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Arthropod Struct Dev ; 47(4): 328-338, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763650


The phylogenetic relationships of the winged insect lineages - mayflies (Ephemeroptera), damselflies and dragonflies (Odonata), and all other winged insects (Neoptera) - are still controversial with three hypotheses supported by different datasets: Palaeoptera, Metapterygota and Chiastomyaria. Here, we reanalyze available phylogenomic data with a focus on detecting confounding and alternative signal. In this context, we provide a framework to quantitatively evaluate and assess incongruent molecular phylogenetic signal inherent in phylogenomic datasets. Despite overall support for the Palaeoptera hypothesis, we also found considerable signal for Chiastomyaria, which is not easily detectable by standardized tree inference approaches. Analyses of the accumulation of signal across gene partitions showed that signal accumulates gradually. However, even in case signal only slightly supported one over the other hypothesis, topologies inferred from large datasets switch from statistically strongly supported Palaeoptera to strongly supported Chiastomyaria. From a morphological point of view, Palaeoptera currently appears to be the best-supported hypothesis; however, recent analyses were restricted to head characters. Phylogenetic approaches covering all organ systems including analyses of potential functional or developmental convergence are still pending so that the Palaeoptera problem has to be considered an open question in insect systematics.

Evolução Biológica , Voo Animal , Genoma de Inseto , Paleópteros/classificação , Transcriptoma , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Paleópteros/genética , Paleópteros/fisiologia , Filogenia
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 47(4): 339-351, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635036


The structure of insect wing articulation is considered as reliable source of high level characters for phylogenetic analyses. However, the correct identification of homologous structures among the main groups of Pterygota is a hotly debated issue. Therefore, the reconstruction of the wing bases in Paleozoic extinct relatives is of great interest, but at the same time it should be treated with extreme caution due to distortions caused by taphonomic effects. The present study is focused on the wing base in Dunbaria (Spilapteridae). The articulation in Dunbaria quinquefasciata is mainly formed by a prominent upright axillary plate while the humeral plate is markedly reduced. Due to unique preservation of surface relief of the axillary plate, its composition shows a detailed pattern of three fused axillary sclerites and presumable position of the sclerite 3Ax. The obtained structures were compared among Spilapteridae and to other palaeodictyopterans Ostrava nigra (Homoiopteridae) and Namuroningxia elegans (Namuroningxiidae). The comparative study uncovered two patterns of 3Ax in Dunbaria and Namuroningxia, which correspond to their different suprafamilial classification. In contrast to previous studies these new results reveal the homologous structural elements in the wing base between Paleozoic Palaeodictyoptera and their extant relatives of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Neoptera.

Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Paleópteros/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Voo Animal
Talanta ; 178: 410-418, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136841


The impacts of the modern, agrochemicals based agriculture that threatens the overall systems sustainability, need to be monitored and evaluated. Seeking for agroecosystems monitors, the present article focus in the occurrence and abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrates, that have been frequently used as bioindicators of water quality due to their relationship with land use. Some of these organisms are on the top of the food chain, where bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes can be observed, and they can turn into secondary pollution sources of systems and terrestrial organisms as well. Odonate nymphs, which belong to the functional group of predators, were selected for this study. A methodology to determine 73 pesticide residues in odonate nymphs by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS was developed. A QuEChERS sample preparation strategy was adapted. As it is complex to obtain samples especially in disturbed ecosystems, the method was minimized to a sample size of 200mg of fresh nymphs. The method was validated and good recoveries (71-120%) with RSDs below 20% for the majority of the studied pesticides at least at two of the assayed levels 1, 10 and 50µgkg-1 were obtained. For 32 analytes the limit of quantitation was 1µgkg-1 and 10µgkg-1 for the others. The lineal range was observed between 1-100µgkg-1 in matrix-matched and solvent calibration curves for most of the assessed pesticides. LC-MS/MS matrix effects were evaluated, 40% of the analytes presented low or no signal suppression. Only flufenoxuron presented high matrix effects. The obtained methodology is adequate for pesticide multiresidue analysis in aquatic macroinvertebrates (odonates) aiming to contribute to the ecological state evaluation of freshwater ecosystems.

Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Miniaturização , Ninfa/química , Paleópteros/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem