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1.
F1000Res ; 10: 973, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745566

RESUMO

Background: Both oxytocin and carbetocin are used to prevent uterine atony and post-partum haemorrhage after caesarean delivery in many countries, including Norway. Oxytocin causes dose-dependent ST-depression, troponin release, prolongation of QT-time and arrythmia, but little is known about myocardial effects of carbetocin. We have previously demonstrated comparable vasodilatory effects of oxytocin and carbetocin and are now undertaking a Phase 4 trial to investigate whether carbetocin causes similar changes to myocardial markers compared with oxytocin. Methods: Our randomized controlled trial will be conducted at three obstetrics units at Oslo University Hospital and Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Planned enrolment will be of 240 healthy, singleton pregnant women aged 18 to 50 years undergoing planned caesarean delivery. Based on pilot study data, each participant will receive a one-minute intravenous injection of either oxytocin 2.5 IU or carbetocin 100 µg during caesarean delivery. The prespecified primary outcome is the change from baseline in high-sensitive troponin I plasma concentrations at 6-10 hours after study drug administration. Secondary outcomes include uterine tone grade at 2.5 and five minutes after study drug administration, adverse events for up to 48 hours after study drug administration, estimated blood loss within eight hours of delivery, need for rescue treatment and direct/indirect costs. Enrolment and primary analysis are expected to be completed by the end of 2021. Discussion: Women undergoing caesarean delivery should be assessed for cardiovascular risk particularly as women with an obstetric history of pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, placental abruption, and stillbirth are at increased risk of future cardiovascular disease. Any additional ischaemic myocardial risk from uterotonic agents will need to be balanced with the benefit of reducing the risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Any potential cardiotoxicity difference between oxytocin and carbetocin will help inform treatment decisions for pregnant women. Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03899961 (02/04/2019).


