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1.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455058

RESUMO

Despite the growing similarities between allopathic (MD) and osteopathic (DO) medical education, few studies have examined allopathic-osteopathic collaboration. The following study focused on stereotypes and student readiness for interprofessional learning. Patient perceptions were also evaluated. Osteopathic and allopathic students were randomly allocated 1:1:1 to work in pairs (MD/DO, MD/MD, DO/DO) at the start of each shift. A questionnaire evaluating student communication was collected from patients at the end of each encounter. Surveys assessing stereotypes and interprofessional readiness were obtained from students at the end of each workday. Data collection was stopped early due to Coronavirus-related safety measures. In the ITT analysis, there were a total of 126 participants (57 students 69 patients). A per-protocol analysis was performed to account for repeat clinic volunteers. No significant differences were detected between student pairs; however, the sensitivity analysis of the questionnaire assessing interprofessional readiness was 8 points higher in the DO/DO group compared to the MD/MD and MD/DO groups (P = 0.0503). In the content analysis of qualitative responses, the MD/DO group was more likely to respond with themes of enjoyment and less concern about stereotypes than the DO/DO group. The MD/DO group was also less likely to report concerns about differences in expectations, methods, and thinking than the MD/MD group. Early trends from this study suggest that DO students may be better positioned to engage in interprofessional learning than their MD counterparts. Additionally, the findings from our content analysis provide evidence that the collaborative experience improved feelings associated with professional legitimacy and credibility among DO students. Taken in aggregate, this study provides justification for a follow-up investigation, as well as a framework for how such studies could best be executed in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas , Medicina Osteopática , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278041, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36441692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the previous survey of the osteopathic profession in Austria was almost a decade ago, an update was necessary. The Osteopathic Practitioners Estimates and RAtes (OPERA) project was developed as a Europe-based survey, whereby an updated profile of the profession not only provides new data for Austria, but also allows for a clear comparison with other European countries. METHODS: A voluntary, online-based, closed-ended survey was distributed across Austria in the period between April and August 2020. The original English OPERA-questionnaire, composed of 52 questions in seven sections, was formally translated in German and adapted to the Austrian situation. Recruitment was performed through social-media and an e-based campaign. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 338 individuals, of which 239 (71%) were female, and the median age was 40-49 years. Almost all respondents had preliminary healthcare training, mainly in physiotherapy (72%). The majority of respondents were self-employed (88%) and working as sole practitioners (54%). The median number of consultations per week was 21-25 and the majority of respondents scheduled 46-60 minutes for each consultation (69%). The most commonly used diagnostic techniques were: palpation of position/structure, palpation of tenderness and visual inspection. The most commonly used treatment techniques were cranial, visceral and articulatory/mobilisation techniques. The majority of patients estimated by respondents consulted an osteopath for musculoskeletal complaints mainly localised in the lumbar and cervical region. Although the majority of respondents experience a strong osteopathic identity, only a small proportion (17%) advertise themselves exclusively as osteopaths. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first published document to determine the characteristics of the osteopathic practitioners in Austria using large, national data. It provides new information on where, how, and by whom osteopathic care is delivered. The information provided may contribute to the evidence used by stakeholders and policy makers for the future regulation of the profession in Austria.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas , Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Áustria , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)
3.
