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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130570, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311238

RESUMO

Umami and aroma are important flavor qualities of edible mushrooms, and packaging can maintain or improve the flavor during storage. This study explored the effects of light-proof packaging (LPP), light-transparent packaging (LTP), vacuum light-proof packaging (VLPP), and vacuum light-transparent packaging (VLTP) on umami taste and aroma of dried Suillus granulatus. Monosodium glutamate-like amino acid content, equivalent umami concentration, and electronic tongue umami sensory scores in VLTP were higher at 2, 4, and 6 months and higher in LTP at 8 and 10 months. Principal component analysis of aroma components showed that the comprehensive scores were higher for the transparent packaging. Ketones and pyrazines were more abundant in transparent packaging. Flavor quality was better at 4-6 months, based on the equivalent umami concentration and the concentration of eight-carbon compounds that contribute to aroma. Transparent packaging is a promising way to optimize the flavor of dried Suillus granulatus.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Paladar , Basidiomycota , Aromatizantes/análise , Odorantes/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130624, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339982

RESUMO

Wuyi Rock tea (WRT), a top-ranking oolong tea, possesses characteristic woody, floral, nutty flavor. WRT flavor is mainly formed during the manufacturing process. However, details regarding its formation process are not fully understood yet. In this study, the dynamics of volatile and phenolic components over the whole manufacturing process of WRT were investigated. During withering, despite minor changes in volatile and phenolic components, the central vacuole shrunk remarkably, which reduced the cell mechanical performance and facilitated the subsequent enzymatic fermentation. During fermentation, approximately 78% of flavan-3-ols in fresh tea leaves were oxidized and converted to a diverse mixture of highly heterogeneous oxidation products, such as theaflavins, whereas flavonols, phenolic acids, and xanthine alkaloids remained stable throughout the manufacturing process. Aldehydes, ketones, and heterocyclic compounds, imparting woody, floral, and nutty scent, were mainly formed during the roasting steps. This detailed information can expand our understanding on the formation of WRT flavor.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Chá , Aromatizantes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Folhas de Planta , Paladar
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130797, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399178

RESUMO

This work monitored the effect of ripening and variety on the physiochemical quality and flavor of fermented Chinese chili pepper (Paojiao). Three commercial varieties of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens Linn.) at three ripening stages were selected. Physiochemical quality (color, texture, and vitamin C) and flavor properties [capsaicinoids, free amino acid (FAA), and aroma] were determined and compared by multivariate data analysis. The hardness and chewiness decreased, while the contents of vitamin C, capsaicin, and taste-active FAAs increased in Paojiao with ripening. More volatiles were found in green peppers. Fingerprinting and multivariate data analysis revealed that ester, aldehydes, and terpenes were discriminant volatiles that significantly changed in Paojiao during ripening. In general, ripening and variety greatly affect the physiochemical and flavor quality of peppers and their effects intensify after fermentation.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Capsaicina/análise , China , Aromatizantes , Paladar
4.
Food Chem ; 368: 130581, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399180

RESUMO

Flavor is a significant factor determining the popularity of French fries (FFs). The frying process of soybean oil (SO) showed three obvious stages-break-in, optimum, and degrading. Further, in order to distinguish the key aroma compounds in each stage, the FFs prepared in SO with total polar compounds (TPC) of 6.5% (FF7), 16.37% (FF16), and 26.5% (FF27), and their corresponding oils (SO7, SO16, SO27) were chosen for sensory-directed analysis. In the break-in stage (6.50-13.50% of TPC), the flavor of the FFs was light and undesirable due to the lower content of (E,E)-2,4-decadienal. Then at the optimum stage (15.43-22.70% of TPC), the FFs obtained a higher sensory score, mainly owing to the increase of (E,E)-2,4-decadienal with a strong, deep-fried odor. However, in the degrading stage (over 22.70% of TPC), high level of four acids (hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, and nonanoic acid), benzeneacetaldehyde and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal resulted in flavor deterioration in FF27.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Solanum tuberosum , Culinária , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Paladar
5.
Food Chem ; 368: 130803, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403995