Assuntos
Ocitócicos , Nascimento Prematuro , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ocitocina/análogos & derivados , Projetos Piloto , Placenta , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 230, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstetric haemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality, contributing to more than a quarter of the 2,443,000 maternal deaths reported between 2003 and 2009. During this period, about 70% of the haemorrhagic deaths occurred postpartum. In addition to other identifiable risk factors for greater postpartum blood loss, the duration of the third stage of labour (TSL) seems to be important, as literature shows that a longer TSL can be associated with more blood loss. To better describe the association between the duration of TSL and postpartum blood loss in women receiving active management of third stage of labour (AMTSL), this secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data has been conducted. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial conducted in twenty-three sites in ten countries. We studied the association between the TSL duration and blood loss in the sub cohort of women from the CHAMPION trial (all of whom received AMTSL), with TSL upto 60 min and no interventions for postpartum haemorrhage. We used a general linear model to fit blood loss as a function of TSL duration on the log scale, arm and center, using a normal distribution and the log link function. We showed this association separately for oxytocin and for Heat stable (HS) carbetocin. RESULTS: For the 10,040 women analysed, blood loss rose steeply with third stage duration in the first 10 min, but more slowly after 10 min. This trend was observed for both Oxytocin and HS carbetocin and the difference in the trends for both drugs was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.2070). CONCLUSIONS: There was a positive association between postpartum blood loss and TSL duration with either uterotonic. Blood loss rose steeply with TSL duration until 10 min, and more slowly after 10 min. Study registration The main trial was registered with Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000870651 and Clinical Trial Registry of India CTRI/2016/05/006969.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Austrália , Ergonovina , Feminino , Humanos , Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 764, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is not enough data regarding practices and protocols on the dose of oxytocin administrated to women during labour. Empirical evidence indicates that compliance with the guidelines improves the quality of healthcare and reduces adverse effects. The study aimed to evaluate practices of oxytocin provision for labour induction and augmentation in two maternity units in Poland. METHODS: The article presents a prospective observational study. Data from 545 (n = 545) labours was collected in two maternity units. First, the total dose (the total amount of oxytocin provided from the beginning in the labour ward until delivery including the III and IV stage of labour) and cumulative dose of oxytocin (the amount of oxytocin given until the birth of the neonate) administered to women during labour was calculated. Then, the relationship between the cumulative dose of oxytocin and short term perinatal outcomes (mode of delivery, use of epidural anaesthesia, Apgar scores, birth weight and postpartum blood loss) was analysed. Finally, the compliance of oxytocin supply during labour with national guidelines in the following five criteria: medium, start dose, escalation rate, interval, the continuation of infusion after established labour was examined. RESULTS: The average cumulative dose of oxytocin administrated to women before birth was 4402 mU following labour induction and 2366 mU following labour augmentation. The actual administration of oxytocin deviated both from the unit and national guidelines in 93.6% of all observed labours (mainly because of continuation of infusion after established labour). We found no statistically significant correlation between the cumulative dose of oxytocin administered and mode of delivery, immediate postpartum blood loss or Apgar scores. There was no observed effect of cumulative dose oxytocin on short-term perinatal outcomes. The two units participating in the study had similar protocols and did not differ significantly in terms of total oxytocin dose, rates of induction and augmentation - the only observed difference was the mode of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed no effect of the mean cumulative oxytocin dose on short-term perinatal outcomes and high rate of non-compliance of the practice of oxytocin administration for labour induction and augmentation with the national recommendations. Cooperation between different professional groups of maternity care providers should be considered in building national guidelines for maternity care.. Further studies investigating possible long-term effects of the meant cumulative dose of oxytocin and the reasons for non-compliance of practice with guidelines should be carried out.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
4.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(12): 1047-1053, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While oxytocin is commonly used for the prevention of uterine atony, its pharmacology may be affected by a prior history of caesarean delivery. The objective of this study was to determine the 50% effective dose (ED50) of bolus oxytocin after caesarean delivery in parturients with and without prior caesarean delivery. METHODS: This was a parallel-group, double-blind, dose-response study using Dixon's up-and-down sequential allocation method to estimate the ED50 of bolus-administered oxytocin in parturients having caesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia (CSE). Twenty-seven parturients with a history of prior caesarean delivery (With-PCD group) and 26 parturients with no such history (Without-PCD group) were enrolled. Oxytocin was administered as an intravenous bolus at a starting dose of 0.5 units, which was then increased or decreased by 0.25 units at a time. Uterine tone was assessed by the obstetrician as either 'adequate' or 'inadequate' 3 min after delivery of the fetus. Adverse effects, administration of additional uterotonic agents, and estimated blood loss were recorded. RESULTS: The ED50 of oxytocin was greater in the With-PCD group than in the Without-PCD group (0.95 units [95% CI 0.82-1.08] vs. 0.55 units [95% CI 0.38-0.73], P < 0.001). The overall incidence of adverse effects was higher in the With-PCD group than in the Without-PCD group (33.3% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The initial bolus dose of oxytocin needed to prevent uterine atony was higher in parturients with prior caesarean delivery than in parturients without prior caesarean delivery. Uterine scarring may contribute to the increased oxytocin requirements of the former group. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1900023474; investigator: Wei CN; date of registration: 30 May 2019.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos , Inércia Uterina , Cesárea , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina , Gravidez
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607746

RESUMO

Oral and vaginal misoprostol are effective induction methods, but there is a delicate balance between a quicker labour and avoiding side effects. In randomised comparisons with balloon catheters, oral misoprostol resulted in more vaginal births in the first 24 h as well as fewer caesarean sections without an increase in hyperstimulation events. Vaginal misoprostol was most effective when used concurrently with a balloon catheter. In comparison with dinoprostone, oral misoprostol had lower rates of caesarean section and uterine hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes, but fewer babies were born vaginally within 24 h. In contrast, vaginal misoprostol resulted in more vaginal births within 24 h, with no significant differences in caesarean section rates. There were no differences in perinatal adverse events with either route. When oral and vaginal misoprostol were compared, vaginal misoprostol resulted in more vaginal births in the first 24 h, but with more maternal and neonatal complications.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Cesárea , Dinoprostona , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
6.
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol ; 77: 129-143, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497038

