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1.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 211: 105903, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933575

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate sex differences in changes of lipid profiles in a cohort of metabolically healthy adults following Orthodox fasting (OF), as well as to assess a potential role of vitamin D status in mediating these variations. 45 individuals (24 premenopausal females, 53.3 %) with mean age 48.3 ± 9.1 years and mean Body Mass Index 28.7 ± 5.8 kg/m2 were prospectively followed for 12 weeks. Anthropometry, dietary and biochemical data regarding serum lipids, and vitamin D status were collected at baseline, 7 weeks after the implementation of OF, and 5 weeks after fasters returned to their standard dietary habits (12 weeks from baseline). According to 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] measurements, participants were divided into two groups: those with concentrations above and below the median of values. Females with 25(OH)D concentrations below the median manifested a non-significant reduction by approximately 15 % in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol during the fasting period, followed by a significant increase 5 weeks after OF cessation (170.7 vs. 197.5 and 99.6 vs. 121.0 mg/dl respectively, p < 0.001). In contrast, males with 25(OH)D levels below the median demonstrated an inverse, non-significant trend of increase in lipid concentrations during the whole study period. Our findings suggest strikingly different inter-gender lipid responses to a dietary model of low-fat, mediated by vitamin D status. Further studies are necessary to reveal the underlying mechanisms and assess the importance of these differences with respect to cardiovascular health and the benefit of vitamin D supplementation strategies.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Jejum , Lipídeos/análise , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Antropometria , Ortodoxia Oriental , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 722-732, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets may help improve measures of body fat, blood cholesterol, glucose metabolism, and inflammation. However, limited evidence suggests that the health effects of reducing animal products may depend on the quality of plant-based foods consumed as caloric replacements. OBJECTIVE: This study examined how temporarily restricting consumption of meat, dairy, and egg (MDE) products for religious purposes influences cardiometabolic health biomarkers and whether any effects of MDE restriction on biomarkers are modified by concurrent shifts in calories, fish, and distinct plant-based foods. DESIGN: This study followed a sample of 99 individuals in the United States with varying degrees of adherence to Orthodox Christian (OC) guidance to abstain from MDE products during Lent, the 48-d period prior to Easter. Dietary composition was estimated from FFQs and 7-d food records; measures of body fat, blood lipids, glucose metabolism, and inflammation were collected prior to and at the end of Lent. RESULTS: Each serving decrease in MDE products was associated with an average -3.7% (95% CI: -5.5%, -2.0%; P < 0.0001) and -3.6% (95% CI: -5.8%, -1.3%; P = 0.003) change in fasting total and LDL blood cholesterol, respectively, which were partly explained by minor weight loss. However, the total/HDL cholesterol ratio did not significantly decrease due to an average -3.2% (95% CI: -5.8%, -0.6%; P = 0.02) change in HDL cholesterol. No associations between MDE restrictions and shifts in measures of body fat, glucose, insulin, or C-reactive protein were observed. The data could not provide evidence that changes in cardiometabolic health biomarkers in relation to MDE restriction were modified by concurrent shifts in calories, fish, or plant-based foods. CONCLUSION: Temporary MDE restrictions practiced by this sample of OCs in the United States during Lent had minimal effects on cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Further research among larger samples of OCs is needed to understand how nutritionally distinct and complex combinations of plant-based foods may modify the health effects of religious fasting from MDE products.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Ortodoxia Oriental , Ovos , Jejum , Carne , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Laticínios , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 68, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243579

