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1.
Theriogenology ; 178: 77-84, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801768

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the progesterone (P4) release profile provided by four commercially available intravaginal P4 devices, as well as the effect of circulating P4 concentrations exclusively from these devices on the development of the dominant follicle (DF) in Nelore (Bos indicus) cows. Therefore, non-lactating multiparous Nelore cows were enrolled in an experimental design, over three replicates, starting on Day -9 with the insertion of a reused P4 device (2 g - original P4 load) for 7 d, followed by two treatments of cloprostenol sodium (PGF; 0.482 mg), 24 h apart, on Days -3 and -2. Just before device removal, on Day -2, a norgestomet ear implant was inserted and, 2 d later (Day 0), at the time of norgestomet withdrawal, cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the intravaginal devices: Primer (0.5 g); Prociclar (0.75 g); Sincrogest (1 g); or CIDR (1.9 g), and 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) im. Blood samples were collected immediately before P4 device insertion, 12 h later and daily over 15 d (1 d after P4 device removal). Ultrasound examinations were performed on Days 0, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 14 to evaluate ovarian dynamics. Results are presented as mean ± SEM and differences were considered when P ≤ 0.05. Overall, the devices resulted in distinct circulating P4 concentrations over 10 d, varying according to their initial P4 load and P4 impregnated surface area. Primer provided the lowest circulating P4 concentrations over time, whereas, CIDR had the greatest concentration. Sincrogest and Prociclar were similar, producing intermediary circulating P4. There was no effect of treatment on the DF diameter on any specific day, nor on follicular growth rate from Day 7-10. However, the Primer device resulted in a greater mean DF diameter over time. Additionally, greater circulating P4 concentrations, mainly during the first 3 d of device insertion, were associated with smaller DF diameters regardless of the treatment. In conclusion, results from this study provided a better understanding of the P4 profile of intravaginal P4 devices, as well as, their effect on DF development in Bos indicus cows. These data contribute to optimize the use of P4 devices in the reproductive management of beef cattle.


Assuntos
Inseminação Artificial , Progesterona , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Bovinos , Cloprostenol , Estradiol , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Folículo Ovariano , Ovário
2.
Theriogenology ; 179: 237-244, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896746

RESUMO

Accurate and reliable monitoring of ovarian activity is challenging in many felids as current methods are either invasive or not amenable to real-time assessments. This 45-day study assessed whether accelerometry and infrared (IR) thermography can be used to address these limitations. Intact female domestic cats (n = 12) were given 0.088 mg kg-1 day-1 altrenogest (progestin) orally for 37 days to suppress follicular growth. On Day 40, cats were given 75 IU eCG im to induce follicular growth and 50 IU hCG im 80 h later to induce ovulation. Cats were ovariohysterectomised 30-31 h after the hCG treatment. Actical® accelerometers were fitted to the cats' collars and activity monitored continuously from the start of the altrenogest treatment until ovariohysterectomy. Infrared images of the perivulvar, perianal, and gluteal area were taken of each cat on Day 30 and daily from Days 36-45 of the study. Perivulvar temperature (PVT), PVT relative to gluteal temperatures (PVT-GT), and PVT relative to perianal temperature (PVT-PAT) were recorded for each image. Blood samples were collected on Days 0, 10, 30, and 40, immediately prior to the hCG treatment, and at the time of ovariohysterectomy. Serum oestradiol and progesterone concentrations indicated complete ovarian suppression by Day 30 and, together with morphological assessment of the ovaries, confirmed the induction of follicular growth and ovulation in all cats. Daily activity counts differed among cats (P < 0.001), so the daily activity counts of each cat were converted to a proportional change from the average daily activity count from Days 30-39 (defined as the 'proportional daily activity'). Proportional daily activity counts increased after the stimulation of follicular growth with eCG, with peak levels (2.03 ± 0.29-fold higher than pre-treatment levels; P = 0.006) occurring three days after the eCG treatment. The PVT-GT showed the greatest sensitivity to detect subtle changes in body temperature, increasing from early to late follicular growth (1.96 ± 0.33 °C increase from Day 41-43; P < 0.001) and decreasing after hCG-induced ovulation (1.24 ± 0.41 °C decrease from Day 43-45; P = 0.01). In conclusion, both accelerometry and IR thermography show potential as non-invasive, real-time methods for assessing ovarian activity in cats, but further research is required to determine if these methods could be used to monitor natural/non-stimulated oestrous cycles.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica , Ovário , Acelerometria/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Estradiol , Feminino , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Ovulação , Termografia/veterinária
3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132166, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826900

