli adults who had been deemed "at-risk children" and removed from their home by court order in their childhood on the grounds of parental mistreatments, such as abuse and neglect. For a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impact of out-of-home placement, adults of different ages were interviewed. The research findings reflect the close connection between home concept and self-concept, a long-standing internal dialectic between the home that did not exist and the home (as an internal-emotional space) that the adults would have liked to have. Furthermore, our findings reveal what we term the life career of the home concept, that is, the various diachronic phenomenological definitions that adults grant to the home-self in childhood, anchored in the family home, during their time in a residential care setting, their adolescence, and their adulthood. The discussion addresses the unique self-concept and home concept of care leavers.


Assuntos
Orfanatos , Autoimagem , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
15.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2020(169): 25-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324323

RESUMO

The current study investigated the long-term effects of institutionalization on the inhibitory control of young adults raised in orphanages using the color-word Stroop task. We examined whether young adults raised in institutions (IC group; n = 24; M = 22.17 years, SD = 6.7) would demonstrate poorer behavioral performance and atypical neural response to incongruent stimuli compared to their peers raised in biological families (Biological Family Care, BFC group; n = 28; M = 22.25 years, SD = 4.9). Accuracy analysis revealed that all participants were less accurate in the incongruent condition, however, no group differences were found. Reaction time analysis showed that the institutional care (IC) group was overall slower than the BFC. No significant differences in neural response to stimuli incongruence were identified. The absence of group differences in the interference condition can be explained by the low complexity of the Stroop task in the current study. The IC group showed a reduced P3 event-related potential component on both the congruent and incongruent trials. Findings suggest general attention difficulties in this population, rather than inhibitory control deficits.


Assuntos
Atenção , Inibição Psicológica , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Orfanatos , Federação Russa , Teste de Stroop , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2020(169): 117-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324325

RESUMO

A number of studies to this day have examined the role of maternal childhood trauma in parenting styles, mental health, and child attachment patterns; however, there are limited data on parenting of mothers who were raised in institutional care (IC) and involved in the child welfare system. The current review focuses on maternal history of institutionalization and foster care placement and its impact on parenting and child development. Studies show that the history of maternal trauma such as maltreatment, which is often linked to an orphan status, can be transferred to children through maladaptive parenting strategies, evoking a cycle of cross-generational maltreatment. Mothers raised in institutions show an early sexual debut that is often resulting in unplanned pregnancies, and are lacking competence in taking care of their own children. Directions for future research involving mothers with a history of IC are discussed.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Criança , Proteção da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orfanatos
17.
Br J Nurs ; 29(6): 376-377, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207649

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, reflects on new research which illuminates the impact of sensory deprivation in early childhood.


Assuntos
Criança Abandonada/psicologia , Orfanatos/normas , Privação Sensorial , Adolescente , Criança , Criança Abandonada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Romênia/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(5): 370-377, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living in institutionalised settings are at risk of negative health and developmental outcomes, as well as physical and emotional abuse, yet information on their numbers is scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study was to estimate global-level, regional-level, and country-level numbers and percentages of children living in institutional care. METHODS: In this estimation study, we did a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and a comprehensive review of surveys and unpublished literature to construct a dataset on children living in institutional care from 136 countries between 2001 and 2018. We applied a wide range of methods to estimate the number and percentages of children living in institutional care in 191 countries in 2015, the year the Sustainable Development Goals were adopted. We generated 98 sets of estimates for each dataset, with possible combinations of imputation methods for countries with different available data points. Of these 98 sets, we report here five types of global-level estimates: estimates with the highest values, those with the lowest values, those with median values, those with uncertainty levels, and those derived from methods with the smallest root-mean-square errors (RMSE). FINDINGS: Global estimates of children living in institutions in 2015 was highly sensitive to the methods and data used, ranging from 3·18 million to 9·42 million children, with a median estimate of 5·37 million. When selecting the method with the lowest RMSE, the global estimate was 4·21 million, whereas with negative binomial regression with bootstrapping, the global estimate was 7·52 (95% CI 7·48-7·56) million. We also observed large variations in country-level estimates. Compared with other regions, estimates in south Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America had larger variations in values when switching between estimation methods. High-income countries had the highest average prevalence of institutionalisation, whereas low-income countries had the lowest average prevalence. Estimates from the full data with the smallest RMSE method showed that south Asia had the largest estimated number of children living in institutions (1·13 million), followed by Europe and central Asia (1·01 million), east Asia and Pacific (0·78 million), sub-Saharan Africa (0·65 million), Middle East and North Africa (0·30 million), Latin America and the Caribbean (0·23 million), and North America (0·09 million). North America consistently had the lowest estimates among all regions. INTERPRETATION: Worldwide, institutional care places millions of children at elevated risk of negative health and developmental outcomes, highlighting the need for deinstitutionalisation. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the number of children living in institutions. To improve estimates of the size of this population, we need to standardise the definition of institutional care and improve data collection, particularly in countries with large child populations. FUNDING: Lumos Foundation.


