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1.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 403, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954014

RESUMO

2-Keto-3-deoxy-galactonate (KDGal) serves as a pivotal metabolic intermediate within both the fungal D-galacturonate pathway, which is integral to pectin catabolism, and the bacterial DeLey-Doudoroff pathway for D-galactose catabolism. The presence of KDGal enantiomers, L-KDGal and D-KDGal, varies across these pathways. Fungal pathways generate L-KDGal through the reduction and dehydration of D-galacturonate, whereas bacterial pathways produce D-KDGal through the oxidation and dehydration of D-galactose. Two distinct catabolic routes further metabolize KDGal: a nonphosphorolytic pathway that employs aldolase and a phosphorolytic pathway involving kinase and aldolase. Recent findings have revealed that L-KDGal, identified in the bacterial catabolism of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose, a major component of red seaweeds, is also catabolized by Escherichia coli, which is traditionally known to be catabolized by specific fungal species, such as Trichoderma reesei. Furthermore, the potential industrial applications of KDGal and its derivatives, such as pyruvate and D- and L-glyceraldehyde, are underscored by their significant biological functions. This review comprehensively outlines the catabolism of L-KDGal and D-KDGal across different biological systems, highlights stereospecific methods for discriminating between enantiomers, and explores industrial application prospects for producing KDGal enantiomers. KEY POINTS: • KDGal is a metabolic intermediate in fungal and bacterial pathways • Stereospecific enzymes can be used to identify the enantiomeric nature of KDGal • KDGal can be used to induce pectin catabolism or produce functional materials.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Açúcares Ácidos , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Galactose/análogos & derivados , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungos/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Estereoisomerismo
2.
Org Lett ; 26(24): 5215-5219, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861677

RESUMO

Bacterial nonulosonic acids (NulOs), which feature a nine-carbon backbone, are associated with the biological functions of bacterial glycans. Here, an orthogonally protected 5-amino-7-azido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-d-glycero-l-gluco-2-nonulosonic acid related to Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 NulO was synthesized from N-acetylneuraminic acid with sequential performance of C5,7 azidation, C9 deoxygenation, C4 epimerization, and N5,7 differentiation. The C5 azido group in the obtained 5,7-diazido-NulO can be regioselectively reduced to differentiate the two amino groups.


Assuntos
Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico , Açúcares Ácidos , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/química , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Açúcares Ácidos/química , Açúcares Ácidos/síntese química , Fusobacterium nucleatum/química , Azidas/química
3.
J Basic Microbiol ; 64(7): e2400132, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751099

RESUMO

In the vitamin C microbial fermentation system, oxidative stress limits the growth and 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG, the precursor of vitamin C) production of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare. Most Bacillus strains, as helper strains, have been reported to release key biomolecules to reduce oxidative stress and promote the growth and 2-KLG production of K. vulgare. To understand the specific mechanism by which the helper strain and K. vulgare interact to reduce oxidative stress, a novel helper strain, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa A8, was used to construct a consortium in the co-culture fermentation system. Based on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, R. mucilaginosa A8 could reduce oxidative stress and increase 2-KLG production in K. vulgare by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene-expression levels. In addition, the carotenoids of R. mucilaginosa promoted 2-KLG production in K. vulgare. Coculture of R. mucilaginosa with K. vulgare increased the yield of carotenoids. This study suggested that helper strains with the ability to reduce oxidative stress in K. vulgare would likely act as potential helper strains for facilitating 2-KLG biosynthesis. This work could provide a theoretical basis for the search for potential helper strains for vitamin C microbial fermentation and for the construction of synthetic microbial communities to produce valuable products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fermentação , Estresse Oxidativo , Rhodotorula , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/genética , Rhodotorula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Açúcares Ácidos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10995-11001, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701424

