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1.
Int J Paleopathol ; 39: 109-114, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To undertake differential diagnosis of scapular bone defects found in two medieval skeletons buried in different necropoles of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) and to evaluate the clinical significance of paralabral cysts in the context of shoulder pathology. MATERIALS: Individual JoT36 is an adult male exhumed from a necropolis belonging to a rural agricultural settlement dated to the 10th to 11th century A.D. Individual CIVT58 is an adult male from a Langobard necropolis dated to 630-670 A.D. METHODS: Macroscopic examination of the skeletons was performed using standard osteological methods and review of pertinent clinical literature to assist differential diagnosis. RESULTS: Between the glenoid cavity and the spinoglenoid notch of the right scapula of JoT36 there is a multilocular circular defect adjacent to the glenoid rim. On the neck of the left scapula of CIVT58, immediately above the spinoglenoid notch, there is a unilocular circular depression. In both cases, the cortical bone appears smooth without any evidence of erosion or sclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal findings and historical/archaeological contexts of both cases are compatible with the diagnosis of paralabral cysts. SIGNIFICANCE: Paralabral cysts are relatively frequently observed in clinical settings but very few examples have been documented in paleopathological literature. This study seeks to improve recognition and interpretation of this pathology in historical/archaeological contexts. LIMITATIONS: Findings from a case report can neither generate epidemiological information nor be generalized. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Identification of new cases may add valuable information about lifestyles and related shoulder pathologies in ancient times.


Assuntos
Cistos , Ombro , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Escápula , Arqueologia
2.
Int J Paleopathol ; 39: 35-49, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article explores the theory and utility of a syndemic approach for the study of disease in the past. Syndemic principles are examined alongside other theoretical developments within bioarchaeology. Two case studies are provided to illustrate the efficacy of this approach: Tuberculosis and vitamin D deficiency in 18th and 19th century England, and malaria and helminth infections in Early Medieval England. MATERIALS: Public health studies of present syndemics, in addition to published bioarchaeological, clinical and social information relating to the chosen case studies. METHODS: The data from these two historical examples are revisited within a syndemic framework to draw deeper conclusions about disease clustering and heterogeneity in the past. RESULTS: A syndemic framework can be applied to past contexts using clinical studies of diseases in a modern context and relevant paleopathological, archaeological, and historical data. CONCLUSIONS: This approach provides a means for providing a deeper, contextualised understanding ancient diseases, and integrates well with extant theoretical tools in bioarchaeology SIGNIFICANCE: Syndemics provides scholars a deep-time perspective on diseases that still impact modern populations. LIMITATIONS: Many of the variables essential for a truly syndemic approach cannot be obtained from current archaeological, bioarchaeological, or historical methods. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: More detailed and in-depth analysis of specific disease clusters within the past and the present, which draws on a comprehensive analysis of the social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Sindemia , Tuberculose , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Paleopatologia , Inglaterra
3.
Int J Paleopathol ; 39: 50-63, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although trauma is one of the most significant areas of study in paleopathology, most studies focus on fractures of single anatomical elements. Paleopathological research on regional trauma, such as of the thorax, is rare. This paper explores the causes, complications, and consequences of adult thoracic trauma using clinical data in order to inform paleopathological research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trends in paleopathological thoracic trauma literature were assessed by evaluating publications from Bioarchaeology International, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, International Journal of Paleopathology, and American Journal of Biological Anthropology. Clinical publications on thoracic trauma throughout time were also assessed through a PubMed search, and modern prevalence data was found through trauma databases such as the National Trauma Databank. RESULTS: Consideration of thoracic trauma involving concomitant injuries is a recent trend in clinical literature and patient care, but paleopathological research on thoracic trauma has been limited. Since thoracic fractures tend to occur in conjunction with other injuries, assessing them together is critical to the interpretation of trauma in the past. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical research into thoracic fractures and concomitant injuries provides valuable data for paleopathological research. Evaluating the likelihood and consequences of concomitant injury in skeletal remains provides a more robust understanding of trauma in the past and its impact on past lifeways. SIGNIFICANCE: This paper provides a review of current clinical and paleopathological literature on thoracic trauma and demonstrates the importance of moving beyond the analysis of fractures or trauma of single anatomical elements. LIMITATIONS: Thoracic bones are often taphonomically altered and differentially preserved leading to difficulty in identifying and interpreting fractures. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Practical application of the data presented here to archaeological samples will help to advance paleopathological understandings of thoracic trauma.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Traumatismos Torácicos , Humanos , Adulto , Paleopatologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Arqueologia , Prevalência
4.
Int J Paleopathol ; 39: 64-69, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document skin lesions on a mummified individual from the XIX century and to diagnose the pathology based historical documentation and physical examination. MATERIALS: Marie Leonie Martin (1863-1941) was a Roman Catholic nun. Her naturally mummified body is currently preserved in the Monastery of the Visitation in Caen (France). On the occasion of her beatification, the body was exhumed, studied and restored for conservation purposes. METHODS: The mummy was analyzed histologically and with CT imaging. RESULTS: The examination of the body noted areas of skin discoloration of reddish color; the paleopathological investigations revealed the presence of skin lesions (pustules) distributed throughout the body, with the exception of the face, abdomen and palms. The histological analyses of the pustules showed the presence of a central duct for the leakage of exudate, hyperkeratosis of the stratum corneum and a proliferation of cells in the spinous layer (acanthosis) of the epidermis. CONCLUSIONS: The red discoloration of the skin is typical of extensive erythema. SIGNIFICANCE: Our understanding of skin conditions in the past is extremely limited. This study provides the first paleopathological case of diagnosed unclassified endogenous eczema and provides insight into the antiquity and effects of the disease. LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to carry out a genetic analysis due to DNA contamination of the mummy.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Múmias , Freiras , Feminino , Humanos , Múmias/história , Catolicismo , Paleopatologia/história
5.
Int J Paleopathol ; 39: 70-74, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to evaluate a case of osteoma of the zygomatic bone in a post-medieval individual in the context of a paleoepidemiological approach. MATERIALS: Forty-five skulls from the plague cemetery of Alghero (Sardinia, Italy), dating back to the end of the 16th century, were evaluated for the presence of osteomata on the outer surface of the cranial vault and facial bones. METHODS: Macroscopic examination was performed using standard anthropological methods. The bone presenting the lesion was submitted to radiological examination through cone beam; a 3D reconstruction was obtained with a surface 3D scanner. RESULTS: Only one case of osteoma was observed in an adolescent aged 13-15 years, located on the right zygomatic bone. The lesion consisted of a rounded mass of 0.5 cm in diameter composed of compact bone, as also the radiographic study demonstrates. The prevalence of osteoma on the outer surface of the cranial vault and facial bones in the population of Alghero was 2.2 %. CONCLUSIONS: This case offers the opportunity to enrich the knowledge about the presence of benign tumors among past populations and to evaluate this lesion in dry bone. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides paleoepidemiological data on the scarce area of benign tumors in paleo-oncology and presents the first documented osteoma of the zygomatic bone in paleopathology. LIMITATION: Histological study was not performed for conservative issues. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: Increasing the attention to benign tumors is essential to deepen our knowledge about paleoepidemiology of neoplastic lesions.


Assuntos
Osteoma , Peste , Humanos , Adolescente , Osteoma/patologia , Paleopatologia , Crânio/patologia , Itália/epidemiologia
6.
Parasitology ; 149(12): 1556-1564, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924600

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to analyse the variability of parasite assemblages on a small spatial scale, by examining carnivore coprolites from the archaeological site Campo Moncada 2 (CM2), Piedra Parada area, Chubut province, Argentina, and comparing the results with those previously obtained from the archaeological site Campo Cerda 1 (CCe1), located in the same area. Six carnivore coprolites from CM2 were analysed: 4 obtained in sub-level 2a and 2 obtained in sub-level 2a/b. Two radiocarbon dates associated with the coprolites placed the samples chronologically between 780 ± 80 and 860 ± 80 years before present. The rehydrated sediments were sieved and then allowed to sediment spontaneously. The sediment was used for parasitological examination under light microscopy. Conservative estimation of total parasite richness resulted in 21 parasitic taxa. The taxa with the highest fecal prevalence (>50%) corresponded to parasites prevalent in modern carnivores (Alaria sp., Toxocara cf. canis, Toxascaris sp., Eucoleus cf. aerophila, Trichuris sp. and Ancylostomatidae gen. sp.). Assuming that the fox coprolites are contemporaneous, the total fecal parasite richness estimated for CM2 and previously for CCe1 was similar. The high total parasite richness found suggests a network of host­parasite relationships that could include regional hunter-gatherers. The results obtained in carnivore coprolites allow us to infer a very diverse biological community in Piedra Parada area, so the regional caves and rockshelters could have a proportional epidemiological importance as parasite exchange nodes.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Parasitos , Piedra , Animais , Paleopatologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Fósseis , Fezes/parasitologia
7.
Int J Paleopathol ; 38: 45-54, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To critically examine the role that case studies play in recent paleopathological literature, by evaluating their frequency of publication, academic impact, and the public engagement they generate. MATERIALS: Articles published in International Journal of Paleopathology between 2011 and 2018 (N = 377). METHODS: Articles were coded as case studies, population studies, methodological studies, or reviews. Case studies were coded as cultural practices, differential diagnosis, historical, or methodological/theoretical. We utilized bibliometric analysis to assess academic impact and altmetric analysis to evaluate public engagement. RESULTS: Case studies continue to be the most frequently published, but least frequently cited, article type. There are no significant differences in public engagement data between article types. Methodological/theoretical case studies have the most academic impact. Differential diagnosis case studies have the least academic impact and generate the least public engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The case study genre includes a variety of approaches, some of which hold significant potential for contributing to the discipline of paleopathology and beyond. SIGNIFICANCE: This study updates Mays' (2012b) citation analysis, pioneers the use of altmetric data to analyze public engagement with paleopathological publications, and identifies less productive approaches and areas of heightened relevance in the case study genre. LIMITATIONS: Publications in only one journal were analyzed. Only one source was utilized for citation data (Google Scholar) and one source for altmetric data (PlumX). SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: Expanding the granular analysis of case studies piloted here to additional journals and/or citation indexes to enlarge the sample size and provide keener insights.


Assuntos
Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Paleopatologia , Bibliometria , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 135: 102226, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759869

RESUMO

The aim of our paper is to present and discuss in detail the bony changes indicative of tuberculosis (TB) that were identified in a skeleton (KB67), unearthed from grave 67 of the 8th-century-CE cemetery of Kaba-Bitózug (Hungary). Furthermore, to provide the differential diagnoses of the observed alterations, with special attention to the cranial osteolytic lesions. During the macro- and micromorphological examinations of KB67, the skull revealed three small, well-circumscribed, punched-out osteolytic lesions accompanied by endocranial granular impressions, abnormal blood vessel impressions, periosteal appositions, and cortical erosion. The postcranial skeleton exhibited osteolytic lesions, cortical remodelling and erosion, and signs of hypervascularisation in the spine. Based on the differential diagnosis of the cranial osteolytic lesions and their co-occurrence with endocranial and vertebral bony changes indicative of TB, they most likely resulted from tuberculous involvement of the frontal and left parietal bones. The morphologically established diagnosis was confirmed by a PCR analysis that provided evidence for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in KB67. KB67, the first reported archaeological case with calvarial TB from the present-day territory of Hungary, gives us a unique insight into the occurrence of a rare manifestation of TB in the Avar Age of the Great Plain.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Osteoarticular , Cemitérios , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Hungria , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Paleopatologia/métodos , Tuberculose Osteoarticular/história
10.
Int J Paleopathol ; 37: 68-76, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore care that was likely provided to an adult male amputee from medieval Lithuania, positioning analysis within what is known of contemporary amputation practices. MATERIALS: Three sets of skeletal remains with evidence for amputation, dating to between the 13th-17th centuries AD and recovered during different archaeological excavations in Vilnius, Lithuania. METHODS: Macroscopic inspection of lesions, with additional X-ray analysis of the main subject. The Index of Care was used to investigate possible caregiving. RESULTS: Two individuals experienced amputation of a single element, and the third experienced bilateral hand amputation. Only one individual displayed healing. Historic sources suggest use of amputation for punitive purposes during this period, and judicial punishment is proposed as the most likely reason for amputation in at least two cases. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of long-term healing in one individual suggests receipt of care. This individual likely relied on family and/or community members for survival immediately following amputation, and subsequently for support in managing disability. SIGNIFICANCE: Successfully combining osteology with history in a framework for analyzing care provision in past Eastern European society, this study underlines the critical importance of context in undertaking bioarchaeology of care analyses. It also adds two examples of perimortem abscissions in this region to the paleopathological record. LIMITATIONS: Our approach relied on skeletal interpretation. Soft tissue was lost to decomposition and no relevant archaeological evidence was found in association with the remains. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: A review of skeletal collections may allow identification of overlooked cases of amputation (and care).