South Med J ; 115(9): 698-706, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on medical education at all levels, particularly on applicants applying to residency programs. The objective of the study was to gain a comprehensive understanding of applicants' perspectives on virtual interviews in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a quantitative survey and a qualitative study between March and April 2021. The link to an anonymous online survey was emailed to fourth-year medical students from one allopathic medical school. The survey link also was posted on the social media page of one allopathic medical school and one osteopathic medical school. Participants were then invited to participate in a follow-up 15- to 45-minute qualitative virtual interview. RESULTS: A total of 46 participants completed the survey, with a response rate of approximately 29.1%. The most beneficial aspect of the virtual interview was saving money on travel (31, 78.39%). In contrast, the least beneficial aspect of the virtual interview was the inability to personally explore the culture of the program (16, 34.78%), followed by the inability to explore the city and surrounding area (11, 23.91%). Thematic saturation was reached after interviewing 14 participants over Zoom. Four major themes of the virtual residency interview experience were discussed: virtual interviews offered many advantages, virtual interviews posed unique challenges, residency programs need more organizational improvements, and virtual specific preparations are needed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges associated with the virtual interview process, applicants rated the overall virtual interview experience positively. Given the continued impact of COVID-19 on medical education, the majority of residency programs will elect to continue virtual interviews for the 2022 Electronic Residency Application Services cycle. We hope that our findings may provide insight into the applicant's perspective on the virtual interview experience and help optimize virtual interviews for future cycles.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Medicina Osteopática , Estudantes de Medicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
Fam Med ; 54(8): 615-620, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Board certification is acknowledged as the mainstay for ensuring quality physician-delivered health care within medical specialties. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians (ACOFP) administers the American Osteopathic Board of Family Physicians' (AOBFP) In-Service Examination (ISE) to provide residents and program directors with a formative examination to assess competency and preparation for successful completion of the AOBFP certifying examination (CE). Unique assessment processes are integral to monitoring development of the osteopathic family physician throughout training and into practice, and to verify their competency for the safety and protection of the public. This study sought to investigate whether performance on the AOBFP ISE predicted performance on the AOBFP CE, and thereby successfully equipped residents to safely enter medical practice. METHODS: In 2020, data from 1,893 PGY-1 through PGY-3 residents (2016-2018), whose ISE scores could be matched with scores on the AOBFP initial board CE, were analyzed for this study. RESULTS: Correlations among ISE administrations across 3 years of postgraduate medical education were in the mid-to-high .6 range; the ISE scores correlated with CE scores in the mid .4 to high .5 range. Less reliable measures of positive predictive value were 0.99, and sensitivity was 0.91. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that ISE administrations during residency training are effective in developing remediation strategies for subsequent successful CE performance. The inclusion of osteopathic principles in the AOBFP CE necessitates inclusion of osteopathic content in resident training exams like ISE.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Certificação , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Médicos Osteopáticos/educação , Estados Unidos
6.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(12): 617-622, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981554

RESUMO

CONTEXT: It remains to be determined exactly how the COVID-19 pandemic has and will continue to impact osteopathic resident education, in particular as it pertains to treatment with osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). Although the long-term effects of the pandemic cannot be determined yet, changes in current resident education can be analyzed. OBJECTIVES: Here, we describe how the format, frequency, and environment of OMM training have changed in residency programs from prior to February 2020 to the "lockdown" period of February 2020 to June 2020, and then to the "recovery" period of July 2020 to February 2021. METHODS: A 19-question survey inquiring about the above three categories was emailed via SurveyMonkey to 282 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) residency programs with osteopathic recognition at the end of January 2021. RESULTS: Of the 282 programs surveyed, 24.5% (69) responded. Osteopathic neuromusculoskeletal medicine (ONMM) programs were excluded from the data analysis, resulting in a modified sample size of n=60. Responses indicated that residency programs dramatically decreased the frequency of OMM didactic education sessions (100.0% [60] reported offering OMM didactic education before the lockdown period; compared to 73.3% [44] during the lockdown period) and shifted their educational programs from an in-person-only environment (88.3% [53] before lockdown; 8.3% [5] during lockdown) to either a combined in-person/virtual platform (6.7% [4] before lockdown; 31.7% [19] during lockdown) or to a virtual-only platform (0.0% [0] before lockdown; 46.7% [28] during lockdown). During the recovery period, 91.7% (55) programs reported giving some form of OMM didactic education. The percentage of programs reporting in-person-only, combined in-person/virtual platform, and virtual-only didactic education were 3.3% (2), 53.3% (32), and 41.7% (25), respectively, during the recovery period. The preferred method of instruction changed from a combination of resident and attending lectures with a hands-on component (55.0%; 33) before lockdown, to the same but without a hands-on component (28.3%; 17) during lockdown, and back to the same but with a hands-on component (36.7%; 22) during the recovery period. Furthermore, the number of programs offering OMM didactic education [OMM patient care] at least once a month decreased from 70.0% (42) [78.3% (47)] before the lockdown period to 46.7% (28) [48.3% (29)] during the lockdown period. It then increased to 55.0% (33) [73.3% (44)] during the recovery period. Finally, before the lockdown period, programs offered OMM patient care predominantly in a combination of an inpatient/outpatient environment (63.3%; 38). The preferred patient care setting changed to an outpatient-only environment (43.3%; 26) during the lockdown period and then back to a combination of an inpatient/outpatient environment (45.0%; 27) during the recovery period. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that programs have been dramatically impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, by the augmentation of the osteopathic learning environment, and by the delivery of OMM to patient care within the training programs. These impacts were still present 1 year after the start of the pandemic. It will be imperative for ACGME Osteopathic Recognition (ACGME-OR) programs to continue an assessment of these impacts on resident physicians' learning and preparedness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Medicina Osteopática , Humanos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Acreditação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina
7.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 30(1): 32, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite controversy regarding its validity and clinical usefulness, manual examination findings still have an important role for manipulative therapies. As an example, somatic dysfunction (SD) remains central to osteopathic practice.This study aims to explore the experienced osteopaths' attitudes concerning SD and its role in osteopathic practice. This qualitative research could contribute to building a consistent paradigm for manual intervention in all musculoskeletal manipulations. METHODS: A thematic analysis with grounded theory elements was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews carried out between February and April 2021. A purposive sample of twenty professional osteopaths with past experience in osteopathic care was chosen to reflect the phenomenon's variety. The data analysis was done inductively and in tandem with the recruiting to keep track of data saturation. RESULTS: Eleven osteopaths participated in the study. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) SD as a safe tissue-touch-based communication tool between operator and person complex adaptive health system; (2) The treatment of SD is shareable between osteopaths, other health professionals, and the patients involved in the therapeutic pathway improving body awareness and health; (3) The development of the SD concept in research and practice to better clarify osteopathic profession identity and definition. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of expert osteopaths consider the concept of SD as a valuable tool integrated into the osteopathic evaluation and treatment process. The shared concept and clinical application of SD is informed by person-centered care concepts and from the fields of neuroscience, cognitive and complexity science. Our study reports a common need among osteopaths to develop an evidence-based framework of SD to allow the best development of the osteopathic profession.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Humanos , Médicos Osteopáticos/psicologia , Exame Físico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(11): 553-561, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918806

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Premedical preparatory programs at osteopathic medical schools that recruit students from medically underserved areas (MUAs) may promote interest in practicing osteopathic medicine in underserved or rural areas. In these programs, emphasis on cultural competency may increase diversity among medical school applicants and decrease healthcare disparities in the future. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to determine whether a summer premedical rural enrichment program (PREP) held at an osteopathic medical school located in a MUA will foster greater prioritization of cultural competency in medicine, enhance interest in practicing in rural or underserved areas, and increase familiarity with osteopathic medicine. METHODS: An eight-week summer PREP was hosted at the California Health Sciences University College of Osteopathic Medicine (CHSU-COM) in Clovis, California. Seventy-eight diverse participants were recruited from the Central Valley, an underserved region of California. Attendees were required to finish the formal application process and were recommended to have completed medical school prerequisite courses. The curriculum included Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) preparation through team-based learning sessions, introduction to the osteopathic medical school curriculum, osteopathic philosophy, and osteopathic manipulative medicine, as well as integrated anatomy and physiology sessions, medical school application workshops, mock interviews, simulation workshops, and sociology and cultural competency sessions. Data were collected via a voluntary and anonymous survey administered before and after the program with questions about familiarity with osteopathy, interest in practicing in underserved areas, medical school preparedness, and a post-course survey about cultural competency. The surveys had students rate statements on a Likert scale. RESULTS: Seventy-four of the 78 premedical students (95%) completed the pre-and postsurvey. There was a significant increase in agreement to statements evaluating medical school preparedness, osteopathic familiarity, and desire to practice medicine locally in the postprogram survey, compared to the preprogram survey. In the cultural competency postsurvey, 75.0% of the responses to questions that evaluated the positive effect of the course were "Agree" or "Strongly Agree." Of the reported postcourse outcomes, the average MCAT score was 504 ± 6.2 (38 students reported, 50.7%). Of the 27 participants who reported matriculation, 16 (59.2%) were admitted to osteopathic medical schools, 9 (33.3%) to allopathic medical schools, and 2 to other health programs. CONCLUSIONS: After completing the PREP program, premedical participants reported that they have better understanding of cultural competency and improvement in preparation for medical school, including familiarity with osteopathic medicine, and interest in serving MUAs. These findings indicate that similar programs may have a positive impact on MUAs. These programs may help create diverse and culturally competent osteopathic physicians.