RESUMO

Hydroxycinnamoyl quinic acids are important phenolic acids in tea, particularly fermented teas. However, there have been fewer studies that have confirmed their taste properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the astringent compounds in Keemun congou black tea (KBT) using a combination of mass spectrometry, turbidity analysis, and sensory evaluation. Turbidity analysis determined that p-coumaroylquinic acids were the astringent contributing compounds in KBT. Moreover, the separated compound D16 was identified as trans-4-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans-4-O-pCoQA) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and first confirmed to be the astringent contributing compound in KBT by sensory evaluation. Its astringent threshold concentration was tested to be 38 µM. The trans-4-O-pCoQA content in eight KBT samples of various grades ranged from 40.20 ± 0.15 ~ 65.53 ± 0.22 µM. Turbidity analysis combined with sensory evaluation could be a powerful tool for identifying critical compounds responsible for the astringent taste.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Chá , Adstringentes , Espectrometria de Massas , Paladar
6.
Food Chem ; 368: 130849, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419796

RESUMO

Umami intensity promotes food flavor blending and food choice, while a universal quantification procedure is still lacking. To evaluate perceived umami intensity (PUI) in seven categories of foods, modified two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) method with monosodium glutamate as reference was applied. Meanwhile, we explored whether equivalent umami concentration (EUC) by chemical analysis and electronic tongue (E-tongue) are applicable in PUI quantification. The results indicated that EUC was appropriate in quantifying PUI of samples from meat, dairy, vegetable and mushroom groups (r = 1.00, p < 0.05). Moreover, models with a good prediction capacity for PUI and EUC (R2 > 0.99) were established in separated food categories by back propagation neural networks, where E-tongue data were set as input. This study explored the effectiveness of the three methods in evaluating the PUIs of various foods, which provides multiple choices for the food industry.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico , Paladar , Aromatizantes , Aditivos Alimentares , Glutamato de Sódio
7.
Food Chem ; 368: 130844, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425338

RESUMO

The sensory perception of food is a dynamic procedure, which is closely related to the released flavor stimuli. Thus, we evaluated the dynamic sensations of fresh and roasted salmon during the chewing process and investigated the tastants released in saliva. For fresh salmon, the fishy, umami, salty, and sweet attributes were perceived successively. Meanwhile, the smoky and fried flavors were the most dominant attributes of roasted salmon at the beginning, then various attributes were perceived. During the chewing process, free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides released in saliva were quantified. Compared to the sensory data, the results demonstrated that glutamic acid and inosine 5'-monophosphate released in saliva might induce the umami perception. The sweet-tasting amino acids alanine and glycine may contribute to sweetness. Therefore, we suggested that the time dimension of tastants dissolved in saliva would affect the dynamic sensation of food, even for complex food materials.


Assuntos
Salmo salar , Animais , Inosina Monofosfato , Mastigação , Sensação , Paladar
8.
Food Chem ; 368: 130868, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438173

RESUMO

A novel lipase from Bacillus licheniformis NCU CS-5 was expressed in different Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant enzyme achieved a high activity (161.74 U/mL) with protein concentration of 0.27 mg/mL under optimal conditions at the large-scale expression of 12 h. The recombinant lipase showed optimal activity at 40 ℃ and pH 10.0, and maintained more than 80% relative activity after 96 h of incubation at pH 9.0-10.0. This typical alkaline lipase was activated under medium temperature conditions (30 and 45 ℃ for 96 h). The lipase exhibited a degree of adaptability in various organic solvents and metal ions, and showed high specificity towards triglycerides with short and medium chain fatty acids. Among different substrates, the lipase showed the strongest binding affinity towards pNPP (Km = 0.674 mM, Vmax = 950.196 µM/min). In the experiments of its application in enhancing fatty acids flavor release for low-fat cheeses, the lipase was found to hydrolyze cheeses and mainly increase the contents of butyric acid, hexanoic acid, caprylic acid and decanoic acid. The results from NMR and GC provided the possibility of enhancing fatty acids flavor released from low-fat cheeses by the lipolysis method.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Queijo , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Ácidos Graxos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipase/genética , Paladar
9.
Food Chem ; 368: 130889, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438175