Assuntos
Amputação , Paleopatologia , Adulto , Amputação/história , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Punição/história
11.
Int J Paleopathol ; 37: 30-40, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research seeks to identify the way the sick were treated in the 14th-15th centuries АD in a rural community located close to the medieval urban centre of Suzdal in central medieval Russia MATERIALS: Skeletons of 26 humans were examined from the cemetery associated with the rural settlement of Mikhali 3/Mininskoe (central Russia) (14th-15th centuries A.D.) METHODS: Archaeological study, paleodemographic analysis, description of physiological stress markers, stature reconstruction, X-ray, 3D scan. RESULTS: The remains comprised of 11 children, 11 adult females and 4 adult males. Numerous stress markers, as well as indicators of chronic disease and low levels of sexual dimorphism were noted suggesting a hard life and low social position. However, about 20% of adults lived to more than 40 years old and the archaeological artifacts - markers of prosperity -suggests high living standards of the majority of the inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: Among the possible explanations of the paradox of poor health but ample access to resources is well-developed supportive care practice within the community. SIGNIFICANCE: A combination of bioarchaeological and archaeological studies of a medieval settlement and cemetery of Mikhali 3 offers information about medieval attitude towards the sick. LIMITATIONS: Few sites had been analyzed using a complex approach. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Combination of bioarchaeological and archaeological sources for estimation of life quality of medieval communities and clarification of their meaning of 'life quality'.


Assuntos
Paleopatologia , População Rural , Adulto , Arqueologia , Estatura , Cemitérios , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2106743119, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389750

RESUMO

Human culture, biology, and health were shaped dramatically by the onset of agriculture ∼12,000 y B.P. This shift is hypothesized to have resulted in increased individual fitness and population growth as evidenced by archaeological and population genomic data alongside a decline in physiological health as inferred from skeletal remains. Here, we consider osteological and ancient DNA data from the same prehistoric individuals to study human stature variation as a proxy for health across a transition to agriculture. Specifically, we compared "predicted" genetic contributions to height from paleogenomic data and "achieved" adult osteological height estimated from long bone measurements for 167 individuals across Europe spanning the Upper Paleolithic to Iron Age (∼38,000 to 2,400 B.P.). We found that individuals from the Neolithic were shorter than expected (given their individual polygenic height scores) by an average of −3.82 cm relative to individuals from the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic (P = 0.040) and −2.21 cm shorter relative to post-Neolithic individuals (P = 0.068), with osteological vs. expected stature steadily increasing across the Copper (+1.95 cm relative to the Neolithic), Bronze (+2.70 cm), and Iron (+3.27 cm) Ages. These results were attenuated when we additionally accounted for genome-wide genetic ancestry variation: for example, with Neolithic individuals −2.82 cm shorter than expected on average relative to pre-Neolithic individuals (P = 0.120). We also incorporated observations of paleopathological indicators of nonspecific stress that can persist from childhood to adulthood in skeletal remains into our model. Overall, our work highlights the potential of integrating disparate datasets to explore proxies of health in prehistory.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Estatura , Fazendeiros , Saúde , Esqueleto , Adulto , Agricultura/história , Estatura/genética , Criança , DNA Antigo , Europa (Continente) , Fazendeiros/história , Variação Genética , Genômica , Saúde/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia
13.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(9): 2158-2165, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examination of parietal surface anatomy has been limited because standard techniques have insufficient resolution to identify and characterize the structures of interest. Perspectives derived thereof have not clarified their nature. Surface microscopy is pursued as a nondestructive technique to assess the character and implications of porotic pores (referred to as porotic hyperostosis), which have been subject of much speculation. METHODS: The external surface of the skulls, selected on the basis of age and gender, from the Hamann-Todd human collection are examined by epi-illumination microscopy for surface pores and to assess correlation with age, ethnicity, gender, anemia, infection, cancer, hypertrophic bone disorders, renal disease, and fractures. RESULTS: Pore-like surface defects are present in 2.7%-5% of individuals in the third-fifth decades of life; 7%, in the sixth-eighth; and 25%, in the ninth-11th, but absent in the second decade of life. They are gender and birthdate independent, but slightly more common in African Americans. Fractures are more common among individuals with parietal pores, while tuberculosis, cancer, and hypertrophic bone diseases and anemia are less common. DISCUSSION: This is the first study to actually examine the prevalence of parietal pores as a function of known age, race, and sex and provides a baseline for comparison with populations in which those variables are not clearly identifiable. While some porotic pores may be related to marrow hyperplasia, transcortical circulation may explain the majority.


