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1.
Fam Med ; 54(8): 615-620, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Board certification is acknowledged as the mainstay for ensuring quality physician-delivered health care within medical specialties. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians (ACOFP) administers the American Osteopathic Board of Family Physicians' (AOBFP) In-Service Examination (ISE) to provide residents and program directors with a formative examination to assess competency and preparation for successful completion of the AOBFP certifying examination (CE). Unique assessment processes are integral to monitoring development of the osteopathic family physician throughout training and into practice, and to verify their competency for the safety and protection of the public. This study sought to investigate whether performance on the AOBFP ISE predicted performance on the AOBFP CE, and thereby successfully equipped residents to safely enter medical practice. METHODS: In 2020, data from 1,893 PGY-1 through PGY-3 residents (2016-2018), whose ISE scores could be matched with scores on the AOBFP initial board CE, were analyzed for this study. RESULTS: Correlations among ISE administrations across 3 years of postgraduate medical education were in the mid-to-high .6 range; the ISE scores correlated with CE scores in the mid .4 to high .5 range. Less reliable measures of positive predictive value were 0.99, and sensitivity was 0.91. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that ISE administrations during residency training are effective in developing remediation strategies for subsequent successful CE performance. The inclusion of osteopathic principles in the AOBFP CE necessitates inclusion of osteopathic content in resident training exams like ISE.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Certificação , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Médicos Osteopáticos/educação , Estados Unidos
2.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 19(9): 997-1005, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiologist medical school pathways have received little attention in recent workforce investigations. With osteopathic enrollment increasing, we assessed the osteopathic versus allopathic composition of the radiologist workforce. METHODS: Linking separate Medicare Doctors and Clinicians Initiative databases and Physician and Other Supplier Files from 2014 through 2019, we assessed (descriptively and using multivariate panel logistic regression modeling) individual and practice characteristics of radiologists who self-reported medical degrees. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2019, as the number of osteopathic radiologists increased 46.0% (4.7% to 6.0% of total radiologist workforce), the number of allopathic radiologists increased 12.1% (representing a relative workforce decrease from 95.3% to 94.0%). For each year since completing training, practicing radiologists were 3.7% less likely to have osteopathic (versus allopathic) degrees (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96 per year, P < .01). Osteopathic radiologists were less likely to work in urban (versus rural) areas (OR = 0.95), and compared with the Midwest, less likely to work in the Northeast (OR = 0.96), South (OR = 0.95), and West (OR = 0.94) (all P < .01). Except for cardiothoracic imaging (OR = 0.78, P = .24), osteopathic radiologists were more likely than allopathic radiologists to practice as general (rather than subspecialty) radiologists (range OR = 0.37 for nuclear medicine to OR = 0.65 for neuroradiology, all P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Osteopathic physicians represent a fast-growing earlier-career component of the radiologist workforce. Compared with allopathic radiologists, they more frequently practice as generalist radiologists, in rural areas, and in the Midwest. Given recent calls for greater general and rural radiology coverage, increasing osteopathic representation in the national radiologist workforce could improve patient access.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Idoso , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Medicare , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Radiologistas , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
3.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 30(1): 32, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite controversy regarding its validity and clinical usefulness, manual examination findings still have an important role for manipulative therapies. As an example, somatic dysfunction (SD) remains central to osteopathic practice.This study aims to explore the experienced osteopaths' attitudes concerning SD and its role in osteopathic practice. This qualitative research could contribute to building a consistent paradigm for manual intervention in all musculoskeletal manipulations. METHODS: A thematic analysis with grounded theory elements was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews carried out between February and April 2021. A purposive sample of twenty professional osteopaths with past experience in osteopathic care was chosen to reflect the phenomenon's variety. The data analysis was done inductively and in tandem with the recruiting to keep track of data saturation. RESULTS: Eleven osteopaths participated in the study. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) SD as a safe tissue-touch-based communication tool between operator and person complex adaptive health system; (2) The treatment of SD is shareable between osteopaths, other health professionals, and the patients involved in the therapeutic pathway improving body awareness and health; (3) The development of the SD concept in research and practice to better clarify osteopathic profession identity and definition. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of expert osteopaths consider the concept of SD as a valuable tool integrated into the osteopathic evaluation and treatment process. The shared concept and clinical application of SD is informed by person-centered care concepts and from the fields of neuroscience, cognitive and complexity science. Our study reports a common need among osteopaths to develop an evidence-based framework of SD to allow the best development of the osteopathic profession.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Humanos , Médicos Osteopáticos/psicologia , Exame Físico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270806, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes osteopathic practise activity, scope of practice and the osteopathic patient profile in order to understand the role osteopathy plays within the United Kingdom's (UK) health system a decade after our previous survey. METHOD: We used a retrospective questionnaire survey design to ask about osteopathic practice and audit patient case notes. All UK registered osteopaths were invited to participate in the survey. The survey was conducted using a web-based system. Each participating osteopath was asked about themselves, their practice and asked to randomly select and extract data from up to 8 random new patient health records during 2018. All patient related data were anonymised. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 500 osteopaths (9.4% of the profession) who provided information about 395 patients and 2,215 consultations. Most osteopaths were self-employed (81.1%; 344/424 responses) working alone either exclusively or often (63.9%; 237/371) and were able to offer 48.6% of patients an appointment within 3 days (184/379). Patient ages ranged from 1 month to 96 years (mean 44.7 years, Std Dev. 21.5), of these 58.4% (227/389) were female. Infants <1 years old represented 4.8% (18/379) of patients. The majority of patients presented with musculoskeletal complaints (81.0%; 306/378). Persistent complaints (present for more than 12 weeks before appointment) were the most common (67.9%; 256/377) and 41.7% (156/374) of patients had co-existing medical conditions. The most common treatment approaches used at the first appointment were soft-tissue techniques (73.9%; 292/395), articulatory techniques (69.4%; 274/395) and high velocity low amplitude thrust (34.4%; 136/395). The mean number of treatments per patient was 7 (mode 4). CONCLUSION: Osteopaths predominantly provide care of musculoskeletal conditions, typically in private practice. To better understand the role of osteopathy in UK health service delivery, the profession needs to do more research with patients in order to understand their needs and their expected outcomes of care, and for this to inform osteopathic practice and education.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas , Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Osteopatia/métodos , Medicina Osteopática/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther ; 45(2): 144-152, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether beliefs about the origin of the popping sound and the effects of thrust manipulation (TM) were in agreement with current scientific evidence and whether a practitioner's explanation could influence patient beliefs of theoretical mechanisms. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Italy from January 7, 2019 to April 20, 2019. The questionnaire was sent to 900 Italian adults through online recruitment, including people with and without a history of manipulation, such as given by physiotherapists, chiropractors, osteopaths, and manual medicine physicians to manage musculoskeletal disorders. The questionnaire consisted of 11 multiple-choice questions and could be completed within 15 weeks. The Likert scale was used to investigate participants' attitudes. Sex and previous experience of TM variables were evaluated using a Student's t-test; a 1-way F analysis of variance test was performed to evaluate age, educational qualification, and the professional who performed the TM. RESULTS: We retrieved 478 questionnaires, including 175 participants with no TM history and 303 with TM history. There were 31% of participants (n = 94) with a history of TM who reported they did not receive explanations regarding manipulation. The participants' beliefs mostly disagreed with the current hypotheses provided by the scientific literature on the theoretical mechanisms of popping sound (tribonucleation and cavitation). There were 9.9% (n = 30) of participants who answered "realignment of bone positional fault" to explain the mechanism behind TM. There was a high degree of agreement with the belief that the popping sound should be present for a successful TM (respectively, 2.8 standard deviation [SD; 1.2] and 2.6 SD [1.2] for TM+ and TM- participants). No statistically significant differences were found between participants with and without a history of TM. CONCLUSION: The participants in this study reported a belief that popping was related to effectiveness of TM. A high percentage of this sample had beliefs about TM mechanisms for the audible popping sound that were inconsistent with current literature. Beliefs were similar between groups, suggesting that instructions given by TM practitioners did not seem to be an influence on these patients' beliefs.


Assuntos
Quiroprática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Som , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(6): 277-287, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470644

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Race is a social construct, not a biological or genetic construct, utilized to categorize people based on observable traits, behaviors, and geographic location. Findings from the Human Genome Project demonstrated that humans share 99.9% of their DNA; despite this evidence, race is frequently utilized as a risk factor for diagnosis and prescribing practices. Diagnosing and treating people based on race is known as race-based medicine. Race-based medicine perpetuates biases and diverts attention and resources from the social determinants of health that cause racial health inequities. Minimal research has examined medical students' understanding of race-based medicine. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess osteopathic medical students' knowledge, beliefs, and experiences with race-based medicine. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional survey study to assess osteopathic medical students' knowledge, beliefs, and experiences with race-based medicine. An electronic, anonymous survey was distributed to all osteopathic medical students enrolled at a medical school in the Midwest with three campuses during the 2019-2020 academic year. Participants completed a brief demographic questionnaire and the Race-Based Medicine Questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted utilizing SPSS statistical software version 28.0, and statistical significance was defined as a p<0.05. Open-ended questions were analyzed utilizing content and thematic analyses. RESULTS: A total of 438 of the 995 osteopathic medical students consented to participate in the study, for a response rate of 44.0%. Among those participants, 221 (52.0%) reported that they had heard of the term "race-based medicine." Familiarity with the term differed by racial background (χ [2] = 24.598, p<0.001), with Black or African American participants indicating greater familiarity with the term compared to all other races. Of the participants familiar with race-based medicine, 79 (44.4%) provided the correct definition for the term; this finding did not differ by any sociodemographic variable. Part of the way through the questionnaire, all participants were provided the correct definition of "race-based medicine" and asked if they thought medical schools should teach race-based medicine. The majority of participants (n=231, 61.4%) supported the teaching of race-based medicine. Qualitative findings elaborated on participants' support or opposition for teaching race-based medicine in medical school. Those in support explained the importance of teaching historical perspectives of race-based medicine as well as race as a data point in epidemiology and its presence on board examinations, whereas those in opposition believed it contradicted osteopathic principles and practice. CONCLUSIONS: Findings showed half of the participants were familiar with race-based medicine, and among those, less than half knew the definition of the term. Highlighting osteopathic philosophy and its focus on the whole person may be one approach to educating osteopathic medical students about race-based medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Faculdades de Medicina
7.
Musculoskelet Sci Pract ; 60: 102564, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Australia, people with musculoskeletal conditions frequently seek care from chiropractors, osteopaths, and physiotherapists. Intertwined histories, distinct philosophies and practical tensions characterise relationships between these three professions, yet little is known about contact or collaboration between individual clinicians. OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of osteopaths, physiotherapists and chiropractors who work together in the same clinic location and explore their attitudes towards each other. METHODS: Utilising a predominantly inductive qualitative research design, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a total of 13 clinicians (physiotherapists [n=6], chiropractors [n=2], osteopaths [n=4], dual-qualified chiropractor and physiotherapist [n=1]) who work with at least one clinician from the other two professions. Interviews were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Data analysis produced two main themes and five sub-themes that characterised clinicians' experiences and attitudes: collaboration (collaborative practices; benefits of collaboration) and resisting tension (accepting similarities and differences to work towards shared goals; clinic culture; alignment with evidence-based practice). These findings can be understood in the context of the concepts of professional boundary-work and intergroup contact theory. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study suggest that physiotherapists, chiropractors and osteopaths that work together in the same clinic may collaborate while simultaneously navigating blurred professional lines. These results suggest that working together in the same clinic is a meaningful form of contact, which in turn allows for collaborative practices that may reduce intergroup tension between professions.


Assuntos
Quiroprática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Fisioterapeutas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(5): 235-242, 2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176817

RESUMO

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the management of sacroiliac (SI) joint pain in pregnant patients. Although SI joint pain is highly prevalent among pregnant patients, the unique anatomy of the joint is rarely discussed in a clinical setting. This paper provides comprehensive review of the epidemiology, anatomy, alarm findings, standard treatment, osteopathic assessment, and osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) of the SI joint, and it provides a general and in-depth understanding of the SI joint pain in pregnant patients and its management.


Assuntos
Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Artralgia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Articulação Sacroilíaca
9.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(5): 219-227, 2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179005