RESUMO

Christian Orthodox Church (COC) fasting is characterized by periodic abstinence from animal foods (including dairy products). We found that, despite this, older individuals adhering to COC fasting for decades did not differ in bone mineral density, bone mineral content, or prevalence of osteoporosis at five sites from non-fasting controls. PURPOSE: The present observational study investigated whether adherence to COC fasting, characterized by periodic abstinence from animal foods (including dairy products), affects bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in older individuals. METHODS: Participants were 200 men and women, of whom 100 had been following the fasting rules of the COC for a median of 31 years and 100 were non-fasters, all aged 50 to 78 years. Participants underwent measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the lumbar spine, right hip, left hip, right femoral neck, and left femoral neck; completed a 3-day food intake record and food frequency questionnaire; and provided blood samples for biochemical measurements. RESULTS: Fasters did not differ from non-fasters in demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, BMD, BMC, or prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis at any of the five sites measured (P > 0.05). Fasters had lower daily calcium intake than non-fasters (median 532 vs 659 mg, P = 0.010), daily protein intake (0.67 vs 0.71 g/kg, P = 0.028), and consumption of dairy and soy products (10.3 vs 15.3 servings per week, P < 0.001). Groups did not differ in serum calcium, vitamin D, or urea concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Despite lower calcium intake and lower consumption of dairy and soy products, older individuals adhering to COC fasting did not differ in BMD, BMC, or prevalence of osteoporosis from controls. Thus, periodic abstinence from dairy and, generally, animal products does not seem to compromise bone health in older individuals.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Laticínios , Ortodoxia Oriental/psicologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Jejum , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vitamina D/sangue
4.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634659

RESUMO

Fasting period and fasting status affect the feeding practices and nutritional status of Ethiopian Orthodox mothers. Even if children are exempted from fasting, some mothers do not prepare their food from animal sources as it could contaminate utensils for cooking family foods. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess feeding practices and undernutrition in 6⁻23-months old children whose mothers are Ethiopian Orthodox religion followers during lent fasting and non-fasting periods in rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, and to identify associated factors. A community-based longitudinal study was carried out in Ethiopian Orthodox lent fasting and non-fasting periods. Using a multi-stage systematic random sampling technique, 567 and 522 children aged 6⁻23 months old participated in the fasting and non-fasting assessments, respectively. Statistical analyses were done using logistic regression, an independent sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank (WSRT) and McNemar's tests. The prevalences of stunting, underweight and wasting were 31.6⁻33.7%, 11.7⁻15.7% and 4.4⁻4.8%, respectively. The weight-for-height (WHZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) values for children of fasting mothers were significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared to those of non-fasting mothers. Likewise, the median weight-for-age (WAZ) and diet diversity score (DDS) of children of fasting mothers were also significantly higher in non-fasting than in fasting periods. A small proportion of children (2.3⁻6.7%) met the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) in the study population, but these measures were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the children of non-fasting mothers. Mother's fasting during lactation period of the indexed child was amongst the independent factors common in child stunting, underweight and wasting. Nutritional status and feeding practices of 6⁻23-month-old children are affected by maternal fasting during the fasting period. Therefore, without involvement of religious institutions in the existing nutritional activities, reduction of undernutrition would not be successful and sustainable.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Ortodoxia Oriental , Jejum , Desnutrição/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/etiologia
5.
Nutrition ; 59: 69-76, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Christian Orthodox fasting (COF), a periodical vegetarian subset of the Mediterranean diet, has been proven to exert beneficial effects on human health. Athonian fasting is a pescetarian COF variation, where red meat is strictly restricted throughout the year. Previous studies have examined the COF nutritional synthesis and health effects in general population fasters (GF) and Athonian monks (AM), separately. The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the characteristics and effects of this nutritional advocacy between the two populations. METHODS: The study included 43 male GFs (20-45 y of age) and 57 age-matched male AMs following COF. Dietary intake data were collected in both groups during a restrictive (RD) and a nonrestrictive (NRD) day. Nutritional, cardiometabolic, and anthropometric parameters were compared between the two cohorts. RESULTS: AM presented lower daily total caloric intake for both RD (1362.42 ± 84.52 versus 1575.47 ± 285.96 kcal, P < 0.001) and NRD (1571.55 ± 81.07 versus 2137.80 ± 470.84 kcal, P < 0.001) than GF.They also demonstrated lower body mass index (23.77 ± 3.91 versus 28.92 ± 4.50 kg/m2, P <0.001), body fat mass (14.57 ± 8.98 versus 24.61 ± 11.18 kg, P = 0.001), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance values (0.98 ± 0.72 versus 2.67 ± 2.19 mmol/L, P < .001) than GF. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone concentrations: 116.08 ± 49.74 pg/mL), as a result of profound hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D: 9.27 ± 5.81 ng/mL], was evident in the AM group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study highlight the unique characteristics of Athonian fasting and its value as a health-promoting diet. The effects of limitation of specific vitamins and minerals during fasting warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Vegetariana/métodos , Ortodoxia Oriental , Jejum , Monges , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Adulto Jovem
6.
Georgian Med News ; (271): 76-85, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099706