RESUMO

The titer of the microbial fermentation products can be increased by enzyme engineering. l-Sorbosone dehydrogenase (SNDH) is a key enzyme in the production of 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG), which is the precursor of vitamin C. Enhancing the activity of SNDH may have a positive impact on 2-KLG production. In this study, a computer-aided semirational design of SNDH was conducted. Based on the analysis of SNDH's substrate pocket and multiple sequence alignment, three modification strategies were established: (1) expanding the entrance of SNDH's substrate pocket, (2) engineering the residues within the substrate pocket, and (3) enhancing the electron transfer of SNDH. Finally, mutants S453A, L460V, and E471D were obtained, whose specific activity was increased by 20, 100, and 10%, respectively. In addition, the ability of Gluconobacter oxidans WSH-004 to synthesize 2-KLG was improved by eliminating H2O2. This study provides mutant enzymes and metabolic engineering strategies for the microbial-fermentation-based production of 2-KLG.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Gluconobacter/enzimologia , Gluconobacter/genética , Gluconobacter/metabolismo , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo , Açúcares Ácidos/química , Fermentação , Engenharia de Proteínas , Engenharia Metabólica , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/metabolismo , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/genética , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato/química , Cinética
5.
Lakartidningen ; 1212024 03 12.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470274

RESUMO

More than 2.8 billion individuals worldwide suffer from untreated caries. Over ninety-five percent of all 50-year-olds in Sweden have caries experience. Caries is the most common cause of dental restorations and tooth loss. Tooth loss is associated with cardiovascular diseases, dementia, and death. Periapical tooth infections caused by caries can spread and cause severe infection, however rarely with lethal outcome. Sugars are a common risk factor for caries and other noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity.  Caries is a consequence of sugar-provoked acid production and dysbiosis in the tooth biofilm (dental plaque). There are several conditions which may increase the risk for dental caries, such as different medical conditions and medications which may cause dry mouth. Treatment costs for caries are high.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cárie Dentária , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Perda de Dente , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Açúcares Ácidos , Nível de Saúde
6.
J Biotechnol ; 387: 12-22, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522773

RESUMO

5-hydroxyvaleric acid (5-HV) is a versatile C5 intermediate of bio-based high-value chemical synthesis pathways. However, 5-HV production faces a few shortcomings involving the supply of cofactors, especially α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG). Herein, we established a two-cell biotransformation system by introducing L-glutamate oxidase (GOX) to regenerate α-KG. Additionally, the catalase KatE was adapted to inhibit α-KG degradation by the H2O2 produced during GOX reaction. We searched for the best combination of genes and vectors and optimized the biotransformation conditions to maximize GOX effectiveness. Under the optimized conditions, 5-HV pathway with GOX showed 1.60-fold higher productivity than that of without GOX, showing 11.3 g/L titer. Further, the two-cell system with GOX and KatE was expanded to produce poly(5-hydroxyvaleric acid) (P(5HV)), and it reached at 412 mg/L of P(5HV) production and 20.5% PHA contents when using the biotransformation supernatant. Thus, the two-cell biotransformation system with GOX can potentially give the practical and economic alternative of 5-HV production using bio-based methods. We also propose direct utilization of 5-HV from bioconversion for P(5HV) production.


Assuntos
Aminoácido Oxirredutases , Biotransformação , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos , Açúcares Ácidos , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/metabolismo , L-Aminoácido Oxidase/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Valeratos/metabolismo
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(21): 2930-2933, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372418

RESUMO

Pseudaminic acid (Pse) on pathogenic bacteria exopolysaccharide engages with the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectin (Siglec)-10 receptor on macrophages via the critical 7-N-acetyl group. This binding stimulates macrophages to secrete interleukin 10 that suppresses phagocytosis against bacteria, but can be reverted by blocking Pse-Siglec-10 interaction with Pse-binding protein as a promising therapy.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10 , Macrófagos , Açúcares Ácidos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo
8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(15): e202318523, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224120