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Humanos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Estudantes Pré-Médicos , Educação Pré-Médica , Competência Cultural , Faculdades de Medicina
9.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(12): 623-630, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998917

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although low back pain is a common medical condition that often progresses to become a chronic problem, little is known about the likelihood of recovery from chronic low back pain (CLBP). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to measure the risk of recovery from CLBP based on low back pain intensity and back-related functioning measures reported by participants within a pain research registry over 12 months of observation and to consider the implications for osteopathic medicine. METHODS: A total of 740 participants with CLBP in the Pain Registry for Epidemiological, Clinical, and Interventional Studies and Innovation in the United States were studied between April 2016 and October 2021. Inception cohorts for pain recovery and functional recovery were assembled from the participants who did not meet the recovery criteria at registry enrollment. The pain recovery criterion was having a score of ≤1/10 on a numerical rating scale for low back pain intensity, and the functional recovery criterion was having a score of ≤4/24 on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. A total of 737 and 692 participants were included in the inception cohorts for pain recovery and functional recovery, respectively. Participants provided follow-up data at quarterly encounters over 12 months to determine if they achieved and maintained a pain or functional recovery from CLBP over the entire period of observation. Logistic regression was utilized to identify factors associated with recovery. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants at baseline was 52.9 years (SD, 13.1 years) and 551 (74.5%) were female. No participant reported a pain recovery that was maintained over all four quarterly encounters, whereas 16 participants (2.3%; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4%) maintained a functional recovery. Having high levels of pain self-efficacy (OR, 17.50; 95% CI, 2.30-133.23; p=0.006) and being Hispanic (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.11-11.37; p=0.03) were associated with functional recovery, and high levels of pain catastrophizing (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.65; p=0.01) and having chronic widespread pain (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08-0.66; p=0.007) were inversely associated with functional recovery. The findings for pain self-efficacy and Hispanic ethnicity remained significant in the multivariate analysis that adjusted for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of pain recovery and the low likelihood of functional recovery observed in our study suggests that osteopathic physicians should embrace a biopsychosocial approach to CLBP management and work with patients to set realistic expectations based on more pragmatic outcome measures, such as those that address health-related quality of life. The findings also suggest the potential importance of patient education and counseling to enhance pain self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Lombar , Medicina Osteopática , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Dor Lombar/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Dor Crônica/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
10.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 49: 101655, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate whether osteopathic manipulative interventions can reduce pain levels and enhance the functional status in patients with non-specific neck pain (NS-NP). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted following the 2020 PRISMA statement. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in five databases, assessed through a standardized form, and evaluated using the "13 items Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool". Effect sizes (ES) were calculated post-treatment, and the quality of evidence was assessed through GRADE criteria. RESULTS: Five articles were included in the review, and none of these was completely judged at low RoB. Four of these were included in the meta-analysis. Osteopathic interventions compared to no intervention/sham treatment showed statistically significant results for pain levels (ES = -1.57 [-2.50, -0.65]; P = 0.0008) and functional status (ES = -1.71 [-3.12, -0.31]; P = 0.02). The quality of evidence was "very low" for all the assessed outcomes. Other results were presented in a qualitative synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Osteopathic interventions could be effective for pain levels and functional status improvements in adults with NS-NP. However, these findings are affected by a very low quality of evidence. Therefore, further high-quality RCTs are necessary to improve the quality of evidence and generalize the results.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Adulto , Humanos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Cervicalgia/terapia , Osteopatia/métodos , Pescoço