RESUMO

Complex microbial community plays an important role for flavor formation in traditional dry-cured grass carp. To investigate the correlation between microorganisms and flavour development, the bacterial diversity and flavour quality of dry-cured fish at different stages of fermentation were analysed using high-throughput sequencing, volatile flavour analysis and metabolomics. Cobetia, Staphylococcus and Ralstonia were the dominant genera in dry-cured fish, with relative abundances of 37.78%, 34.46% and 3.2%, respectively. The flavour of dry-cured fish samples varied as the abundance of aldehydes, alcohols, small peptides, FAAs and carboxylic acids showed a great increase during fermentation. Moreover, there were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between specific microorganisms and volatile indicators, as well as flavour metabolites. Staphylococcus, as the dominant bacterial genus, is involved in the mechanism of flavour formation in dry-cured fish during fermentation. This information is useful for elucidating the mechanism of flavour formation in dry-cured fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Aromatizantes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metabolômica , Paladar
10.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108655, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403850

RESUMO

During the thermal processing, proteins of Hengshan goat meat undergo structural modifications such as degradation, oxidation and denaturation, ultimately affect the palatability and acceptability. The results of several objective metrics demonstrated that thermal processing exhibited significant impacts on the tenderness of goat meat. The 551, 84, 72, and 121 proteins were identified in the control and thermal processed groups (boiled, steamed, and roasted), respectively. Compared with the control group, the 101, 98, and 109 differentially-expressed proteins were explored in the treatment groups. Furthermore, the functions of metabolic and skeletal muscle proteome were investigated and discussed. Sensory evaluation and proteomics analysis showed that steaming and boiling treatment had no significant effect on the tenderness of goat meat, while roasting significantly reduced the tenderness, indicating that the available thermal processing methods to ensure the tenderness of goat meat were steaming and boiling treatments. Thus, the established proteomics database of goat meat provided the valuable reference for rational selection of thermal processing methods.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Proteoma/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Paladar
11.
Food Chem ; 370: 131352, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788963

RESUMO

Assessing the umami taste of seaweed on a chemical level can inform the use and selection of seaweed in European cuisine. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous extraction, separate clean-up and analysis of 21 free amino acids and 10 free nucleotides by reversed phase and mixed-mode HPLC respectively. Of multiple mouth emulating solvents, extracting in Milli-Q at 35 °C was found most suitable. This method showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9996), resolution (Rs ≥ 1.5) and picomole detection limits, and was successfully applied to determine the Equivalent Umami Concentration (EUC) and Taste Activity Values (TAV) of seven Dutch seaweed species. Phaeophyceae showed the highest EUC, followed by Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyceae (≈ 9.5, 3.7 and 1.1 g/100 g respectively). Glutamic acid always exceeded the TAV, while other umami compounds were species specific. Our method can accurately predict umami intensity and therefore contributes towards species selection for the European palette.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos , Alga Marinha , Aminoácidos , Ácido Glutâmico , Paladar
12.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108659, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428606

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging period (0, 3, 6 or 9 weeks), aging temperature (2 versus 6 °C at 75% relative humidity, experiment 1) and relative humidity (70 versus 90% at 2 °C, experiment 2) on the sensory traits, oxidative stability and proteolysis of Belgian Blue beef. For each experiment, eight loins (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) from four animals (left and right side) were assigned to one of the two treatments (n = 4). Results showed no further tenderization after three weeks of aging, whereas metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation increased until nine weeks of aging (P < 0.05). During the nine weeks of aging, atypical flavor, odor and flavor intensity was affected (P < 0.05). This was accompanied by an increase of small peptides and other nitrogenous compounds. Aging temperature and relative humidity had only a very limited effect on the quality traits.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Metamioglobina/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Odorantes , Oxirredução , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Paladar , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Food Chem ; 370: 130977, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509941

RESUMO

Small peptides such as dipeptides contribute to a great extent to the characteristic taste of dry-cured hams. In this study, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) combined to tandem mass spectrometry was used to separate, identify, and quantify seven dipeptides in dry-cured hams sampled at different processing times (6, 12, 18, and 24 months). Results showed an increased concentration of dipeptides DA, DG, EE, ES, and EV with the length of processing, obtaining values up to 23 µg/g of dry-cured ham, which suggests an intense action of muscle enzymes dipeptidyl peptidases during the process. The dipeptide VG significantly decreased from 7 to 4 µg/g of dry-cured ham as the processing increased from 6 to 24 months, whereas the dipeptide PA showed low values between 380 and 550 ng/g of dry-cured ham at all the sampling times. Additionally, in silico analyses reported the sensory characteristics of the studied dipeptides, mostly giving bitter and umami taste, and predicted their allergenicity, toxicity, and physicochemical properties. These results could be useful for further studies related to the pleasant taste of dry-cured hams.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Simulação por Computador , Dipeptídeos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Paladar
14.
Food Chem ; 370: 130979, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543921