RESUMO

Cell surface sugar 5,7-diacetyl pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac) is a bacterial analogue of the ubiquitous sialic acid, Neu5Ac, and contributes to the virulence of a number of multidrug resistant bacteria, including ESKAPE pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Despite its discovery in the surface glycans of bacteria over thirty years ago, to date no glycosyltransferase enzymes (GTs) dedicated to the synthesis of a pseudaminic acid glycosidic linkage have been unequivocally characterised in vitro. Herein we demonstrate that A. baumannii KpsS1 is a dedicated pseudaminyltransferase enzyme (PseT) which constructs a Pse5Ac7Ac-α(2,6)-Glcp linkage, and proceeds with retention of anomeric configuration. We utilise this PseT activity in tandem with the biosynthetic enzymes required for CMP-Pse5Ac7Ac assembly, in a two-pot, seven enzyme synthesis of an α-linked Pse5Ac7Ac glycoside. Due to its unique activity and protein sequence, we also assign KpsS1 as the prototypical member of a previously unreported GT family (GT118).


Assuntos
Glicosiltransferases , Ácidos Siálicos , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Açúcares Ácidos , Bactérias/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(3): 1419-1428, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206567

RESUMO

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential vitamin that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be acquired through our diet. At present, the precursor of vitamin C, 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KGA), is typically produced via a two-step fermentation process utilizing three bacterial strains. The second step of this traditional two-step fermentation method involves mixed-culture fermentation employing 2-KGA-producing bacteria (Ketogulonicigenium vulgare) along with associated bacteria. Because K. vulgare has defects in various metabolic pathways, associated bacteria are needed to provide key substances to promote K. vulgare growth and 2-KGA production. Unlike previous reviews where the main focus was the interaction between associated bacteria and K. vulgare, this Review presents the latest scientific research from the perspective of the metabolic pathways associated with 2-KGA production by K. vulgare and the mechanism underlying the interaction between K. vulgare and the associated bacteria. In addition, the dehydrogenases that are responsible for 2-KGA production, the 2-KGA synthesis pathway, strategies for simplifying 2-KGA production via a one-step fermentation route, and, finally, future prospects and research goals in vitamin C production are also presented.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Açúcares Ácidos , Humanos , Fermentação , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Vitaminas
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(11): 1428-1431, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38205715

RESUMO

Truncated thioester N,S-diacetylcysteamine (SNAc) was utilised as a co-factor mimic for PseH, an acetyl-coA dependent aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase, in the biosynthesis of the bacterial sugar, pseudaminic acid. Additionally, an azido-SNAc analogue was used to smuggle N7-azide functionality into the pseudaminic acid backbone, facilitating its use as a reporter of pseudaminyltransferase activity.


Assuntos
Glicosiltransferases , Açúcares Ácidos , Próteses e Implantes
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 393: 130158, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070579

RESUMO

Mucic acid holds promise as a platform chemical for bio-based nylon synthesis; however, its biological production encounters challenges including low yield and productivity. In this study, an efficient and high-yield method for mucic acid production was developed by employing genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the NAD+-dependent uronate dehydrogenase (udh) gene. To overcome the NAD+ dependency for the conversion of pectin to mucic acid, xylose was utilized as a co-substrate. Through optimization of the udh expression system, the engineered strain achieved a notable output, producing 20 g/L mucic acid with a highest reported productivity of 0.83 g/L-h and a theoretical yield of 0.18 g/g when processing pectin-containing citrus peel waste. These results suggest promising industrial applications for the biological production of mucic acid. Additionally, there is potential to establish a viable bioprocess by harnessing pectin-rich fruit waste alongside xylose-rich cellulosic biomass as raw materials.


Assuntos
Citrus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Açúcares Ácidos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo , Fermentação , Citrus/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Pectinas , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos
12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(2): e202313985, 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38014418