RESUMO

Induction of labour is a two-step process involving cervical ripening and the initiation of uterine contractions, with the goal of achieving vaginal birth. To optimize the chance of a safe and timely vaginal birth, the process of induction of labour should be evidence based and individualized to the given person and situation. In this study, we lay out a framework for how this should be done, emphasizing on careful clinical assessment and planning, flexibility in the strategy of induction, patience during the ripening and latent phases of labour, and thoughtful consideration regarding changing the strategy if active labour is not initially achieved. The goal of this review is to present the current evidence on this topic in the form of a user-friendly protocol that can be easily adapted to institutional practice.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Maturidade Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Contração Uterina
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 355, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Induction of labour (IOL), or starting labour artificially, can be a lifesaving intervention for pregnant women and their babies, and rates are rising significantly globally. As rates increase, it becomes increasingly important to fully evaluate all available data, especially that from low income settings where the potential benefits and harms are greater. The goal of this paper is to describe the datasets collected as part of the Induction with Foley OR Misoprostol (INFORM) Study, a randomised trial comparing two of the recommended methods of cervical ripening for labour induction, oral misoprostol and Foley catheter, in women being induced for hypertension in pregnancy, at two sites in India during 2013-15. DATA DESCRIPTION: This dataset includes comprehensive data on 602 women who underwent IOL for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Women were randomly assigned to cervical ripening with oral misoprostol or a transcervical Foley catheter in two government hospitals in India. The main dataset has 367 variables including monitoring during the induction of labour, medications administered, timing and mode of delivery, measures of neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal mortality and morbidity, maternal satisfaction and health economic data. The dataset is anonymised and available on ReShare.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Cateteres , Maturidade Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez
8.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(5): 509-511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503935

RESUMO

Pregnant women who are obese are at greater risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and macrosomia, leading to an increased likelihood of induced labor. Little is known about pregnant women with obesity and the dose of Misoprostol needed for induction of labor (IOL). To investigate whether the cumulative dose of Misoprostol needed for induction of labor (IOL) is associated with women's body mass index (BMI), we conducted a retrospective study of the use of oral Misoprostol for IOL at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital - a tertiary referral delivery unit with 4800 deliveries a year. Data on IOL among 1637 women with singleton pregnancies was collected in the period January 1st, 2014, to October 4th, 2017. Low-risk women were induced in an outpatient setting. Primary outcomes were Misoprostol dose, time between start of induction (first dose of Angusta®) and completed delivery, and mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes were neonatal data as Apgar score and pH of the umbilical artery. In this study, we found the total dose of Misoprostol needed for induction increased significantly with increasing BMI (p < 0.005). The time to delivery and the risk of Cesarean section increased with rising BMI class. However, 76% of inductions among the women with obesity ended in a vaginal delivery. For the neonatal outcomes, a total of 16 children had an Apgar score below 7 at five minutes and 14 had a pH less than 7.0; none of these results differed significantly between BMI classes. The perinatal and maternal mortality rate was 0%.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Administração Oral , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051793, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess the effects of different routes of prophylactic oxytocin administration for preventing blood loss at caesarean section (CS). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, BVS, SciELO and Global Index Medicus were searched through 24 May 2020 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different routes of prophylactic oxytocin administration during CS. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by two investigators independently. We pooled results in fixed effects meta-analyses and calculated average risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD) and 95% CI. We used GRADE to assess the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. RESULTS: Three trials (180 women) were included in the review. All studies compared intramyometrial (IMY) versus intravenous oxytocin in women having prelabour CS. IMY compared with intravenous oxytocin administration may result in little or no difference in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.70; N=100 participants; 1 RCT), hypotension (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.29 to 3.45; N=40; 1 RCT), headache (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 69.52; N=40; 1 RCT) or facial flushing (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.08; N=40; 1 RCT); IMY oxytocin may reduce nausea/vomiting (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.69; N=140; 2 RCTs). We are very uncertain about the effect IMY versus intravenous oxytocin on the need for additional uterotonics (RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.25 to 2.69; N=140; 2 RCTs). IMY oxytocin may reduce blood loss slightly (MD -57.40 mL, 95% CI -101.71 to -13.09; N=40; 1 RCT). CONCLUSIONS: There is limited, low to very low certainty evidence on the effects of IMY versus intravenous oxytocin at CS for preventing blood loss. The evidence is insufficient to support choosing one route over another. More trials, including studies that assess intramuscular oxytocin administration, are needed on this relevant question. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020186797.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Ergonovina , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate a mathematical model to predict the mean time to delivery (TTD) following cervical ripening with dinoprostone vaginal insert (DVI), and assess its impact on the risk of nocturnal deliveries. METHODS: We performed a case-control retro-prospective study at Angers University Hospital. In the control group, we retrospectively included 405 patients who underwent cervical ripening with DVI between 01/2015 and 09/2016. Based on the delivery outcomes, we developed a mathematical model that integrates all the factors influencing TTD following cervical ripening with DVI. In the study group, we prospectively included 223 patients who underwent cervical ripening with DVI between 11/2017 and 11/2018. The timing of insertion was calculated using the mathematical model developed in the control group, in order to prevent the occurrence of nocturnal deliveries. RESULTS: The calculated mean TTD was significantly shorter than the real mean TTD (21h46 min ± 3h28 min versus 25h38 min ± 12h10 min, p < 0.001), and for 44% of patients, there was at least 10 h difference between the two. The real TTD (25h38 min ± 12H10 min versus 20h39 min ± 10h49, p < 0.001), and the rate of nocturnal deliveries (30.5% versus 21.2%, p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The mathematical model did not help predicting TTD following cervical ripening with DVI, and or reducing the number of nocturnal deliveries.