RESUMO

Research of mental health related factors has become increasingly important on a global scale. The study is intended to uncover the relationship between a depression and a religion (Orthodox Christianity) - case of Tbilisi population. The research objectives are screening and measurement of a depression using Beck Depression Inventory; describing general statistics with correlation to demographics; revealing factors carrying significant connections with depression, distinguishing their role and place in the forming process of depression general indicator; researching religiosity as one of the hypothetical factors; analyzing the results of relationships between depression and religiousness. General Population: 18+ Tbilisi inhabitants; sample size - 500 completed interviews; method of sampling - stratified cluster sampling. Despite hard socio-economic background of Tbilisi population, low depression level was observed. The central trend of depression gravity level is ranging between having no depression and light depression's upper threshold. It is worth to note that the difference between symptoms of psychological nature and depression specific behavioral revelations is not statistically significant - that means no general linkage to depression's psychological or behavioral symptoms. The main result of the research is the discovery of inversely proportional relationship between depression gravity level and religiousness degree.


Assuntos
Ortodoxia Oriental , Saúde Mental , Espiritualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/psicologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Micron ; 100: 1-9, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448830

RESUMO

Present study addresses potential of fungal strains, isolated from deteriorated mural paintings and surrounding air environment of the Church of the Holy Ascension in Veliki Krcimir (Serbia), to precipitate mycogenic minerals, when cultivated on agarized B4 medium. Utilizing culture-based isolation methods, 38 filamentous fungi were obtained in total, 23 from mural paintings and 15 from air, respectively, mainly ascomycetes, while Bjerkandera adusta and Thanatephorus cucumeris were only basidiomycetes. A total of 31 of 38 fungal isolates, more than 80%, were able to form minerals of different morphologies and variable size, determined via SEM-EDS and XRPD, to be either calcite or calcite and weddellite association. Among screened fungi, all Penicillium, Chaetomium and Cladosporium isolates, as well as most of the Aspergillus isolates (8/11) precipitated minerals, whereas cultures of Bionectria, Bjerkandera, and Seimatosporium isolates lacked any observable crystal forms. With the exception of two Alternaria alternata strains, no apparent disparity in potential to precipitate minerals in general, or form particular crystal phase was documented among the air and mural paintings isolates. Possible mechanisms of fungal mineralization of calcite and weddellite are further proposed. In addition to providing experimental evidence for fungal induced precipitation of oxalate and carbonate minerals, presented data suggest that fungal activity could be an important factor in a weathering process affecting cultural heritage exhibited and stored in inadequate conditions. Implementation of B4 plate assay for screening of mineralization potential of the isolated fungi could be used to assess biodegradative risk mycobiota pose to the mural paintings, so appropriate conservation measures may be utilized.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Carbonatos/química , Oxalatos/química , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Ortodoxia Oriental , Minerais/química , Pinturas , Sérvia
8.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 71(6): 743-749, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded. RESULTS: The daily energy intake of 70 AM (age=38.8±9.7 years) was low during both RD and NRD (1265.9±84.5 vs 1660±81 kcal, respectively, P<0.001). Paired samples t-test showed statistically significant difference between daily intakes in RD and NRD: carbohydrates (159.6±21.8 vs 294.3±23.4 g, P<0.0001) and saturated fat (12.7±0.0 vs 16.4±0.0 g, P<0.0001) were lower, whereas protein (89.2±1.3 vs 72.35±1.3 g, P<0.001) was higher during RD. A subsample of 50 monks (age=38.7±10.6 years) formed a study cohort for cardiometabolic and calcium homeostasis assessment. Body weight (74.3±12.9 kg) and body mass index (BMI; 23.8±4.1 kg/m2) were independent of level of physical activity. Optimal profiles for lipid and glucose parameters (total cholesterol: 183.4±41.7 mg/dl, LDL: 120.6±37.6 mg/dl, triglycerides: 72.2±31.3 mg/dl, HDL: 48.5±14.2 mg/dl and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 1.02±0.40) were found. Profound hypovitaminosis D (8.8±6.2 ng/ml), high parathyroid hormone (PTH): 115.5±48.0 pg/ml with normal serum calcium levels (8.9±3.2 mg/dl) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Unaffected by variation in lifestyle factors, the results of this unique study offers clear evidence for the health benefits of the strict Athonian OF through optimal lipid and glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Ortodoxia Oriental , Jejum , Monges , Adulto , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta , Exercício Físico , Grécia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 35(1): 106-126, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28019013

RESUMO

Identity and meaning in life are core developmental assets in emerging adulthood. We analysed how religiosity is related to these intentional strivings in emerging adults enrolled in theological education, by depicting (1) identity strivings and meaning in life accounts in faith narratives (Study 1) and (2) links between personal identity and meaning in life profiles and religious beliefs, behaviours, and subjective experiences (Study 2). Both studies highlighted that a Foreclosed status, with high personal commitment and reduced exploration, was dominant in faith narratives and personal identity profiles. Also, in narratives meaning in life was reflected by a strong focus on presence of meaning through religious insights. Nonetheless, global meaning in life profiles indicated that many emerging adults were searching for a meaning in their lives, while reporting lower levels of presence of meaning. Identity Achievement and High Presence-High Search profiles were linked to the highest levels of subjective, behavioural, and cognitive religiosity. We highlighted the multidimensionality of identity and meaning in life strivings in emerging adults attending theological schools. We pointed out that even in a somewhat foreclosed cultural context (e.g., Romanian Christian Orthodox theological schools), religion represents a dynamic social and ideological context for self-development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious beliefs increase in emerging adults, doubled by decreases in religious behaviours, linked to an adherence to a more personal approach to religion. Religious youth are more committed to their faith and also explore identity and life meaning in relation to their religious strivings. Youth religious exemplars report close links between their religious faith and strivings for meaningful life goals. What does this study add? We investigated Christian Orthodox theology students, for whom religion is a normative dimension of personal and vocational development. A Foreclosed status, with high personal commitment and reduced exploration was dominant in faith narratives and in personal identity profiles. Many emerging adults were searching for a meaning in their lives, while at the same time reporting lower levels of presence of meaning. Identity Achievement and High Presence-High Search profiles were linked to higher levels of subjective, behavioural, and cognitive religiosity.


Assuntos
Ortodoxia Oriental/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Identificação Social , Teologia/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Romênia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Aust Health Rev ; 41(6): 626-631, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27764647

RESUMO

Objective Most major Victorian hospitals include religious identity in routine admission demographic questions. However, approximately 20% of admissions do not have their religious identity recorded. At the Royal Melbourne Hospital this missing 20% was surveyed throughout 2014-15 for two reasons: (1) to enable patient care; and (2) to provide an insight into the significance of religious identity for patients. There is scarce literature on this subject, so the present mixed-methods study, including a qualitative component, will start to bridge the gap. Methods Mixed methods, cross-sectional survey. Results The quantitative component of the study found that religious identity was important for a significant proportion of our diverse population and that, in general, demographics were congruent with Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) census figures. The qualitative component also revealed significant complexity behind religious identity labels, which the census is unable to capture, providing an insight into the requirements of our growing multicultural population. Conclusions This study illustrates that religious identity is important for a majority of Royal Melbourne's culturally diverse inpatients. This data would seem to give the practice of collecting religious identity data on admission new credence, especially as our culturally and linguistically diverse populations increase. In order to understand these nuances and provide appropriate care, skilled spiritual screening and assessment would appear to be not optional, but rather necessary in our increasingly complex healthcare future. What is known about the topic? A search of the literature using related terms (religious, religion, spiritual identity, care) revealed that there is scarce literature on the subject of religious identity and its importance and meaning to patients. What does this paper add? This mixed methods study approaches the issue of the importance of religious identity from the patient perspective via a spiritual screening survey that included a qualitative component, so will begin to bridge a gap in knowledge. What are the implications for practitioners? Improved understanding of the complexity of the spiritual needs of our Victorian multicultural population and commensurate emphasis on the need for individual spiritual screening and assessment.