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 603, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For many allied health disciplines, pre-professional clinical education takes place in student-led, on-campus clinic environments. In these environments, pre-professional students undertake patient care under the supervision of qualified health professionals. Literature exploring the benefits of the student-led clinical learning environment is limited and little is known about the role student-led clinics play in preparing pre-professional osteopathy students for professional practice. AIM: To explore the perceptions of osteopathy clinical educators about the role of the student-led clinic at Victoria University (VU) in preparing pre-professional students for professional practice. METHODS: A qualitative collective case study methodology was utilised to explore clinical educator perceptions. Individual interviews were conducted with clinical educators employed in the university osteopathy clinic. Interview questions were framed around the Capabilities for Osteopathic Practice which set the Australian osteopathy practice standards. Data were assessed by two of the authors using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Nine clinical educators out of 31 employed at the university clinic (29%) agreed to participate. Qualitative analysis generated three themes: perceptions of the student-led clinic (SLC) as a learning environment; clinical educator perception of their role in the SLC; and, challenges to and of the SLC environment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical educators perceived that the student-led osteopathy clinical learning environment develops pre-professional learners to meet some, but not all, of the capabilities for professional practice as an osteopath in Australia. The environment may be improved through faculty development, fostering a proactive learning approach, addressing system-based issues, and providing opportunities to interact with other health professions.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Austrália , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes
12.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(11): 563-569, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924436

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Osteopathic medical students receive an abundance of training in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) during their first 2 years of medical school and less during the second 2 years. Family Medicine residency programs often include significantly more OMT training during residency, but it is less frequently applied in other residencies. OBJECTIVES: This survey was designed utilizing the theory of planned behavior to see whether specific training in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) after osteopathic medical school was an influence in changing behavior, attitudes, and knowledge around OMT in osteopathic residents. METHODS: A total of 188 osteopathic medicine residents were invited to complete an anonymous cross-sectional online survey. The survey asked residents about their postgraduate OMT training and their knowledge, attitudes, norms, intentions, and behavior regarding OMT. Inferential statistics were utilized to determine whether significant differences existed by specialty and by type of training. RESULTS: Sixty residents (31.9% response rate) completed the survey. This response rate is consistent with previous online survey studies, but it may indicate that residents chose not to participate due to survey fatigue or a lack of interest in OMM. Overall, residents who completed postgraduate training reported significantly stronger positive attitudes about the value of OMT in patient care (t=3.956; p<0.001). Primary care residents talk to their patients about OMT and perform OMT more frequently than residents in surgical (p<0.01) and other subspecialties (p<0.01). Residents who completed postgraduate training (n=41) reported significantly more knowledge about the fundamental principles (p=0.04), benefits (p=0.03), and common techniques (p=0.01) of OMT, and rated their ability to perform OMT (p=0.001) higher than those who had not completed postgraduate training. Trained residents also talked to patients about OMT (p<0.001), referred patients for OMT (p=0.01), and performed OMT (p<0.001) more frequently. They also reported significantly stronger subjective norms (p=0.000; p<0.001), perceived behavioral control (p=0.02; p=0.004), positive attitudes (p=0.004; p=0.003), and intentions (p<0.001; p<0.001) regarding talking to patients and performing OMT, respectively. Residents who completed in-person training reported talking to their patients about OMT (p=0.002) and performing OMT (p=0.001) more frequently, and having more confidence in their ability to perform OMT (p=0.02). Residents who completed in-person training reported significantly stronger subjective norms (p<0.001; p<0.001), perceived behavioral control (p=0.001; p=0.002), positive attitudes (p=0.05; p=0.03), and intentions (p<0.001; p=0.001) regarding talking to patients about OMT and performing OMT, respectively. Residents who completed in-person training reported stronger subjective norms (p=0.05) related to referring patients for OMT. CONCLUSIONS: Residents who complete postgraduate training perform OMT, talk to their patients about OMT, and refer patients for OMT more frequently. Residents who participate in training, particularly in-person training, have stronger subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, positive attitudes, and behavioral intentions regarding talking with patients about OMT and performing OMT. These variables are validated predictors of behavior, making them important outcomes for training to promote OMT in patient care.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Humanos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Estudos Transversais , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação
13.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 19(9): 997-1005, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiologist medical school pathways have received little attention in recent workforce investigations. With osteopathic enrollment increasing, we assessed the osteopathic versus allopathic composition of the radiologist workforce. METHODS: Linking separate Medicare Doctors and Clinicians Initiative databases and Physician and Other Supplier Files from 2014 through 2019, we assessed (descriptively and using multivariate panel logistic regression modeling) individual and practice characteristics of radiologists who self-reported medical degrees. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2019, as the number of osteopathic radiologists increased 46.0% (4.7% to 6.0% of total radiologist workforce), the number of allopathic radiologists increased 12.1% (representing a relative workforce decrease from 95.3% to 94.0%). For each year since completing training, practicing radiologists were 3.7% less likely to have osteopathic (versus allopathic) degrees (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96 per year, P < .01). Osteopathic radiologists were less likely to work in urban (versus rural) areas (OR = 0.95), and compared with the Midwest, less likely to work in the Northeast (OR = 0.96), South (OR = 0.95), and West (OR = 0.94) (all P < .01). Except for cardiothoracic imaging (OR = 0.78, P = .24), osteopathic radiologists were more likely than allopathic radiologists to practice as general (rather than subspecialty) radiologists (range OR = 0.37 for nuclear medicine to OR = 0.65 for neuroradiology, all P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Osteopathic physicians represent a fast-growing earlier-career component of the radiologist workforce. Compared with allopathic radiologists, they more frequently practice as generalist radiologists, in rural areas, and in the Midwest. Given recent calls for greater general and rural radiology coverage, increasing osteopathic representation in the national radiologist workforce could improve patient access.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Idoso , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Medicare , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Radiologistas , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
14.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(12): 2166-2175, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) frequently use acupuncture (ACU) and osteopathic medicine (OM), although their therapeutic benefits are unclear. AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of ACU and OM in patients with AD. METHODS: In a three-armed, single-centre, randomized controlled open explorative clinical trial, adult patients with AD received ACU, OM or no study intervention (control group; CG) plus routine care. Outcomes included disease severity (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis; SCORAD), itching intensity (visual analogue scale; VAS), frequency of topical corticosteroid (TCS) use over 7 days and cost-effectiveness. Endpoints were analysed by analysis of covariance adjusted for the respective baseline value and TCS use. RESULTS: Overall, 121 patients (92 women, 29 men) with a mean ± SD age of 31.4 ± 10.5 years were randomized. After 12 weeks, the adjusted means (95% CI) for ACU, OM and control were, respectively, 22.3 (18.3-26.3), 26.4 (22.6-30.2) and 23.7 (19.9-27.5) for SCORAD (P = 0.32); 27.9 (19.5-36.4), 35.0 (26.9-43.0) and 42.3 (34.7-50.0) for VAS itching (P < 0.05); and 2.3 (0.8-3.9), 1.9 (0.4-3.5) and 4.3 (2.6-6.0), for TCS use (P = 0.10). ACU and OM were not cost-effective compared with the CG. CONCLUSION: Although no differences in disease severity were found, our findings indicate that ACU might reduce itching in patients with AD. Furthermore, ACU and OM showed a trend towards reducing TCS use.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Dermatite Atópica , Fármacos Dermatológicos , Medicina Osteopática , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Prurido/terapia , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego
15.
Med Teach ; 44(12): 1408-1412, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868013

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is no current centralized database of structured global health programs at U.S. medical schools and no published review in the past decade. This study aims to describe the prevalence, characteristics, and requirements of non-degree, longitudinal, structured global health programs in U.S. allopathic and osteopathic medical schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In July 2021, the authors performed a web-based review of existing structured global health programs for the 154 U.S. allopathic medical schools and 35 U.S. osteopathic medical schools established prior to 2019. RESULTS: Of 189 institutions examined, 74 (39%) had online information about a structured global health program. Forty-three (53%) programs reported coursework requirements, 44 (54%) required a global health experience, and one program required demonstration of language or cultural knowledge. More internally administered programs required experiential work, while more externally administered programs required didactic work. There were few differences in program requirements between allopathic and osteopathic medical schools. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a 75% increase over the past ten years in the number of U.S. allopathic medical schools with websites for structured global health programs. There appeared to be little standardization in their structure and requirements. The findings support the need for a web-based central repository for updated information regarding medical school global health curricula.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Saúde Global , Currículo , Internet