Assuntos
Maturidade Cervical , Ocitócicos , Administração Intravaginal , Inteligência Artificial , Dinoprostona , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556409

RESUMO

The inexorable rise in induction rates over the past two decades, in parallel with increasing medical costs and pressure to reduce length of stay, has led to marked logistic difficulties for health care workers, managers and planners. Maternity services are being overwhelmed by the need to allocate staff and delivery suite space for the scheduling and undertaking of induction processes, rather than focussing care for women in spontaneous labour. Induction of labour according to the majority of current protocols and guidelines necessitates increased length of stay and relatively aggressive use of oxytocin (to reduce the time expended in the labour ward from artificial rupture of membranes (AROM) to establishment of labour). This increased oxytocin usage requires increased use of continuous electronic foetal monitoring, and may also increase epidural usage, further increasing the complexity of labour for the woman and her health care workers. Outpatient care after cervical priming and even outpatient care after AROM may help to ease these pressures and may reduce the medicalisation of the birth experience when induction is indicated, with a potential to reduce oxytocin use and associated interventions. If the period between cervical priming to AROM is managed as outpatient care, then the woman may be able to find better psychological and social support at home, as well as maintain autonomy and get better rest prior to the onset of labour. Inpatient AROM could also be followed by outpatient care until the pregnant person returns to the hospital, either in spontaneous labour, or for initiation of syntocinon after 12-18 h. High-quality research has already demonstrated that outpatient care for cervical ripening is acceptable to mothers and caregivers, has economic benefits and has an acceptable safety profile in appropriately selected low-risk inductions.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos , Maturidade Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ocitocina , Gravidez
12.
J Evid Based Med ; 14(3): 198-207, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a preventable condition and the main cause of maternal death worldwide. Evidence on the effectiveness of misoprostol in the prevention of PPH has been generated from both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRS). This study aimed to compare the results of RCTs and NRS, and to compare Classical and Bayesian approaches of combining the results of RCTs and NRS on the use of misoprostol versus placebo in the prevention of PPH. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for appropriate studies. We pooled estimates of effects from RCTs and NRS seperately, using random-effects models, then merged them using classical and Bayesian random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 34 studies (20 RCTs and 14 NRS) involving 74 204 participants were identified. The summary odds ratio (OR) from RCTs for the use of misoprostol in the prevention of PPH was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 0.80). The summary OR from NRS was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.63). Classical and Bayesian approaches of combining the two study designs both showed benefit of misoprostol in preventing PPH, with similar effects. CONCLUSIONS: Both RCTs and NRS show comparable significant benefit for the use of misoprostol in the prevention of PPH.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16185, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376746