Assuntos
Admissão do Paciente , Religião , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Catolicismo , Ortodoxia Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente , Protestantismo , Fatores Sexuais , Vitória
11.
Rev. psicoanál. (Madr.) ; (81): 355-374, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169503

RESUMO

La intención de la autora de este artículo es introducir a los lectores de la revista en algunos conceptos e ideas importantes en relación con el universo creativo de la tragedia griega sofoclea, a través de incidir en la importancia de un análisis cuidadoso del texto y del contexto. Considera, además, que puede resultar interesante y útil para los psicoanalistas el conocer el patrón del heroísmo trágico en Sófocles y la importancia que la religión griega juega en sus obras, importancia que se aprecia sobre todo a través del coro trágico, en relación también con el complejo momento de la democracia ateniense. Se pretende enraizar además genealógicamente, como ya hiciera Freud, al psicoanálisis con la tragedia griega con argumentos que los propios helenistas han ofrecido al otorgar una importancia fundamental a los elementos irracionales e inconscientes en los caracteres sofocleos (AU)


In this article, the author introduces the readers to some important concepts and ideas related with the creative universe of the Sophoclean Greek Tragedy. This is done by emphasizing the importance of performing a careful analysis of the original text together with its context. Moreover, the author considers that it can be interesting and useful for psychoanalysts to know Sophocles´ tragic heroism pattern and the relevance that Greek religion plays in his works. This influence can be appreciated especially through his tragic Chorus and, as well, in relation with the complex circumstances of Greek democracy during his time. The author also attempts to root genealogically, like Freud did in his work, psychoanalysis with Greek Tragedy with arguments that Hellenists themselves have offered when they have granted a key role to the irrational and unconscious elements in Sophoclean characters (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Literatura/história , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Ortodoxia Oriental/psicologia , Mundo Grego/história , Complexo de Édipo , Caráter
12.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 40(1): [114-142], jan., 20, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-972969

RESUMO

The theology and bioethics of the OrthodoxChurch are radically different from those ofthe West, which were shaped by the cathedralschools, especially those of Chartres andNotre Dame in the 12th century, as well asthe University of Paris, founded in 1208, allof which led to a radical recasting of Christianthought under the influence of Aristotle. Thisdramatic change was associated inter alia withthe introduction by Dominicus Gundissalinus(1110-1190) of a view of metaphysics shaped byAvicenna (Fidora 2013).


A teologia e bioética dos ortodoxosIgreja são radicalmente diferentes das deo Ocidente, que foram moldadas pela catedralescolas, especialmente aqueles de ChartresNotre Dame no século 12, bem comoda Universidade de Paris, fundada em 1208, todos osdas quais levou a uma reformulação radical de Christianpensou sob a influência de Aristóteles. estemudança dramática foi associado, nomeadamente, coma introdução por Dominicus Gundissalinus(1110-1190) de uma visão da metafísica moldada porAvicena (Fidora 2013).