RESUMO

Nanomaterials are the sixth most emerging contaminants that are entering into aquatic habitat posing a risk to the inhabiting organisms. Nanoparticles of copper ferrite have been extensively used in biomedical applications. However, very limited studies are available on the cytotoxicity evaluation of copper ferrite nanoparticles (CuFe2O4NPs) on different cell lines. The current work investigates on the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and morphological variations triggered by CuFe2O4NPs in Channel catfish ovary (CCO) cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione sulfotransferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) assays after 24 h of treatment. Dose dependent decline in cell survival was noticed in MTT and NRU assays. A significant increase in LPO, GST and GPX was observed in CCO cells exposed to CuFe2O4NPs after 24 h of treatment. However, the CAT and GSH levels in CCO cells exposed to CuFe2O4NPs decreased significantly after 24 h. The CCO cells exposed to 10 µg/mL concentration of CuFe2O4NPs for 24 h showed remarkable changes in their morphology. Further, the study also describes the detailed mechanism of toxicity of CuFe2O4NPs in other model cell lines to probe the risk of inhabiting organisms.


Assuntos
Ictaluridae , Nanopartículas , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Feminino , Compostos Férricos , Ovário , Estresse Oxidativo
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1866(1): 130023, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626748

RESUMO

Humanin, a mitochondria-derived peptide, has been found to exert variously protective function in many tissues, especially in the nervous tissues. However, relatively limited studies have focused on the role of humanin in the regulation of reproduction. Current observations indicate that humanin plays an important role in regulating the response of the cell to oxidative stress and apoptosis in ovaries and testes via the modulation of several signaling pathways, especially when the body is in an abnormal state. Even so, the detailed mechanism of humanin function needs to be explored urgently. In this passage, we demonstrate how humanin exerts its protective role in female and male reproduction and raise several questions that need further investigations. Given humanin's new frontier for the design of novel therapeutic approaches for male infertility, male contraception, female infertility, and glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome, it is worthy of further study on its protective effects and clinical applications in reproductive function.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Líquido Folicular/citologia , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Testículo/metabolismo
5.
Gene ; 809: 146023, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673205

RESUMO

Steroidogenic factor 1 (sf1) (officially designated as nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 [NR5A1]) is an important regulator of gonad development. Previous studies on sf1 in fish have been limited to cloning and in vitro expression experiments. In this study, we used antisense RNA to down-regulate sf1 transcription and sf1 protein expression. Down-regulation of sf1 resulted in an increase in body weight and inhibition of gonadal development in both males and females with the consequent lower gonadosomatic index compared to fish in the control group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the gonads of fish with down-regulated sf1 revealed fewer seminiferous tubules and sperm in the testis of males. In addition, the oocytes were mainly stage II and many of them were atretic follicle. We conducted comparative transcriptome and proteome analyses between the sf1-down-regulated group and the control group. These analyses revealed multiple gene-protein pairs and pathways involved in regulating the observed changes, including 44 and 74 differently expressed genes and proteins in males and females, respectively. The results indicated that dysfunctional retinal metabolism and fatty acid metabolism could be causes of the observed weight gain and gonad abnormalities in sf1-down-regulated fish. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using antisense RNA for gene editing in fish. This methodology allows the study gene function in species less amenable to gene editing as for example aquaculture species with long life cycles.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Ciclídeos/genética , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fator Esteroidogênico 1/genética , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Aquicultura , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , RNA Antissenso , Fator Esteroidogênico 1/metabolismo , Transfecção
6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166295, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718118