RESUMO

Hops are abundant in natural bioactive compounds. In this work, nine prenylated bitter compounds from hop were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. As a result, four flavonoids and one phloroglucinol (lupulone, LP) outperformed acarbose in inhibiting α-glucosidase. Isoxanthohumol (IX) and LP with two types of structures were selected for inhibition mechanism studies by spectroscopic methods and molecular dynamics simulation (MD). Results showed that IX acted as noncompetitive inhibitor and bound to α-glucosidase in allosteric sites via hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic, van der Waals (vdW), and electrostatic force, whereas LP was uncompetitive inhibitor and bound to catalytic sites via hydrophobic and vdW interactions. Notably, the conformation around binding site of α-glucosidase formed stable α-helix and tightened after binding IX and LP, respectively, which helped to elucidate noncompetitive and uncompetitive inhibitory mechanisms. This work demonstrated that two types of prenylated bitter compounds are discrepant in their mechanisms of interaction with α-glucosidase.


Assuntos
Humulus , Simulação por Computador , Flavonoides , Paladar , alfa-Glucosidases
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 8-18, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453343

RESUMO

Research into dairy-free alternative products, whether plant-based or cell-based, is growing fast and the food industry is facing a new challenge of creating innovative, nutritious, accessible, and natural dairy-free cheese alternatives. The market demand for these products is continuing to increase owing to more people choosing to reduce or eliminate meat and dairy products from their diet for health, environmental sustainability, and/or ethical reasons. This review investigates the current status of dairy product alternatives. Legume proteins have good technological properties and are cheap, which gives them a strong commercial potential to be used in plant-based cheese-like products. However, few legume proteins have been explored in the formulation, development, and manufacture of a fully dairy-free cheese because of their undesirable properties: heat stable anti-nutritional factors and a beany flavor. These can be alleviated by novel or traditional and economical techniques. The improvement and diversification of the formulation of legume-based cheese alternatives is strongly suggested as a low-cost step towards more sustainable food chains. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Fabaceae/química , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Paladar
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 73-84, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mushroom possesses desirable aroma, taste, texture, health-promoting and disease-preventing dietary components, making it an ideal ingredient, especially for animal-based food substitution. Nevertheless, no study has replaced egg whites partially with mushrooms and investigated their sensory quality. This study aimed to investigate flavor impartment of mushroom on egg whites and the sensory quality of roasting and steaming egg whites replaced by white and crimini mushrooms at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively, using a panel trained with aroma chemical references for 31 sensory attributes with 0-10 line scales. RESULTS: Roasted and steamed egg whites possessed major sensory attributes of sulfury and egg-like aroma and flavor (intensities > 3). After mushroom topping was added, the dominant sensory attributes shifted to mushroom-based flavor characteristics, including mushroom-like, earthy, dark meat, roasted, hay, soybean, potato, woody, umami, bitter, astringent and firmness texture. Mushroom variety showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) impacts on egg white sensory quality, with crimini introducing more intense flavor. The higher the mushroom proportion with egg whites, the more intense was the flavor associated with mushroom. Mushroom could enhance egg-like flavor in multiple dimensions, including aroma, taste and texture, according to partial least square regression. CONCLUSION: White and crimini mushrooms enriched roasted and steamed egg white sensory quality with introduction of characteristic sensory attributes from mushrooms. Mushroom variety and proportion with egg whites displayed significant impacts on egg white sensory properties. The study contributed to understanding the impact of mushrooms on egg white sensory profile and served as a guide in incorporating mushroom in product development. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Clara de Ovo/química , Paladar , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Culinária , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Olfato
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 105-112, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of nanoemulsions prepared with grape seed and cinnamon essential oils on the shelf-life of flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) fillets was evaluated by determining physicochemical (pH, free fatty acids, peroxide value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs)), sensory and microbiological (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total psychrophilic bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae counts) properties during 14 day storage at 2 °C. RESULTS: The nanoemulsions showed good stability and low average droplet size. The results indicated that nanoemulsion treatments significantly prolonged the shelf-life of the fillets. Treatment inhibited increases in pH and TVB-N, and retarded lipid oxidation and hydrolysis. Sensory assessment revealed that treatment induced shelf-life extension from 10 to 14 days, compared with controls. Microbiological analyses showed nanoemulsion treatment caused shelf-life extension from 10 to 12 days with reduction of microbiological contamination by up to 1 log cfu g-1 in mesophilic and 1.5 log cfu g-1 in psychrotrophic bacteria. CONCLUSION: Considering the results, grape seed and cinnamon essential oil nanoemulsions could be considered as novel antimicrobial and antioxidant materials for shelf-life extension of flathead mullet fillets during cold storage. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Emulsões/química , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Humanos , Smegmamorpha/microbiologia , Paladar , Água/análise