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Osteopathic medicine in the United States continues to produce a substantial number of physicians and medical educators. However, recently popularized misconceptions about osteopathic medical practice, education, and manual therapy suggest an unsettling prevalence of inaccurate beliefs held by the public. The public often searches the internet to find out information about osteopathic medicine, but the content of questions and the transparency of the resulting information is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We sought to explore frequently asked questions (FAQs) generated by Google to assess commonly searched questions about the osteopathic profession and to determine the level of information transparency associated with resulting sources. METHODS: On June 16, 2021, we searched Google for three terms: "osteopathic medicine," "doctor of osteopathic medicine," and "DO," until a minimum of 100 FAQs and their answer links were extracted from each search. After excluding irrelevant FAQs, we used Rothwell's Classification of Questions to categorize the FAQs. We then used the Journal of the American Medical Association's Benchmark Criteria to assess information transparency for each corresponding answer source provided by Google. The answer sources were screened for the inappropriate use of "osteopathy" in place of "osteopathic medicine" and for "osteopath" in place of "DO," "Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine," or "Osteopathic Physician." We performed statistical tests to ascertain the differences in information transparency between osteopathic and nonosteopathic information sources. RESULTS: Our Google search revealed 110 unique FAQs about osteopathic medicine. The majority of FAQs were classified as fact-based (82/110; 74.55%), nearly half of which (45.12%) were related to the medical practicing privileges of DOs. The FAQs were most commonly answered by academic institutions (44/110, 40.0%). Nearly half (49.09%) of the linked answer sources were deemed inadequate by JAMA benchmark criteria. Of the 110 linked answer sources, 19 (17.27%) misused either osteopathy, osteopath, or both to describe osteopathic physicians. Only 30 sources were linked to US-based osteopathic organizations. Osteopathic organizations were statistically less likely to meet high-transparency criteria than nonosteopathic organizations (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the US public may be unsure about the physician status of DOs, which may prevent securing the professional identity of osteopathic physicians in the eyes of the public. Osteopathic organizations should tailor awareness campaigns toward addressing the common misconceptions revealed by our study. Osteopathic organizations should use transparency criteria as a rubric when publishing information to enhance transparency.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Osteopatia , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Médicos , Humanos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Grad Med Educ ; 14(1): 53-59, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35222821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under the single GME accreditation system, residency programs receive applicants from MD- and DO-granting medical schools, each of which have their own set of licensing examinations, making concordance studies increasingly relevant. Previous studies comparing Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States (COMLEX-USA) and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores have been limited in sample size and examinee composition and have yielded comparisons that may not be generalizable across all applicants. Some osteopathic medical students take USMLE in addition to COMLEX-USA, often at considerable cost and effort, with the aim of making themselves more desirable to potential residency programs. Having more reliable comparisons of COMLEX-USA and USMLE scores would allow program directors to better estimate a score on the alternate examination. OBJECTIVE: To derive an accurate concordance between COMLEX-USA and USMLE scores, based on a large sample of osteopathic students who took both examinations. METHODS: Five colleges of osteopathic medicine, representing various regions of the United States, participated in this study. The data included demographics and COMLEX-USA and USMLE scores from September 2015 through August 2020 for students who took both examinations. We derived the concordance between COMLEX-USA and USMLE scores using equipercentile matching. RESULTS: Comparisons of demographic characteristics showed only minor differences between the sample and the overall population for COMLEX-USA takers, although scores for the study sample were, on average, greater. CONCLUSIONS: A strong association exists between the scores on the COMLEX-USA and USMLE examinations, allowing prediction of performance on USMLE from COMLEX-USA.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Licenciamento em Medicina , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Estados Unidos
11.
Fam Med ; 54(2): 91-96, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The American Osteopathic Association (AOA) agreed to combine its graduate medical education programs with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2020 in an initiative called the Single Accreditation System (SAS). The objective of our study was to identify the impact the SAS had on the ACGME, family medicine (FM), and implications for the future of FM. METHODS: We collected and compiled data from the AOA, ACGME, and the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP). Analysis reveals the effects that the addition of former 122 AOA-accredited FM residencies had on the ACGME and FM programs. RESULTS: Several osteopathic FM programs encountered challenges meeting ACGME accreditation standards. As of June 1, 2020, 89 of 122 accreditation applications received initial or continuing accreditation; the others had accreditation issues to resolve. The Osteopathic Recognition program emphasizing training in osteopathic principles and practices was a popular option in FM residencies. Fewer DOs serve as program directors in former AOA-accredited FM residencies. CONCLUSIONS: The SAS has shifted the balance in the percentages of MDs, DOs, and international medical graduates (IMGs) in FM. Trends in FM show that as more DOs enter the NRMP the percent of MDs and IMGs decreases. In the future, it is projected that DOs will outnumber MDs and IMGs in ACGME FM residencies. The 51 new medical schools started between 2010 and 2020 will generate a test for the integration of their graduates into GME. Increased competition for FM residencies is expected.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Internato e Residência , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Humanos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Médicos Osteopáticos/educação , Estados Unidos
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 224, 2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interprofessional care is paramount in contemporary healthcare practice. How different professions interact, and the characteristics of those practitioners who practice in an interprofessional way are rarely described in the literature. The aim of the current work was to identify the demographic, practice and clinical management characteristics of Australian osteopaths who report referring to podiatrists. METHODS: The study was a secondary analysis of data from the Osteopathy Research and Innovation Network (ORION). Inferential statistics were generated to identify statistically significant demographic, practice and clinical management characteristics associated with referrals to podiatrists by Australian osteopaths. RESULTS: Nine-hundred and ninety-two Australian osteopaths responded to the questionnaire. Sending referrals to a podiatrist was reported by 651 participants (65.6%). Female Australian osteopaths were less likely to report referring to podiatrists compared to male osteopaths (OR 0.76, 95%CI 0.59-0.99). Australian osteopaths who reported referring to podiatrists were more likely to report receiving referrals from podiatrists (OR 9.75, 95%CI 6.98-13.61), use orthopaedic testing in patient assessment (OR 7.62, 95%CI 2.82-20.60), and often treat patients with postural disorders (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.03-2.26), compared to osteopaths who do not refer to podiatrists. CONCLUSION: This study provides initial evidence for the referral relationship between Australian osteopaths and podiatrists. Further work could explore the nature of these referrals, including the complaints resulting in referral and outcomes of care. This information will be useful to those involved in health policy development and the professions advocating for their role in the wider healthcare system.