RESUMO

Several organs, such as the heart, breasts, intestine, testes, and ovaries, have been reported to be target tissues of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To date, no studies have demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 infection in the female reproductive system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on ovarian function by comparing follicular fluid (FF) from control and recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and by evaluating the influence of these FF on human endothelial and non-luteinized granulosa cell cultures. Our results showed that most FFs (91.3%) from screened post COVID-19 patients were positive for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, patients with higher levels of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 had lower numbers of retrieved oocytes. While VEGF and IL-1ß were significantly lower in post COVID-19 FF, IL-10 did not differ from that in control FF. Moreover, in COV434 cells stimulated with FF from post COVID-19 patients, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), estrogen-receptor ß (Erß), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were significantly decreased, whereas estrogen-receptor α (ERα) and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD) did not change. In endothelial cells stimulated with post COVID-19 FF, we observed a decrease in cell migration without changes in protein expression of certain angiogenic factors. Both cell types showed a significantly higher γH2AX expression when exposed to post COVID-19 FF. In conclusion, our results describe for the first time that the SARS-CoV-2 infection adversely affects the follicular microenvironment, thus dysregulating ovarian function.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Ovário/metabolismo , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fertilidade , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Endocrinology ; 163(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614143

RESUMO

AROMATASE is encoded by the CYP19A1 gene and is the cytochrome enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis in vertebrates. In most mammals, a peak of CYP19A1 gene expression occurs in the fetal XX gonad when sexual differentiation is initiated. To elucidate the role of this peak, we produced 3 lines of TALEN genetically edited CYP19A1 knockout (KO) rabbits that were devoid of any estradiol production. All the KO XX rabbits developed as females with aberrantly small ovaries in adulthood, an almost empty reserve of primordial follicles, and very few large antrum follicles. Ovulation never occurred. Our histological, immunohistological, and transcriptomic analyses showed that the estradiol surge in the XX fetal rabbit gonad is not essential to its determination as an ovary, or for meiosis. However, it is mandatory for the high proliferation and differentiation of both somatic and germ cells, and consequently for establishment of the ovarian reserve.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/metabolismo , Ovário/embriologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Processos de Determinação Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Gônadas , Mutação INDEL , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovulação , Fenótipo , Coelhos , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo
8.
Endocrinology ; 163(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662386

RESUMO

The sex-determining region of the Y chromosome, Sry/SRY, is an initiation factor for testis development in both humans and mice. Although the functional compatibility between murine SRY and human SRY was previously examined in transgenic mice, their equivalency remains inconclusive. Because molecular interaction and timeline of mammalian sex determination were mostly described in murine experiments, we generated a mouse model in which Sry was substituted with human SRY to verify the compatibility. The mouse model had the human SRY open reading frame at the locus of murine Sry exon 1-Sry(SRY) mice-and was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The reproductive system of the mice was analyzed. The expression of human SRY in the fetal gonadal ridge of Sry(SRY) mice was detected. The external and internal genitalia of adult Sry(SRY) mice were similar to those of wild-type females, without any significant difference in anogenital distance. Sry(SRY) mice obtained gonads, which were morphologically considered as ovaries. Histological analysis revealed that the cortical regions of gonads from adult Sry(SRY) mice contained few follicles. We successfully replaced genes on the Y chromosome with targeted genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Because the Sry(SRY) XY mice did not develop testis, we concluded that human SRY was insufficient to drive testis development in mouse embryos. The difference in response elements and lack of glutamine-rich domains may have invalidated human SRY function in mice. Signal transduction between Sry/SRY expression and Sox9/SOX9 activation is possibly organized in a species-specific manner.


Assuntos
Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/biossíntese , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Éxons , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Gônadas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Domínios Proteicos , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Diferenciação Sexual , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Testículo/fisiologia , Transgenes
9.
Endocrinology ; 163(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734245