Assuntos
Adolescente Institucionalizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança Institucionalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Institucionalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , África do Norte , Ásia , Ásia Central , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , América Latina , Oriente Médio , América do Norte , Orfanatos , Prevalência , Instituições Residenciais
19.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(1): 61-74, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196856

RESUMO

This study aimed to apply Emotional Intelligence Therapy (EIT) in a sample of adolescents in residential care and to examine its impact on three outcomes: suicide risk, perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), and basic psychological needs (BPN). Treatment consisted of 16 group sessions held on a weekly basis to develop the emotional skills of perception, facilitation of thinking, understanding and management. A clinical trial of repeated measures was conducted in which the study variables were evaluated at three time points: between three and four months prior to treatment, pre-treatment and post-treatment. Of the initial 65 participants, only 19 (73.68% were boys; Mage= 13.74) completed the three evaluations. The results showed a significant decrease in suicide risk after EIT, especially regarding levels of hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants also improved their perception of emotional clarity and of competence. No significant changes were noted in any of the variables when on the waiting list. EIT could be a good tool to prevent the emergence of factors that entail suicide risk among adolescents in residential care


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Ideação Suicida , Inteligência Emocional , Psicoterapia/métodos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Orfanatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 641-649, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907309

RESUMO

Early childhood deprivation is associated with higher rates of neurodevelopmental and mental disorders in adulthood. The impact of childhood deprivation on the adult brain and the extent to which structural changes underpin these effects are currently unknown. To investigate these questions, we utilized MRI data collected from young adults who were exposed to severe deprivation in early childhood in the Romanian orphanages of the Ceaușescu era and then, subsequently adopted by UK families; 67 Romanian adoptees (with between 3 and 41 mo of deprivation) were compared with 21 nondeprived UK adoptees. Romanian adoptees had substantially smaller total brain volumes (TBVs) than nondeprived adoptees (8.6% reduction), and TBV was strongly negatively associated with deprivation duration. This effect persisted after covarying for potential environmental and genetic confounds. In whole-brain analyses, deprived adoptees showed lower right inferior frontal surface area and volume but greater right inferior temporal lobe thickness, surface area, and volume than the nondeprived adoptees. Right medial prefrontal volume and surface area were positively associated with deprivation duration. No deprivation-related effects were observed in limbic regions. Global reductions in TBV statistically mediated the observed relationship between institutionalization and both lower intelligence quotient (IQ) and higher levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The deprivation-related increase in right inferior temporal volume seemed to be compensatory, as it was associated with lower levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. We provide compelling evidence that time-limited severe deprivation in the first years of life is related to alterations in adult brain structure, despite extended enrichment in adoptive homes in the intervening years.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Adoção , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Orfanatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Romênia , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
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