RESUMO

3-Deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) is an eight-carbon monosaccharide found widely in bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and capsule polysaccharides (CPSs). We developed an indirect method for the stereoselective synthesis of α-Kdo glycosides with a C3-p-tolylthio-substituted Kdo phosphite donor. The presence of the p-tolylthio group enhanced the reactivity, suppressed the formation of elimination by-products (2,3-enes), and provided complete α-stereocontrol. A variety of Kdo α-glycosides were synthesized by our method in excellent yields (up to 98 %). After glycosylation, the p-tolylthio group can be efficiently removed by free-radical reduction. Subsequently, the orthogonality of the phosphite donor and thioglycoside donor was demonstrated by the one-pot synthesis of a trisaccharide in Helicobacter pylori and Neisseria meningitidis LPS. Moreover, an efficient total synthesis route to the challenging 4,5-branched Kdo trisaccharide in LPSs from several A. baumannii strains was highlighted. To demonstrate the high reactivity of our approach further, the highly crowded 4,5,7,8-branched Kdo pentasaccharide was synthesized as a model molecule for the first time. Additionally, the reaction mechanism was investigated by DFT calculations.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos , Fosfitos , Oligossacarídeos , Açúcares Ácidos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Trissacarídeos
13.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(2): 457-466, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044713

RESUMO

Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are a group of enzymes belonging to the hemoflavoenzyme group, which are mostly found in fungi. They play an important role in the production of acid sugar. In this research, CDH annotated from the actinobacterium Cellulomonas palmilytica EW123 (CpCDH) was cloned and characterized. The CpCDH exhibited a domain architecture resembling class-I CDH found in Basidiomycota. The cytochrome c and flavin-containing dehydrogenase domains in CpCDH showed an extra-long evolutionary distance compared to fungal CDH. The amino acid sequence of CpCDH revealed conservative catalytic amino acids and a distinct flavin adenine dinucleotide region specific to CDH, setting it apart from closely related sequences. The physicochemical properties of CpCDH displayed optimal pH conditions similar to those of CDHs but differed in terms of optimal temperature. The CpCDH displayed excellent enzymatic activity at low temperatures (below 30°C), unlike other CDHs. Moreover, CpCDH showed the highest substrate specificity for disaccharides such as cellobiose and lactose, which contain a glucose molecule at the non-reducing end. The catalytic efficiency of CpCDH for cellobiose and lactose were 2.05 x 105 and 9.06 x 104 (M-1 s-1), respectively. The result from the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the presence of cellobionic and lactobionic acids as the oxidative products of CpCDH. This study establishes CpCDH as a novel and attractive bacterial CDH, representing the first report of its kind in the Cellulomonas genus.


Assuntos
Desidrogenases de Carboidrato , Cellulomonas , Cellulomonas/genética , Cellulomonas/metabolismo , Celobiose/metabolismo , Lactose , Açúcares Ácidos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Protocaderinas
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 12593, 2023 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37537165

RESUMO

Sialic acids (Sias) are a class of sugar molecules with a parent nine-carbon neuraminic acid, generally present at the ends of carbohydrate chains, either attached to cellular surfaces or as secreted glycoconjugates. Given their position and structural diversity, Sias modulate a wide variety of biological processes. However, little is known about the role of Sias in human adipose tissue, or their implications for health and disease, particularly among individuals following different dietary patterns. The goal of this study was to measure N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (KDN) concentrations in adipose tissue samples from participants in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) and to compare the abundance of these Sias in individuals following habitual, long-term vegetarian or non-vegetarian dietary patterns. A method was successfully developed for the extraction and detection of Sias in adipose tissue. Sias levels were quantified in 52 vegans, 56 lacto-vegetarians, and 48 non-vegetarians using LC-MS/MS with Neu5Ac-D-1,2,3-13C3 as an internal standard. Dietary groups were compared using linear regression. Vegans and lacto-ovo-vegetarians had significantly higher concentrations of Neu5Ac relative to non-vegetarians. While KDN levels tended to be higher in vegans and lacto-ovo-vegetarians, these differences were not statistically significant. However, KDN levels were significantly inversely associated with body mass index. In contrast, Neu5Gc was not detected in human adipose samples. It is plausible that different Neu5Ac concentrations in adipose tissues of vegetarians, compared to those of non-vegetarians, reflect a difference in the baseline inflammatory status between the two groups. Epidemiologic studies examining levels of Sias in human adipose tissue and other biospecimens will help to further explore their roles in development and progression of inflammatory conditions and chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Ácidos Siálicos , Açúcares Ácidos , Humanos , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Açúcares Ácidos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tecido Adiposo , Dieta Vegetariana
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37527605