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are generated during incomplete combustion of organic materials. Prior research has demonstrated that BaP is a prenatal ovarian toxicant and carcinogen. However, the metabolic pathways active in the embryo and its developing gonads and the mechanisms by which prenatal exposure to BaP predisposes to ovarian tumors later in life remain to be fully elucidated. To address these data gaps, we orally dosed pregnant female mice with BaP from embryonic day (E) 6.5 to E11.5 (0, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg/day) for metabolite measurement or E9.5 to E11.5 (0 or 3.33 mg/kg/day) for embryonic gonad RNA sequencing. Embryos were harvested at E13.5 for both experiments. The sum of BaP metabolite concentrations increased significantly with dose in the embryos and placentas, and concentrations were significantly higher in female than male embryos and in embryos than placentas. RNA sequencing revealed that enzymes involved in metabolic activation of BaP are expressed at moderate to high levels in embryonic gonads and that greater transcriptomic changes occurred in the ovaries in response to BaP than in the testes. We identified 490 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with false discovery rate P-values < 0.05 when comparing BaP-exposed to control ovaries but no statistically significant DEGs between BaP-exposed and control testes. Genes related to monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activity, prolactin family genes, and several keratin genes were among the most upregulated genes in the BaP-exposed ovaries. Results show that developing ovaries are more sensitive than testes to prenatal BaP exposure, which may be related to higher concentrations of BaP metabolites in female embryos.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Gônadas/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Prenhez , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Inflamação , Queratinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA-Seq , Fatores Sexuais , Testículo/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 41(1): 76-81, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741765

RESUMO

Ovarian seromucinous borderline tumors (SMBT) and clear cell tumors are both closely associated with endometriosis and share, in a proportion of cases, a molecular pathway involving ARID1A mutations, but they have been rarely described in association. We report a case series of 4 clear cell tumors (3 carcinomas, 1 borderline adenofibroma) coexisting in the same ovary with SMBT. In all cases, the SMBT was the predominant component and we highlight that adequate sampling of these tumors is important to detect small clear cell carcinomas, thus potentially altering the treatment and prognosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico , Adenofibroma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/complicações , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adenofibroma/complicações , Adenofibroma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/complicações , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 41(1): 68-75, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577227

RESUMO

A subset of ovarian mucinous tumors demonstrates müllerian-type epithelium, with such lesions variably designated "endocervical-like" and seromucinous since their popularization based on a report of borderline examples in 1989. While müllerian mucinous borderline tumors and carcinomas have been highlighted in the literature, there has been minimal attention given to benign müllerian mucinous tumors, particularly müllerian mucinous cystadenomas. Given the paucity of literature describing the features of müllerian mucinous cystadenomas/cystadenofibromas, diagnostic difficulties may arise when papillary features are present and in cases that show a subtle transition from endometriosis. We thus reviewed 25 cases of müllerian mucinous cystadenoma/cystadenofibroma to highlight the notable characteristics of this entity, including gross, cytologic, and architectural features that aid in the distinction from müllerian mucinous borderline tumors as well as, rarely, metastatic tumors. The patients ranged in age from 26 to 85 yr old. Bilateral ovarian involvement was frequent (40%). The ovaries ranged from 2.3 to 26 cm in greatest dimension. Most were multicystic (18 cases) and contained tenacious mucoid material (14 cases). All cases demonstrated predominantly columnar mucinous epithelium with abundant pale-pink cytoplasm. A minor component of ciliated and endometrioid epithelium was seen in 15 and 2 cases, respectively. Broad papillary formations were frequently encountered (9 cases) as was epithelial papillary tufting comprising <10% of the tumor (6 cases). Endometriosis was present in 9 cases, with a transition from endometriosis to mucinous epithelium noted in 8 cases. This series highlights the morphologic features of a relatively uncommon, benign, endometriosis-associated ovarian tumor that may be confused with a müllerian mucinous borderline tumor or bland metastatic mucinous tumors. It also provides an argument for the terminology "müllerian mucinous cystadenoma" or "cystadenofibroma" rather than "seromucinous cystadenoma" due to the frequent association with endometriosis as well as the dominant mucinous epithelium.