Assuntos
Médicos Osteopáticos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(4): 187-194, 2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084145

RESUMO

CONTEXT: National licensing exams (NLEs) including the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX) Level 1 evaluate student achievement. Scores have historically been utilized to stratify medical student applicants for residency. Grade point average (GPA), number of practice questions completed, and performance on practice exams have been shown to be predictive of NLE performance. Test anxiety and acute stress have been shown to negatively impact NLE performance. The role of study behaviors and other nonacademic factors in COMLEX Level 1 performance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate academic and nonacademic factors and to correlate them with COMLEX Level 1 performance. Additional analysis is conducted to associate COMLEX Level 1 performance with academic and nonacademic factors when controlling for GPA. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was administered to third- (OMS III) and fourth-year (OMS IV) osteopathic medical students at Kansas City University that had completed the COMLEX Level 1 examination. In total, 72 students responded to the survey. Survey results were linked to student records of GPA and COMLEX Level 1 scores, resulting in 59 complete responses for analysis. Independent-sample t-tests and linear ordinary least squares regression were utilized to analyze the results. RESULTS: The majority of participants are male (62.7%) and OMS III (98.3%) with an average age of 27.14 ± 2.58 (mean ± standard deviation). Further demographic data reveal hours per week spent for personal time during dedicated study (n=46, 19.7 ± 18.53), hours of sleep per night during dedicated study (7.34 ± 0.92), and money spent on board preparation ($1,319.12 ± $689.17). High ($1,600-$3,000), average ($1,000-$1,500), and low ($100-$900) spenders do not statistically differ and COMLEX Level 1 performance is not related to the number of resources utilized (F statistics <1; p>0.05). Pearson correlations reveal a statistically significant relationship between COMLEX Level 1 scores with GPA (0.73, p<0.001), number of practice exams completed (0.39, p<0.001), number of questions completed (0.46, p<0.001), number of weeks of study (0.55, p<0.001), and preparation cost (0.28, p<0.05). The regression analysis revealed that money spent on board preparation, number of questions completed, and time spent studying accounted for 75.8% of the variance in COMLEX Level 1 scores after controlling for GPA. CONCLUSIONS: The data show the association of money spent on board preparation, numbers of questions competed, and time spent studying with a student's COMLEX Level 1 score. Additionally, these results highlight the amount of money students spend on extracurricular materials to prepare for COMLEX Level 1, yet the data show that the number of resources that students utilized is not related to a student's COMLEX Level 1 performance.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(4): e1335-e1342, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396621