RESUMO

Converging evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT) is associated with creative thinking (CT) and that release of OT depends on ADP ribosyl-cyclases (CD38 and CD157). Neural mechanisms of CT and OT show a strong association with dopaminergic (DA) pathways, yet the link between CT and CD38, CD157, dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) peripheral gene expression remain inconclusive, thus limiting our understanding of the neurobiology of CT. To address this issue, two principal domains of CT, divergent thinking (AUT), were assessed. In men, both AUT is associated with gene expression of CD38, CD157, and their interaction CD38 × CD157. There were no significant associations for DA expression (DRD2, COMT, DRD2 × COMT) on both CT measures. However, analysis of the interactions of OT and DA systems reveal significant interactions for AUT in men. The full model explained a sizable 39% of the variance in females for the total CT score. The current findings suggest that OT and DA gene expression contributed significantly to cognition and CT phenotype. This provides the first empirical foundation of a more refined understanding of the molecular landscape of CT.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Criatividade , Dopamina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Saliva/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Adulto , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ocitócicos/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Anaesthesia ; 76(11): 1526-1537, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389972

RESUMO

Oxytocin is one of the most commonly used medications during labour and delivery. Recent insights from basic neuroscience research suggest that the uterotonic effects of oxytocin may arguably be trivial when compared with its profound effects on higher-order human behaviour. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential consequences of manipulating oxytocinergic signalling during the peripartum period and its long-term impact on the maternal-infant dyad. We identified four domains where modulation of oxytocinergic signalling might be consequential: postpartum depression; breastfeeding; neurodevelopment; and chronic pain, and performed a literature search to address the impact of peripartum oxytocin administration. We have shown modest, but inconsistent, evidence linking peripartum oxytocin administration with postpartum depression. Breastfeeding success appeared to be negatively correlated with peripartum oxytocin exposure, perhaps secondary to impaired primitive neonatal reflexes and maternal-infant bonding. The association between perinatal oxytocin exposure and subsequent development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism in the offspring was weak, but these studies were limited by the lack of information on the cumulative dose. Finally, we identified substantial evidence for analgesic and anti-hypersensitivity effects of oxytocin which might partly explain the low incidence of chronic pain after caesarean birth. Although most data presented here are observational, our review points to a compelling need for robust clinical studies to better dissect the impact of peripartum oxytocin administration, and as stewards of its use, increase the precision with which we administer oxytocin to prevent overuse of the drug.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Ocitocina/efeitos adversos , Período Periparto , Gravidez
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26792, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No well-designed and systematic evaluation of the efficacy and safety of leonurus japonicus injection (LJI) in combination with carboprost tromethamine has been found. Therefore, we undertook a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of carboprost tromethamine combined with LJI for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in high-risk pregnant women to provide new evidence-based medical evidence for clinical treatment. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis would be performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The following databases including EMBASE, MEDICINE, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Cochrane central controlled trial registries were searched by 2 reviewers from inception to July 2021. Mesh and keyword search terms were "motherwort," "Yimucao," "leonurus japonicas," "carboprost tromethamine," and "postpartum hemorrhage." Any cohort studies that assessed the efficacy and safety of carboprost tromethamine combined with LJI for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage would be included. P < .05 was set as the level of significance. RESULTS: The review would add to the existing literature by showing compelling evidence and improved guidance in clinic settings. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/2WC53.


Assuntos
Carboprosta/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Leonurus , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Fitoterapia , Gravidez , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330639

RESUMO

The mean duration of human pregnancy is 280 days but the range is wide, and "term" has been defined to range from 37 to 42 weeks. In the 18th and 19th centuries, labour induction was used mainly in cases of pelvic deformity, before the foetus grew too large to be delivered. Induction methods were unreliable until the 20th century, when pituitary extract, and then synthetic oxytocin and prostaglandins, became available. "Disproportion" was the leading indication for induction until the 1950s, when it became clear that prolonged pregnancy was associated with increased perinatal mortality. Pregnancy dating was improved by ultrasound, which also showed that foetal growth slows at term. Induction rates rose during the 1970s, causing public concern about obstetric intervention. In the 21st century, large-scale randomised trials showed that perinatal mortality is lowest at 39-40 weeks, and that induction at that time does not increase the rate of operative delivery.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez Prolongada , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Ocitocina , Gravidez
18.
Int Heart J ; 62(4): 734-741, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276008