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270806, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes osteopathic practise activity, scope of practice and the osteopathic patient profile in order to understand the role osteopathy plays within the United Kingdom's (UK) health system a decade after our previous survey. METHOD: We used a retrospective questionnaire survey design to ask about osteopathic practice and audit patient case notes. All UK registered osteopaths were invited to participate in the survey. The survey was conducted using a web-based system. Each participating osteopath was asked about themselves, their practice and asked to randomly select and extract data from up to 8 random new patient health records during 2018. All patient related data were anonymised. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 500 osteopaths (9.4% of the profession) who provided information about 395 patients and 2,215 consultations. Most osteopaths were self-employed (81.1%; 344/424 responses) working alone either exclusively or often (63.9%; 237/371) and were able to offer 48.6% of patients an appointment within 3 days (184/379). Patient ages ranged from 1 month to 96 years (mean 44.7 years, Std Dev. 21.5), of these 58.4% (227/389) were female. Infants <1 years old represented 4.8% (18/379) of patients. The majority of patients presented with musculoskeletal complaints (81.0%; 306/378). Persistent complaints (present for more than 12 weeks before appointment) were the most common (67.9%; 256/377) and 41.7% (156/374) of patients had co-existing medical conditions. The most common treatment approaches used at the first appointment were soft-tissue techniques (73.9%; 292/395), articulatory techniques (69.4%; 274/395) and high velocity low amplitude thrust (34.4%; 136/395). The mean number of treatments per patient was 7 (mode 4). CONCLUSION: Osteopaths predominantly provide care of musculoskeletal conditions, typically in private practice. To better understand the role of osteopathy in UK health service delivery, the profession needs to do more research with patients in order to understand their needs and their expected outcomes of care, and for this to inform osteopathic practice and education.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas , Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Osteopatia/métodos , Medicina Osteopática/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(10): 517-520, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737398

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Osteopathic Principles and Practice (OPP), including osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is the core foundation of the education provided by osteopathic medical schools. Multiple studies performed over the past 25 years have demonstrated that a dwindling number of osteopathic physicians utilize OMT in their practice, despite 95% of osteopathic family physicians perceiving OMT as an effective treatment modality. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to quantify how often OMT is being performed by residents in an osteopathically recognized family medicine training clinic and to identify the perceived barriers to performing OMT. METHODS: Fifteen family medicine residents were given access to an anonymous written survey for three 2 week periods. The survey allowed them to input the total number of patient encounters for their half clinic day, the encounters in which OMT was perceived to be appropriate, the encounters in which OMT was performed, and the reasoning for encounters in which OMT was not performed. Surveys were collected anonymously, and data were input into a datasheet in which results were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 101 survey responses were collected for a total of 304 patient encounters. OMT was performed in 5/304 (1.6%) encounters, yet it was perceived to be appropriate in 60/304 (19.7%) encounters. The primary documented reason that OMT was deferred was due to time constraints (42/50 responses, or 70.0% of the encounters in which OMT was deemed appropriate). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights time as the main reason OMT is deferred by residents in a teaching clinic. This provides insight into potential interventions in a training clinic to increase the use of OMT by family medicine residents.


Assuntos
Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Humanos , Osteopatia/métodos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(8): 401-409, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675898

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Osteopathic tradition in the cranial field (OCF) stated that the primary respiratory mechanism (PRM) relies on the anatomical links between the occiput and sacrum. Few studies investigated this relationship with inconsistent results. No studies investigated the occiput-sacrum connection from a neurophysiological perspective. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine whether the sacral technique (ST), compared to the compression of the fourth ventricle (CV4) technique, can affect brain alpha-band power (AABP) as an indicator of a neurophysiological connection between the occiput and sacrum. METHODS: Healthy students, 22-30 years old for men and 20-30 years old for women, were enrolled in the study and randomized into eight interventions groups. Each group received a combination of active techniques (CV4 or ST) and the corresponding sham techniques (sham compression of the fourth ventricle [sCV4] or sham sacral technique [sST] ), organized in two experimental sessions divided by a 4 h washout period. AABP was continuously recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG) of the occipital area in the first 10 min of resting state, during each intervention (active technique time) and after 10 min (post-active technique time), for a total of approximately 50 min per session. Analysis was carried out utilizing a repeated-measure ANOVA within the linear general model framework, consisting of a within-subject factor of time and a within-subject factor of treatment (CV4/ST). RESULTS: Forty healthy volunteers (mean age ± SD, 23.73±1.43 years; range, 21-26 years; 16 male and 24 female) were enrolled in the study and completed the study protocol. ANOVA revealed a time × treatment interaction effect statistically significant (F=791.4; p<0.001). A particularly high increase in mean AABP magnitude was recorded during the 10 min post-CV4, compared to both the CV4 and post-sCV4 application (p<0.001). During all the times analyzed for ST and sST application, no statistically significant differences were registered with respect to the resting state. CONCLUSIONS: The ST does not produce immediate changes on occipital AABP brain activity. CV4, as previous evidence supported, generates immediate effects, suggesting that a different biological basis for OCF therapy's connection between the head and sacrum should be explored.


Assuntos
Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Quarto Ventrículo , Humanos , Masculino , Osteopatia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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