RESUMO

Healthcare professionals' advice on lifestyle behaviours is a key factor in improving a nation's health. Although allied health professionals have been well placed to provide such advice as part of patient care, little is known about the characteristics of allied health practitioners who discuss lifestyle topics with patients. This paper focused upon an overlooked avenue for lifestyle advice regarding an allied health profession - osteopathy. A workforce survey including questions about four lifestyle topics (including diet/nutrition, smoking/drugs/alcohol, physical activity/fitness, and stress management) was distributed to a nationally representative sample of Australian registered osteopaths in 2016. Separate multivariate logistic regression and Poisson regression models were developed to determine the most important predictors of the discussion of lifestyle factors. Amongst the 992 participating osteopaths, 89%, 49%, 38%, and 18% often discussed physical activity/fitness, stress management, diet/nutrition, and smoking/drugs/alcohol with their patients, respectively. Approximately 30% of participating osteopaths discussed at least three lifestyle topics with patients. Varied predictors were identified for discussing each lifestyle topic. Osteopaths who often discuss diet/nutrition in patient management plans were more likely to often discuss smoking/drugs/alcohol (OR = 14.13), physical activity/fitness (OR = 2.71), and/or stress management (OR = 1.69). In conclusion, lifestyle factors are often discussed with patients as part of osteopathy treatments in the Australian healthcare context. Osteopaths are well positioned to initiate discussions regarding patient lifestyles, and such discussions may be an effective contribution to health promotion.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Austrália , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(1): 21-29, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852185

RESUMO

CONTEXT: It is generally acknowledged that osteopathic physicians take a holistic approach to patient care. This style may help prevent the progression of painful musculoskeletal conditions, particularly if combined with osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine if osteopathic medical care lowers the risk of progression from localized chronic low back pain to widespread pain and lessens the impact of pain on health-related quality of life. METHODS: A historical cohort study was conducted within the Pain Registry for Epidemiological, Clinical, and Interventional Studies and Innovation (PRECISION Pain Research Registry) using data acquired from April 2016 through March 2021. Registry participants aged 21-79 years with chronic low back pain at the baseline encounter were potentially eligible for inclusion if they had a treating physician, completed all four quarterly follow-up encounters, and did not report physician crossover at the final 12-month encounter. Eligible participants were classified according to the type of physician provider at baseline and thereby into osteopathic or allopathic medical care groups. Participants were also classified according to prior use of OMT at the final encounter. Widespread pain was measured at baseline and each quarterly encounter to determine the period prevalence rate of widespread pain and its severity over 12 months using the Minimum Dataset for Chronic Low Back Pain recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Participants who reported "not being bothered at all" by widespread pain during each encounter were classified as not having widespread pain, whereas those who were bothered "a little" or "a lot" at any quarterly encounter were classified as having widespread pain. The severity of widespread pain was measured by summing participant responses at each encounter. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System was used at each encounter to measure health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores for physical function, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, participation in social roles and activities, and pain interference with activities. RESULTS: A total of 462 participants were studied, including 101 (21.9%) in the osteopathic medical care group and 73 (15.8%) who used OMT. The mean age of participants at baseline was 52.7 ± 13.2 years (range, 22-79 years) and 336 (72.7%) were female. A lower period prevalence rate of widespread pain was observed in the osteopathic medical care group (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81; p=0.006) and in the OMT group (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.75; p=0.004), although the latter finding did not persist after adjustment for potential confounders. The osteopathic medical care and OMT groups both reported lower widespread pain severity. The osteopathic medical care group also reported better age- and sex-adjusted outcomes for each of the seven HRQOL dimensions throughout the study. The OMT group reported better outcomes in five of the HRQOL dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the view that osteopathic physicians practice a holistic approach to medical care that manifests itself through a lower risk of progression from chronic low back pain to widespread pain, lower widespread pain severity, and lesser deficits in HRQOL. Similar findings were generally associated with OMT use.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Médicos Osteopáticos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 28: 114-120, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, more parents have been seeking help from osteopaths for their infants and children in recent years. This implies an increasing demand of reliable evidence regarding the effectiveness of osteopathic intervention for this group. OBJECTIVE: To identify the 'typical' (most common) health concerns of parents when presenting their infants (age 0-12 months) in pediatric osteopathic practices. METHODS: For the purpose of this survey, well-trained osteopaths who specialize in the treatment of children and infants were selected. A documentation form containing a list of the likely most common infant health problems, developed by means of systematic literature analyses, was provided to experienced osteopaths to assess which health problems were seen most frequently. RESULTS: Eighty-one osteopaths were contacted, of which 64 (79 %) responded and returned the documentation form. Nine documentation forms could not be evaluated. The remaining 55 documentation forms included information on 2833 health concerns. Quantitatively, there was no dominant health problem, but five problems were found to be common: 21 % of the cases were idiopathic infant asymmetry, 17 % were plagiocephaly, 16 % were excessive crying, and 14 % were feeding and sleep disorders. All other problems were observed as far less frequent. In addition, osteopaths reported 423 other health concerns that were not specified in the documentation form. CONCLUSIONS: In this survey, infants that were presented in osteopathic practices often had one or more of those five health problems mentioned above. A large observational trial is currently underway to document changes observed during osteopathic treatment of these health problems.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Osteopath Med ; 122(1): 31-43, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643344