Assuntos
Cistoadenofibroma/patologia , Cistadenoma Mucinoso/patologia , Endometriose/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cistoadenofibroma/complicações , Cistadenoma Mucinoso/complicações , Endometriose/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Ovário/patologia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113068, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902777

RESUMO

Procymidone (PCM) is a fungicide commonly used to prevent and control plant diseases, and it is also an environmental endocrine disruptor that has a typical anti-androgen effect on the function and/or structure of the vertebrate reproductive system. The activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) will fold the protein correctly to ensure the cell's survival. PCM regulates GRP78 by affecting the level of hormones, and there is a regulatory relationship between the UPR, the circRNAs and the miRNAs. In vivo experiments, PCM (suspended in soybean oil) was orally administered to adolescent female mice for 21 days in 3 different doses of 50 mg kg-1 day-1 (low dose), 100 mg kg-1 day-1 (medium dose) and 200 mg kg-1 day-1 (high dose) to cause ovaries and uteruses damage, and in vitro experiments, various doses of PCM from 0.33 × 10-5 (low dose) to 1 × 10-5 (medium dose) then 3 × 10-5 M (high dose) were used to induce injury on the ovaries and uteri of the mice. We found out that both in vivo and in vitro, PCM caused dose-dependent damages to the ovaries and uteri, increased their circRNA Scar levels and decreased circZc3h4 abundance. Also, all UPR signaling pathways in the low-dose group and some in the middle-dose group were activated. It is speculated that UPR may antagonize the partial ovarian and uterine damage in adolescent mice induced by PCM at doses less than NOAEL via changes in circZc3h4 and circRNA Scar.


Assuntos
Ovário , RNA Circular , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes , Cicatriz/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos , Ovário/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Útero
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969801

RESUMO

A healthy 38-year-old woman, with no significant medical or surgical history, was referred to the gynaecology emergency department with acute low quadrant abdominal pain and nausea. On examination, painful palpation of right iliac fossa, abdominal guarding and positive Blumberg's sign were noted. An abdominal-pelvic CT scan showed a hypodense tubular structure with peripheral enhancement to the right of the inferior vena cava, suggestive of thrombosis of the right ovarian vein. The only risk factor identified was the use of the combined contraceptive pill.


Assuntos
Ovário , Trombose , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948315

RESUMO

The development of an adequate blood vessel network is crucial for the accomplishment of ovarian follicle growth and ovulation, which is necessary to support the proliferative and endocrine functions of the follicular cells. Although the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) through gonadotropins guides ovarian angiogenesis, the role exerted by the switch on of Progesterone (P4) during the periovulatory phase remains to be clarified. The present research aimed to investigate in vivo VEGF-mediated mechanisms by inducing the development of periovulatory follicles using a pharmacologically validated synchronization treatment carried out in presence or absence of P4 receptor antagonist RU486. Spatio-temporal expression profiles of VEGF, FLT1, and FLK1 receptors and the two major MAPK/ERKs and PI3K/AKT downstream pathways were analyzed on granulosa and on theca compartment. For the first time, the results demonstrated that in vivo administration of P4 antagonist RU486 inhibits follicular VEGF receptors' signaling mainly acting on the theca layer by downregulating the activation of ERKs and AKTs. Under the effect of RU486, periovulatory follicles' microarchitecture did not move towards the periovulatory stage. The present evidence provides new insights on P4 in vivo biological effects in driving vascular and tissue remodeling during the periovulatory phase.


Assuntos
Mifepristona/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Gonadotropinas/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Suínos
15.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944084

RESUMO

Interspecific hybridization may lead to sterility and/or inviability through differential expression of genes and transposable elements (TEs). In Drosophila, studies have reported massive TE mobilization in hybrids from interspecific crosses of species presenting high divergence times. However, few studies have examined the consequences of TE mobilization upon hybridization in recently diverged species, such as Drosophila arizonae and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced transcriptomes of D. arizonae and the subspecies D. m. wrigleyi and their reciprocal hybrids, as well as piRNAs, to analyze the impact of genomic stress on TE regulation. Our results revealed that the differential expression in both gonadal tissues of parental species was similar. Globally, ovaries and testes showed few deregulated TEs compared with both parental lines. Analyses of small RNA data showed that in ovaries, the TE upregulation is likely due to divergence of copies inherited from parental genomes and lack of piRNAs mapping to them. Nevertheless, in testes, the divergent expression of genes associated with chromatin state and piRNA pathway potentially indicates that TE differential expression is related to the divergence of regulatory genes that play a role in modulating transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Drosophila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gônadas/metabolismo , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Testículo/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948223