Assuntos
Humanos , Bioética , Teologia , Cristianismo , Ocidente , Ortodoxia Oriental , Casamento , Divórcio
13.
Isis ; 107(3): 542-66, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707856

RESUMO

This essay offers an overview of the history of the relations between science and Eastern Christianity based on Greek-language sources. The civilizations concerned are the Byzantine Empire, the Christian Orthodox communities of the Ottoman Empire, and modern Greece, as a case study of a national state. Beginning with the Greek Church Fathers, the essay investigates the ideas of theologians and scholars on nature. Neoplatonism, the theological debates of Iconoclasm and Hesychasm, the proposed union of the Eastern and Western Churches, and the complex relations with the Hellenic past all had notable impacts on the conception of science held by the Byzantine Orthodox. From the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, the Christian Orthodox world did not actively participate in the making of the new science that was developing in modern Europe. It had to deal with the assimilation of scientific ideas produced by Western Christianity, and its main concern was the "legitimacy" of knowledge that did not originate directly from its own spiritual tradition. Finally, with regard to the Greek state, beyond the specific points of contact between the sciences and Orthodox Christianity­pertaining, for example, to materialism, evolution, and the calendar­the essay presents the constant background engagement with religion visible in most public pronouncements of scientists and intellectuals.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Ortodoxia Oriental , Religião e Medicina , Humanos , Ciência
14.
Hum Reprod ; 30(9): 2202-14, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26040476

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does the interdiction of sexual intercourse during Nativity and Lent fasting periods have any effect on when babies are conceived in Romania, in the 20th century? SUMMARY ANSWER: Based on date of birth records from the 20th century, Lent had a greater effect than the Nativity fast on conception within the Eastern Orthodox (ORTHD) population. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Seasonality of births (and therefore of conception) is affected by geographical factors (latitude, weather, day-length). Other demographic, economic and socio-cultural characteristics (education, ethnicity, religion) have been proved to have an influence on conception. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The analyzed data consists of registered daily birth records for a long time series (35 429 points = 365 (days/year) × 97 years + 24 leap years), with 24 947 061 births in Romania over the period 1905-2001. The data were obtained from the 1992 and 2002 censuses. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Based on the reported birth date of each person, the estimated date of conception is computed using a standard gestation period of 280 days. The population was grouped into two categories (ORTHD and Non-Orthodox (NORTHD)) based on religious affiliation. Data analysis is performed in the same manner for both groups. Preliminary data analyses regarding seasonal variations in conception are considered first. Econometric models are applied and tested. The dependent variable in these models is the calculated date of conception, while the independent variables are: (i) religious affiliation; (ii) dates of Nativity and Lent fasts (the latter varies slightly from year to year); (iii) rural versus urban residence; (iv) length of day-light; (v) non-working days and (vi) trend. The models are tested for validity using analysis of variance while the regression coefficients are tested by the Student t-test. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: All models are statistically valid (P < 0.01); all regression coefficients for the ORTHD group are valid (P < 0.01, except for rurality between 1990 and 2001, with P < 0.05). The data analysis indicates smaller standard error bars on the parameters for the ORTHD group as compared with the NORTHD group. The conclusion is that religious affiliation is an important factor in date of conception. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The data do not refer to all births during the analyzed period, but only to those persons still alive at the 1992 and 2002 censuses. The date of conception was estimated assuming 280 days for gestation, which is a medically accepted time interval but will undoubtedly vary. However, the primary independent variables (Lent and Nativity fast at 48 and 40 days, respectively) are long enough to overlap the uncertainty in the conception date following the sexual intercourse event. We also must assume that the religious affiliation of the parents is well defined, based on the information given by their offspring at census time, and is the same for both parents. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings are consistent with other studies, which show differences between religious groups on date of conception, although we reach different conclusions regarding the influence of weather on fertility in Romania. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: B.V.I., M.A. and G.R. have no competing interests to declare. There is no connection to the current paper, but C.H. declares that (i) he is currently conducting a research titled 'Chronic Diseases' Direct Costs within the Romanian Health System' funded by Local American Working Group; (ii) his wife is employed to a Romanian company (A&D Pharma) that does business in the pharmaceutical sector. This paper is a part of G.R. and M.A. scientific activities in COST Action TD1210. This work by C.H. was co-financed by the European Social Fund through project number POSDRU/1.5/S/59184.