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The thoracic spine is a common area of focus in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) for a variety of conditions. Thoracic spine somatic dysfunction diagnosis is achieved by palpating for asymmetry at the tips of the transverse processes (TPs). Previous studies reveal that instead of following the rule of threes, the TPs of a given thoracic vertebra generally align with the spinous process (SP) of the vertebra above. Ultrasonography has been widely utilized as a diagnostic tool to monitor musculoskeletal conditions; it does not utilize ionizing radiation, and it has comparable results to gold-standard modalities. In the case of thoracic somatic dysfunction, ultrasound (US) can be utilized to determine the location of each vertebral TP and its relationship with the SP. Previous studies have investigated the correlation between OMM and ultrasonography of the cervical, lumbar, and sacral regions. However, there has been no study yet that has compared osteopathic structural examination with ultrasonographic examination of the thoracic vertebral region. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between osteopathic palpation and ultrasonographic measurements of the thoracic spine by creating a study design that utilizes interexaminer agreement and correlation. METHODS: The ClinicalTrials.gov study identifier is NCT04823637. Subjects were student volunteers recruited from the Midwestern University (MWU)-Glendale campus. A nontoxic, nonpermanent marker was utilized to mark bony landmarks on the skin. Two neuromusculoskeletal board-certified physicians (OMM1, OMM2) separately performed structural exams by palpating T2-T5 TPs to determine vertebral rotation. Two sonographers (US1, US2) separately scanned and measured the distance from the tip of the SP to the adjacent TPs of the vertebral segment below. Demographic variables were summarized with mean and standard deviation. Interexaminer agreement was assessed with percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa, and Fleiss' Kappa. Correlation was measured by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Recruitment and protocols were approved by the MWU Institutional Review Board (IRB). RESULTS: US had fair interexaminer agreement for the overall most prominent segmental rotation of the T3-T5 thoracic spine, with Cohen's Kappa at 0.27 (0.09, 0.45), and a total agreement percentage at 51.5%. Osteopathic palpation revealed low interexaminer agreement for the overall most prominent vertebral rotation, with Cohen's Kappa at 0.05 (0.0, 0.27), and 31.8%. Segment-specific vertebral analysis revealed slight agreement between US examiners, with a correlation coefficient of 0.23, whereas all other pairwise comparisons showed low agreement and correlation. At T4, US had slight interexaminer agreement with 0.24 correlation coefficient, and osteopathic palpation showed low interexaminer (OMM1 vs. OMM2) agreement (0.17 correlation coefficient). At T5, there was moderate agreement between the two sonographers with 0.44 (0.27, 0.60) and 63.6%, with a correlation coefficient of 0.57, and slight agreement between OMM1 and OMM2 with 0.12 (0.0, 0.28) and 42.4%, with 0.23 correlation coefficient. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study of an asymptomatic population revealed that there is a low-to-moderate interexaminer reliability between sonographers, low-to-slight interexaminer reliability between osteopathic physicians, and low interexaminer reliability between OMM palpatory examination and ultrasonographic evaluation of the thoracic spine.