RESUMO

A novel chemical assay, the so-called Kdo-DMB-liquid chromatography (LC) assay, was used for the accurate and cost-effective determination of the endotoxin content in supernatants of Gram-negative bacteria bioreactor samples. During mild acid hydrolysis, the endotoxin-specific sugar acid 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulsonic acid (Kdo) is quantitatively released. Kdo is reacted with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene (DMB) to obtain the highly fluorescent derivate Kdo-DMB. It is separated from the reaction mixture by reversed phase-(U)HPLC and detected by fluorescence. From the Kdo content the endotoxin content of the sample is calculated. For three batch cultivations of Escherichia coli K12 and a fed-batch cultivation of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, the evolution of the endotoxin content in dependence on the cultivation time was monitored. Under optimal, constant cultivation conditions a linear correlation between the endotoxin content and the easy-to-access bioreactor parameters optical density at 600 nm and dry cell weight was found for both endotoxin kinds. Under stress cultivation conditions the E. coli K12 cultivation showed a stronger increase of the endotoxin content at harvest in comparison to optimal conditions. Optical density and dry cell weight may be used for production reactors as an economic real-time estimation tool to determine the endotoxin content at different cultivation time points and conditions. The optical density can further be used to establish straightforward sample dilution schemes for endotoxin quantification in samples of unknown endotoxin content. The endotoxin content [ng mL-1] measured by the Kdo-DMB-LC assay and the endotoxin activity [EU mL-1] obtained by the compendial Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assay show a high correlation for the bacterial bioreactor samples tested.


Assuntos
Endotoxinas , Escherichia coli , Endotoxinas/análise , Bactérias , Açúcares Ácidos , Reatores Biológicos
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 384: 129316, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37315626

RESUMO

Direct production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG, the precursor of vitamin C) from D-glucose through 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid (2,5-DKG) is a promising alternative route. To explore the pathway of producing 2-KLG from D-glucose, Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC9937 was selected as a chassis strain. It was found that the chassis strain naturally has the ability to synthesize 2-KLG from D-glucose, and a new 2,5-DKG reductase (DKGR) was found on its genome. Several major issues limiting production were identified, including the insufficient catalytic capacity of DKGR, poor transmembrane movement of 2,5-DKG and imbalanced D-glucose consumption flux inside and outside of the host strain cells. By identifying novel DKGR and 2,5-DKG transporter, the whole 2-KLG biosynthesis pathway was systematically enhanced by balancing intracellular and extracellular D-glucose metabolic flux. The engineered strain produced 30.5 g/L 2-KLG with a conversion ratio of 39.0%. The results pave the way for a more economical large-scale fermentation process for vitamin C.


Assuntos
Gluconobacter oxydans , Gluconobacter oxydans/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Fermentação
17.
Org Lett ; 25(22): 4150-4155, 2023 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37252906

RESUMO

A convenient and efficient approach was developed to synthesize α-Kdo O-glycosides based on the Tf2O/(p-Tol)2SO preactivation strategy using peracetylated Kdo thioglycoside as a donor. Under the optimized reaction conditions, several O-glycoside products, including α-(2 → 1)-, α-(2 → 2)-, α-(2 → 3)-, and α-(2 → 6)-Kdo products, were stereoselectively synthesized in high yields. Remarkably, a series of aromatic α-Kdo O-glycosides were first and successfully constructed in high yields. An SN2-like mechanism was revealed by DFT calculations and experimental results.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos Cardíacos , Glicosídeos , Glicosilação , Açúcares Ácidos , Lipopolissacarídeos
18.
Infect Immun ; 91(7): e0009623, 2023 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37255490