RESUMO

Insertions of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotic genomes are usually associated with repressive chromatin, which spreads to neighbouring genomic sequences. In ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster, the Piwi-piRNA pathway plays a key role in the transcriptional silencing of TEs considered to be exerted mostly through the establishment of H3K9me3 histone marks recruiting Heterochromatin Protein 1a (HP1a). Here, using RNA-seq, we investigated the expression of TEs and the adjacent genomic regions upon Piwi and HP1a germline knockdowns sharing a similar genetic background. We found that the depletion of Piwi and HP1a led to the derepression of only partially overlapping TE sets. Several TEs were silenced predominantly by HP1a, whereas the upregulation of some other TEs was more pronounced upon Piwi knockdown and, surprisingly, was diminished upon a Piwi/HP1a double-knockdown. We revealed that HP1a loss influenced the expression of thousands of protein-coding genes mostly not adjacent to TE insertions and, in particular, downregulated a putative transcriptional factor required for TE activation. Nevertheless, our results indicate that Piwi and HP1a cooperatively exert repressive effects on the transcription of euchromatic loci flanking the insertions of some Piwi-regulated TEs. We suggest that this mechanism controls the silencing of a small set of TE-adjacent tissue-specific genes, preventing their inappropriate expression in ovaries.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Feminino
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 812, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Litter size is an important index of mammalian prolificacy and is determined by the ovulation rate. The ovary is a crucial organ for mammalian reproduction and is associated with follicular development, maturation and ovulation. However, prolificacy is influenced by multiple factors, and its molecular regulation in the follicular phase remains unclear. METHODS: Ten female goats with no significant differences in age and weight were randomly selected and divided into either the high-yielding group (n = 5, HF) or the low-yielding group (n = 5, LF). Ovarian tissues were collected from goats in the follicular phase and used to construct mRNA and miRNA sequencing libraries to analyze transcriptomic variation between high- and low-yield Yunshang black goats. Furthermore, integrated analysis of the differentially expressed (DE) miRNA-mRNA pairs was performed based on their correlation. The STRING database was used to construct a PPI network of the DEGs. RT-qPCR was used to validate the results of the predicted miRNA-mRNA pairs. Luciferase analysis and CCK-8 assay were used to detect the function of the miRNA-mRNA pairs and the proliferation of goat granulosa cells (GCs). RESULTS: A total of 43,779 known transcripts, 23,067 novel transcripts, 424 known miRNAs and 656 novel miRNAs were identified by RNA-seq in the ovaries from both groups. Through correlation analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, 263 negatively correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs were identified in the LF vs. HF comparison. Annotation analysis of the DE miRNA-mRNA pairs identified targets related to biological processes such as "estrogen receptor binding (GO:0030331)", "oogenesis (GO:0048477)", "ovulation cycle process (GO:0022602)" and "ovarian follicle development (GO:0001541)". Subsequently, five KEGG pathways (oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, GnRH signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway and TGF-ß signaling pathway) were identified in the interaction network related to follicular development, and a PPI network was also constructed. In the network, we found that CDK12, FAM91A1, PGS1, SERTM1, SPAG5, SYNE1, TMEM14A, WNT4, and CAMK2G were the key nodes, all of which were targets of the DE miRNAs. The PPI analysis showed that there was a clear interaction among the CAMK2G, SERTM1, TMEM14A, CDK12, SYNE1 and WNT4 genes. In addition, dual luciferase reporter and CCK-8 assays confirmed that miR-1271-3p suppressed the proliferation of GCs by inhibiting the expression of TXLNA. CONCLUSIONS: These results increase the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying goat prolificacy. These results also provide a basis for studying interactions between genes and miRNAs, as well as the functions of the pathways in ovarian tissues involved in goat prolificacy in the follicular phase.