Assuntos
Medicina Osteopática , Médicos Osteopáticos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
18.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 252, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While evidence-based practice (EBP) is widely accepted across healthcare professions, research investigating its implementation in manual therapy professions such as osteopathy is limited. The primary aim of this study was to investigate Italian osteopaths' attitudes, skills, and use of EBP. A secondary purpose was to understand the obstacles and enablers to EBP adoption in the Italian osteopathic context. METHODS: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted (April to June 2020) among a sample of Italian osteopaths. Eligible participants were invited to complete the Italian-translated Evidence-Based practice Attitude and Utilization Survey (EBASE) anonymously online using various recruitment strategies, including email and social media campaigns. In addition to the three EBASE sub-scores (attitudes, skills and use), the demographic characteristics of the sample were considered. RESULTS: A total of 473 osteopaths responded to the survey. The sample appeared to represent the Italian osteopathic profession. The majority of participants had a favorable attitude toward EBP. Eighty-eight percent of respondents agreed that EBP was necessary for osteopathy practice and that scientific literature and research findings were beneficial to their clinical scenario (95%). Perceived skill levels in EBP were rated as moderate, with the lowest scores for items relating to clinical research and systematic review conduct. Apart from reading/reviewing scientific literature and using online search engines to locate relevant research papers, participant engagement in all other EBP-related activities was generally low. Clinical practice was perceived to be based on a very small proportion of clinical research evidence. The primary obstacles to EBP implementation were a dearth of clinical evidence in osteopathy, and poor skills in applying research findings. The primary enablers of EBP adoption were access to full-text articles, internet connectivity at work, and access to online databases. CONCLUSIONS: Italian osteopaths were largely supportive of evidence-based practice but lacked basic skills in EBP and rarely engaged in EBP activities. The updating of osteopathic training curriculum and professional formal regulation in Italy could provide a suitable framework to improve EBP skills and use.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos Osteopáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2714-2723, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pass rate on the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) nephrology certifying exam has declined and is among the lowest of all internal medicine (IM) subspecialties. In recent years, there have also been fewer applicants for the nephrology fellowship match. METHODS: This retrospective observational study assessed how changes between 2010 and 2019 in characteristics of 4094 graduates of US ACGME-accredited nephrology fellowship programs taking the ABIM nephrology certifying exam for the first time, and how characteristics of their fellowship programs were associated with exam performance. The primary outcome measure was performance on the nephrology certifying exam. Fellowship program pass rates over the decade were also studied. RESULTS: Lower IM certifying exam score, older age, female sex, international medical graduate (IMG) status, and having trained at a smaller nephrology fellowship program were associated with poorer nephrology certifying exam performance. The mean IM certifying exam percentile score among those who subsequently took the nephrology certifying exam decreased from 56.7 (SD, 27.9) to 46.1 (SD, 28.7) from 2010 to 2019. When examining individuals with comparable IM certifying exam performance, IMGs performed less well than United States medical graduates (USMGs) on the nephrology certifying exam. In 2019, only 57% of nephrology fellowship programs had aggregate 3-year certifying exam pass rates ≥80% among their graduates. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in IM certifying exam performance, certain trainee demographics, and poorer performance among those from smaller fellowship programs explain much of the decline in nephrology certifying exam performance. IM certifying exam performance was the dominant determinant.


Assuntos
Certificação/tendências , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo/tendências , Medicina Interna/educação , Nefrologia/educação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Certificação/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicina Interna/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Interna/tendências , Masculino , Nefrologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Nefrologia/tendências , Médicos Osteopáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
20.
J Osteopath Med ; 121(11): 857-861, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411468

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Healthcare delivery was dramatically affected during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Many outpatient visits were cancelled or forgone for fear of exposure to the virus, allowing telemedicine to take on a much larger role in healthcare. The delivery of manual therapies, such as osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT), via telehealth posed a unique challenge as these are typically provided in-person by a trained osteopathic physician. This study provides a description of one osteopathic pediatrician's experience in delivering osteopathic interventions to pediatric patients via telehealth. To our knowledge, these techniques have not previously been described in the literature. OBJECTIVES: To detail the experience of one osteopathic pediatrician's experience in delivering osteopathic interventions via telehealth. METHODS: Patients were offered the option of converting their existing OMT appointment to a telehealth visit. Prior to the appointment, instructions were emailed to the patient's parent or guardian along with a voluntary survey to provide feedback. Thirty-minute telehealth visits were conducted during which the provider gave verbal and visual instructions to a parent or guardian over a video platform to guide them in providing treatment to the patient based on osteopathic principles. Patients aged 3 and older rated their pain before and after the appointment using the Wong-Baker FACES scale. Deidentified patient demographics, chief complaints, treatments, anatomic locations, and pain scores were recorded in a REDcap database. Descriptive statistics were analyzed and paired samples t-tests were used with a p-value of <0.05 used to determine significance. RESULTS: Eighteen patients ranging from 6 months to 19 years of age were treated utilizing osteopathic interventions via telehealth during 54 distinct visits. The most common chief complaints treated were back (n=31; 26.3%) and neck (n=28; 23.7%) pain. The most common osteopathic techniques upon which instruction was based were inhibition (n=131; 29.7%) soft tissue (n=127; 28.8%) and counterstrain (n=78; 17.7%). The average post-treatment pain score (2.57) was significantly lower than the average pre-treatment pain score (6.77) p<0.01. No serious complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In our small retrospective case series, osteopathic interventions via telehealth resulted in decreased average pain scores following treatment while minimizing risk of viral exposure and transmission. Further study is needed to determine if such treatment methods could be effective on a larger scale when distance or illness preclude an in-person OMT visit.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Médicos Osteopáticos , Telemedicina , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
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