Assuntos
Ortodoxia Oriental , Fertilização , Periodicidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Romênia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26076786

RESUMO

It is obvious that contemporary man is suffering. His sufferings often seem pointless and causeless. Modern science more and more comes to reveal and acknowledge that human sufferings have a psychosomatic basis. In some of the cases, these sufferings are noogenic neuroses. They do not originate from the psychological dimension but from the noological or spiritual one of human existence. The pointlessness of life is the basic cause for the noogenic neurosis and depression from which the humankind suffers. e. Hence, the many escapes from such experienced reality into various addictions. Possible way towards healing is to retrieve one's meaning of life, to strengthen his will to meaning. Religion has always been - and still remains - a powerful and appealing purpose that fulfills the life and being of the believers. This article demonstrates the systematization of the spiritual development of a person presented in a table of the harmony of the ascetic-hesychastic struggle, according which everyone can find his place on the ladder of spiritual development, become aware, and reconciliate the mode of personal struggle according to his spiritual development. The reconciliation of the primary function of the mind with its secondary function - the intellect, is of an essential importance. Contemporary religious psychology do not regard man merely as a biological or a psychological being. The subject matter of research is the human being as a whole, as a spiritual person that is characterized by autonomy, regarding the biological and psychological processes. The importance of understanding the spiritual level of human existence enables holistic approach and experiencing of the human personality as a whole. Furthermore, it offers new perspectives of psychotherapeutic action not only within the range of the classical psychotherapeutic modalities but also within the range of the applied Christian Psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Depressão/terapia , Ortodoxia Oriental , Transtornos Neuróticos/terapia , Psicoterapia , Religião e Psicologia , Terapias Espirituais , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
16.
Cult Health Sex ; 17(1): 17-33, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25033817

RESUMO

This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. of the surveyed male migrants, 351 (88%) reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants' and regular partners' intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants' intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and the perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV-prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Relações Interpessoais , Parceiros Sexuais , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ortodoxia Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Masculino , Moscou , Tadjiquistão/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Turk Neurosurg ; 24(3): 297-301, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24848162
18.
J Relig Health ; 53(5): 1498-513, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23716083

RESUMO

The experimenters explored how religious fundamentalism related with religious orientation, irrational thinking, and immature defense mechanisms. They also explored the possible moderational role of the Big 5 personality factors. The participants were predominantly Greek Orthodox College students from a Cypriot University. The experimenters employed a cross-sectional design and required participants to complete a series of self-report measures. Religious fundamentalism significantly predicted irrational thinking. Intrinsic and personal extrinsic religious orientations significantly predicted religious fundamentalism. The results provide support for the idea that the more dogmatically one holds their religious beliefs, the more likely they are to think irrationally.


Assuntos
Ortodoxia Oriental/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
19.
Euro Surveill ; 18(36): pii=20580, 2013 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24079377

RESUMO

Despite vaccination coverage over 95%, a measles outbreak started in May 2013 in the Netherlands. As of 28 August, there were 1,226 reported cases, including 82 hospitalisations. It is anticipated that the outbreak will continue. Most cases were orthodox Protestants (n=1,087/1,186; 91.7%) and unvaccinated (n=1,174/1,217; 96.5%). A unique outbreak control intervention was implemented: a personal invitation for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was sent for all children aged 6­14 months living in municipalities with MMR vaccination coverage below 90%.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Protestantismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ortodoxia Oriental , Feminino , Genótipo , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Public Health ; 103(11): 1931-4, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24028250

RESUMO

Recently in Russia, abortion rights have been attacked. For decades, Russian women could have an elective abortion up to week 12 of pregnancy; between 12 and 22 weeks, medical or social grounds were required for an abortion. In mid 2011, a group of Parliamentarians teamed up with Russian Orthodox Church activists and announced their desire to ban abortions, and the new version of the health law with restricting amendments was introduced: a mandatory waiting period, physicians' conscientious objection, and limiting the social indications for late-term abortion. Evidence indicates that restricting legislative changes based on "traditional" values could significantly limit women's reproductive choices (e.g., access to abortion), a setback to women's rights to exert control over their bodies and their lives.


Assuntos
Ortodoxia Oriental , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Gravidez , Federação Russa
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