Assuntos
Fase Folicular , MicroRNAs , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Cabras/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Ovário , RNA Mensageiro/genética
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 547, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779925

RESUMO

In order to determine whether seasonal variations may influence the estrous cycle length (ECL), corpus luteum size (CLS), maximum area of CL (MACL), day of cycle with maximum area of CL (DCMACL), and pre-ovulatory follicles size (PFS), ten Criollo Limonero heifers were subjected to daily ultrasound ovary scanning throughout their estrous cycles during three seasons: hot-dry (HD), hot-humid (HH), and wind-rain (WR). The effect of season on ECL, MACL, DCMACL, and PFS was analyzed with an ANOVA (PROC GLM, SAS), whereas, for the effect of season on CLS, an ANOVA with repeated measures (PROC MIXED, SAS) was used. Results showed no effect (P > 0.05) of season on ECL, MACL, and DCMACL. However, size of PFS was larger (P < 0.02) during the WR season and the CLS tended (P < 0.09) to be lower during the HH. In conclusion, the relative stability of ECL, MACL, DCMACL, PFS, and CLS measures suggests no major seasonal variations which could imply adaptation capability of Criollo Limonero cattle to the tropical environment.


Assuntos
Corpo Lúteo , Folículo Ovariano , Animais , Bovinos , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/diagnóstico por imagem , Ovário , Ovulação , Progesterona , Estações do Ano
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753724

RESUMO

Synovial sarcoma (SS) has a rare occurrence in the female genital tract. Only three prior reports of primary ovarian sarcoma could be retrieved after a thorough literature review. We are reporting a case of primary ovarian SS in a young woman. The tumour showed monophasic spindle cell morphology, and there was a wide list of differential diagnosis to consider. We confirmed the diagnosis by cytogenetics Flourescent Insitu Hybridisation (FISH) technique to identify the classical translocation. The diagnosis of this disease can be challenging especially if the tumour is of monophasic type. Morphology and immunohistochemistry are not enough to confirm the diagnosis in many cases. A confirmatory molecular pathology test is paramount. We have discussed the differential diagnosis of spindle cell tumours in ovary. We suggest that SS should be in the differential diagnoses when facing any atypical spindle cell tumour in the ovary. Molecular pathology techniques can help to confirm the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sarcoma Sinovial , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ovário , Sarcoma Sinovial/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma Sinovial/genética , Translocação Genética
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 344, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ewe lamb nutritional and physiological state interfere with the ovarian environment and fertility. The lack or excess of circulating nutrients reaching the ovary can change its gene expression. A protein deficiency in the blood caused by an Haemonchus contortus abomasal infection is detrimental to the organism's development during puberty. The peripubertal period is a time of intensive growth that requires a high level of nutrients. An essential feature controlling pubertal arousal and female reproductive potential is ovarian follicle growth activation. Protein supplementation improves the sheep's immune response to helminthic infections. We aimed to determine if supplementing protein in infected ewe lambs' diet would impact the ovarian environment leading to earlier ovarian follicle activation than in infected not supplemented animals. METHODS: We fed 18 Santa Ines ewe lambs (Ovis aries) - bred by the same ram - with either 12% protein (Control groups) or 19% protein (Supplemented groups) in their diets. After 35 days of the diet, they were each artificially infected or not with 10,000 Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae. Following 77 days of the diet and 42 days of infection, we surgically collected their left ovaries and examined their genes expression through RNA sequencing. RESULTS: We found that protein supplementation in infected animals led to an up-regulation of genes (FDR p-values < 0.05) and biological processes (p-value cut-off = 0.01) linked to meiotic activation in pre-ovulatory follicles and primordial follicle activation, among others. The supplemented not infected animals also up-regulated genes and processes linked to meiosis and others, such as circadian behaviour. The not supplemented animals had these same processes down-regulated while up-regulated processes related to tissue morphogenesis, inflammation and immune response. CONCLUSION: Diet's protein supplementation of peripubertal infected animals allowed them to express genes related to a more mature ovarian follicle stage than their half-sisters that were not supplemented. These results could be modelling potential effects of the interaction between environmental factors, nutrition and infection on reproductive health. When ovarian activation is achieved in a timely fashion, the ewe may generate more lambs during its reproductive life, increasing sheep breeders' productivity.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Hemoncose/veterinária , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Haemonchus , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
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