RESUMO

The intracoronary drug provocation test has been the gold standard for diagnosis of coronary artery spasm (CAS); however, it has been identified with severe complications. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity, specificity, and safety of radial artery provocation test at different doses of ergonovine in the diagnosis of CAS. This study enrolled 57 patients, which were then divided into CAS group (n = 24) and control group (n = 33) after intracoronary ergonovine provocation test. All patients underwent radial artery provocation test at different doses of ergonovine. The predictive values of radial artery provocation test for the diagnosis of CAS were analyzed using receiver operator characteristic curve. In the radial artery provocation test at different doses of ergonovine, radial artery stenosis degree was all found to be significantly higher in the CAS group than in the control group (all P < 0.001). In the control group, significant differences were noted in the radial artery stenosis degree between different doses of ergonovine (all P < 0.05). In the CAS group, the radial artery stenosis degree was significantly higher in 160 µg and 100 µg of ergonovine than in 60 µg of ergonovine (all P < 0.001). The radial artery provocation test at 60 µg and 100 µg of ergonovine did not cause CAS, chest pain, and ECG ischemic changes. In the radial artery provocation test at 160 µg of ergonovine, some patients had CAS, chest pain, and ECG ischemic changes. The specificity and sensitivity of radial artery provocation test were 90.91% and 50.00% at 60 µg of ergonovine, 96.97% and 66.67% at 100 µg of ergonovine, and 90.91% and 95.83% at 160 µg of ergonovine for the diagnosis of CAS. As per our findings, we can conclude that the basic tension of radial artery increases in the CAS group. With the increase of ergonovine doses, its sensitivity and specificity improve, but its safety decreases. We will explore the most optimal dose of ergonovine in future studies.


Assuntos
Vasoespasmo Coronário/diagnóstico , Ergonovina/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Artéria Radial/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 537, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 30,000 women die from hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Magnesium sulphate and anti-hypertensives reduce morbidity, but delivery is the only cure. Low dose oral misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is a highly effective method for labour induction. Usually, once active labour has commenced, the misoprostol is replaced with an intravenous oxytocin infusion if ongoing stimulation is required. However, some studies have shown that oral misoprostol can be continued into active labour, a simpler and potentially more acceptable protocol for women. To date, these two protocols have never been directly compared. METHODS: This pragmatic, open-label, randomised trial will compare a misoprostol alone labour induction protocol with the standard misoprostol plus oxytocin protocol in three Indian hospitals. The study will recruit 520 pregnant women being induced for hypertensive disease in pregnancy and requiring augmentation after membrane rupture. Participants will be randomised to receive either further oral misoprostol 25mcg every 2 h, or titrated intravenous oxytocin. The primary outcome will be caesarean birth. Secondary outcomes will assess the efficacy of the induction process, maternal and fetal/neonatal complications and patient acceptability. This protocol (version 1.04) adheres to the SPIRIT checklist. A cost-effectiveness analysis, situational analysis and formal qualitative assessment of women's experience are also planned. DISCUSSION: Avoiding oxytocin and continuing low dose misoprostol into active labour may have a number of benefits for both women and the health care system. Misoprostol is heat stable, oral medication and thus easy to store, transport and administer; qualities particularly desirable in low resource settings. An oral medication protocol requires less equipment (e.g. electronic infusion pumps) and may free up health care providers to assist with other aspects of the woman's care. The simplicity of the protocol may also help to reduce human errors associated with the delivery of intravenous infusions. Finally, women may prefer to be mobile during labour and not restricted by an intravenous infusion. There is a need, therefore, to assess whether augmentation using oral misoprostol is superior clinically and economically to the standard protocol of intravenous oxytocin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov, NCT03749902 , registered on 21st Nov 2018.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Índia , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
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