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 113-120, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grazed grass is an important component of the majority of beef production systems used in temperate climates. Compared to concentrate-fed beef, 'grass-fed' beef can command a premium in some markets based on perceived differences in appearance and sensory characteristics. The influence of grazed grass per se, as well as the duration of grazing, on selected sensory characteristics of beef within a heifer production system was examined. RESULTS: In general, fat from grass-fed cattle was more yellow than fat from similar cattle fed concentrates, whereas muscle from grass-fed cattle was darker than muscle from cattle fed concentrates. At the same carcass weight, muscle from grass-fed cattle had a lower fat concentration than cattle fed concentrates. In the most extreme situation examined, whereby early-maturing heifers were fed concentrates ad libitum from weaning or grazed grass/conserved grass throughout life, until slaughtered at a similar carcass weight (260 kg) and differed in age by 5 months, beef was rated similarly for tenderness and a range of flavours by a trained sensory panel. CONCLUSION: Within the range of beef heifer production systems examined, the sensory characteristics of grass-fed beef do not differ greatly from concentrate-fed beef. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Matadouros , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cor , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Paladar
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 198-205, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kale and arugula are leafy green vegetables whose sensory properties have not been extensively explored. The objective was to assess the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of commercially available kale and arugula while also discovering drivers of consumer liking and barriers to consumer acceptance. Descriptive analysis and consumer testing were completed. The trained panellists (n = 11) were trained for 15 h to evaluate 11 sensory properties relating to the aroma, taste and texture of the kale and arugula. The consumer testing (n = 108) evaluated the leafy greens for overall liking and their liking of taste, aroma, texture and appearance. RESULTS: Results were analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey's HSD and external preference mapping. Approximately half of the attributes for the kale samples were found to be significantly different. Similarly, significant differences in sensory properties were found in most of the arugula samples. Consumers liked the kale and arugula varieties that were sweet and nutty. Also, they preferred arugula that was described as spicy. CONCLUSION: The majority of consumers preferred sweet and nutty leafy greens. Organic growing methods did not affect consumer liking; however, organic labels do positively affect hedonic ratings of a consumer's overall liking of the product. This study also identified that 'Baby' leafy greens are well liked by consumers, and this area of produce should be expanded. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Comportamento do Consumidor , Odorantes/análise , Brassica/química , Brassica/economia , Brassicaceae/química , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Paladar
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 175-184, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the aroma of kiwi wine through the utilization of Wickerhamomyces anomalus, kiwi juice was fermented using a selected W. anomalus strain in pure culture and mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was inoculated simultaneously and sequentially. The physicochemical indices, volatile compounds and aroma properties of the kiwi wines were assessed. RESULTS: The study suggested that the ethanol, color indices and organic acids of the wines were closely related to the method of inoculation. Compared with the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, the mixed fermentations produced more varieties and concentrations of volatiles. The sequential fermentations increased the concentrations of esters and terpenes, improving the flower and sweet fruit notes of the wines. The simultaneous inoculation enhanced the contents of esters and aldehydes, intensifying the flower, sweet and sour fruit of the wines. Partial least-squares regression analysis showed that esters and terpenes contributed greatly to the flower and sweet fruit aroma, whereas aldehydes were the major contributors to the sour note. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the mixed fermentations not only enriched the types and concentrations of volatiles, but also had better sensory properties. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Actinidia/metabolismo , Etanol/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Vinho/microbiologia
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