RESUMO

All members of the family Chlamydiaceae have lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that possess a shared carbohydrate trisaccharide antigen, 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) that is functionally uncharacterized. A single gene, genus-specific epitope (gseA), is responsible for attaching the tri-Kdo to lipid IVA. To investigate the function of Kdo in chlamydial host cell interactions, we made a gseA-null strain (L2ΔgseA) by using TargeTron mutagenesis. Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting with a Kdo-specific monoclonal antibody demonstrated that L2ΔgseA lacked Kdo. L2ΔgseA reacted by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody specific for a conserved LPS glucosamine-PO4 epitope, indicating that core lipid A was retained by the mutant. The mutant strain produced a similar number of inclusions as the parental strain but yielded lower numbers of infectious elementary bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of L2ΔgseA-infected cells showed atypical developmental forms and a reduction in the number of elementary bodies. Immunoblotting of dithiothreitol-treated L2ΔgseA-infected cells lysates revealed a marked reduction in outer membrane OmcB disulfide cross-linking, suggesting that the elementary body outer membrane structure was affected by the lack of Kdo. Notably, lactic acid dehydrogenase release by infected cells demonstrated that L2ΔgseA was significantly more cytotoxic to host cells than the wild type. The cytotoxic phenotype may result from an altered outer membrane biogenesis structure and/or function or, conversely, from a direct pathobiological effect of Kdo on an unknown host cell target. These findings implicate a previously unrecognized role for Kdo in host cell interactions that facilitates postinfection host cell survival.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis , Lipopolissacarídeos , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sequência de Carboidratos , Epitopos , Açúcares Ácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais
19.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 88(1): 131-141, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37068875

RESUMO

Inhibition of biosynthetic pathways of compounds essential for Trypanosoma cruzi is considered as one of the possible action mechanisms of drugs against Chagas disease. Here, we investigated the inhibition of galactonolactone oxidase from T. cruzi (TcGAL), which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of vitamin C, an antioxidant that T. cruzi is unable to assimilate from outside and must synthesize itself, and identified allylbenzenes from plant sources as a new class of TcGAL inhibitors. Natural APABs (apiol, dillapiol, etc.) inhibited TcGAL with IC50 = 20-130 µM. The non-competitive mechanism of TcGAL inhibition by apiol was established. Conjugation of APABs with triphenylphosphonium, which ensures selective delivery of biologically active substances to the mitochondria, increased the efficiency and/or the maximum percentage of TcGAL inhibition compared to nonmodified APABs.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo
20.
J Biol Chem ; 299(5): 104609, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36924942

RESUMO

KpsC is a dual-module glycosyltransferase (GT) essential for "group 2" capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative pathogens. Capsules are vital virulence determinants in high-profile pathogens, making KpsC a viable target for intervention with small-molecule therapeutic inhibitors. Inhibitor development can be facilitated by understanding the mechanism of the target enzyme. Two separate GT modules in KpsC transfer 3-deoxy-ß-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (ß-Kdo) from cytidine-5'-monophospho-ß-Kdo donor to a glycolipid acceptor. The N-terminal and C-terminal modules add alternating Kdo residues with ß-(2→4) and ß-(2→7) linkages, respectively, generating a conserved oligosaccharide core that is further glycosylated to produce diverse capsule structures. KpsC is a retaining GT, which retains the donor anomeric carbon stereochemistry. Retaining GTs typically use an SNi (substitution nucleophilic internal return) mechanism, but recent studies with WbbB, a retaining ß-Kdo GT distantly related to KpsC, strongly suggest that this enzyme uses an alternative double-displacement mechanism. Based on the formation of covalent adducts with Kdo identified here by mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, we determined that catalytically important active site residues are conserved in WbbB and KpsC, suggesting a shared double-displacement mechanism. Additional crystal structures and biochemical experiments revealed the acceptor binding mode of the ß-(2→4)-Kdo transferase module and demonstrated that acceptor recognition (and therefore linkage specificity) is conferred solely by the N-terminal α/ß domain of each GT module. Finally, an Alphafold model provided insight into organization of the modules and a C-terminal membrane-anchoring region. Altogether, we identified key structural and mechanistic elements providing a foundation for targeting KpsC.


Assuntos
Cápsulas Bacterianas , Glicosiltransferases , Cápsulas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Açúcares Ácidos/metabolismo , Transferases/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo
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