Assuntos
Anemia , Fraturas Ósseas , Hiperostose , Anemia/epidemiologia , Etnicidade , Humanos , Microscopia , Paleopatologia/métodos
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052476

RESUMO

This paper aims to provide a first glimpse into the genomic characterization of individuals buried in Casal Bertone (Rome, first-third centuries AD) to gain preliminary insight into the genetic makeup of people who lived near a tannery workshop, fullonica. Therefore, we explored the genetic characteristics of individuals who were putatively recruited as fuller workers outside the Roman population. Moreover, we identified the microbial communities associated with humans to detect microbes associated with the unhealthy environment supposed for such a workshop. We examined five individuals from Casal Bertone for ancient DNA analysis through whole-genome sequencing via a shotgun approach. We conducted multiple investigations to unveil the genetic components featured in the samples studied and their associated microbial communities. We generated reliable whole-genome data for three samples surviving the quality controls. The individuals were descendants of people from North African and the Near East, two of the main foci for tannery and dyeing activity in the past. Our evaluation of the microbes associated with the skeletal samples showed microbes growing in soils with waste products used in the tannery process, indicating that people lived, died, and were buried around places where they worked. In that perspective, the results represent the first genomic characterization of fullers from the past. This analysis broadens our knowledge about the presence of multiple ancestries in Imperial Rome, marking a starting point for future data integration as part of interdisciplinary research on human mobility and the bio-cultural characteristics of people employed in dedicated workshops.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , DNA Antigo/análise , Genômica/métodos , Adolescente , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Paleopatologia , Cidade de Roma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Int J Paleopathol ; 36: 30-35, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify computed tomography (CT) findings of purulent infections in ancient Egyptian child mummies. MATERIALS: Whole-body CT examination of 21 ancient Egyptian child mummies from German (n = 18), Italian (n = 1), and Swiss museums (n = 2). METHODS: CT examinations were evaluated for estimation of age at death and sex of the children. CT examinations were systematically assessed for any CT findings of purulent infection. RESULTS: The estimated age at death of the children ranged from about one year to the age of 12-14 years (mean 4.8 years). Twelve children were assessed as male, seven as female and in two sex was indeterminate. Three out of 21 child mummies (14.3%) had radiological evidence of purulent infections. In one mummy, a bandage-like structure at the right lower leg was detected that most likely represented a dressing of a skin lesion. CONCLUSIONS: This study appears to be the first to describe radiologically visualized structures consistent with dried pus in ancient Egyptian mummies. This study also appears to be the first to physically demonstrate an original ancient Egyptian dressing. SIGNIFICANCE: These cases may serve as models for further paleopathological investigation. The evidence of an original dressing contributes to our knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine. LIMITATIONS: CT was used as the only examination method as sampling of the wrapped mummies was not possible. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Radiological-pathological correlation in mummies in which physical sampling is available may reveal further insights into purulent infections in ancient Egypt.


Assuntos
Múmias , Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Museus , Paleopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
16.
World Neurosurg ; 158: 168-173, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844007

RESUMO

A middle meningeal artery (MMA) aneurysm is a type of intracranial aneurysm that has been rarely documented and is not completely understood in clinical medicine and especially in pediatrics, because juvenile cases have been extremely uncommon. Vascular conditions have occasionally been diagnosed in osteoarchaeological remains, providing evidence of their occurrence in previous eras. In the present report, we have described a lesion that was highly consistent with a case of an MMA aneurysm observed in an Etruscan child, whose remains had been exhumed during archaeological excavations in the necropolis of Pontecagnano (Salerno, southern Italy). The remains date back to the seventh to sixth century BC. Macroscopic and radiological examinations revealed an oval depression in the endocranial area corresponding to the parietal branch of the right MMA. The localized thinning of the bone and the absence of a bone reaction were compatible with a long-lasting compression of vascular origin highly consistent with an MMA aneurysm. Primary malignant bone tumors, bone metastasis, benign neoplastic conditions, and other non-neoplastic conditions, including calvarial venous malformations, eosinophilic granuloma, and sarcoidosis, could be excluded from the differential diagnosis, although the occurrence of other pathologies, such as dural arteriovenous fistulas, could not be rejected. Although it was not possible to definitely establish whether the MMA aneurysm was symptomatic, it could not be ruled out that rupture and subsequent extradural hemorrhage and/or intracranial hemorrhage could have caused the death of the child. From a paleopathological viewpoint, the case illustrated provides an interesting historical perspective on a rare neurovascular disorder that continues to be debated in modern clinical research.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Criança , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Artérias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Paleopatologia
17.
Spine Deform ; 10(1): 197-199, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499331

RESUMO

In Paleopathology, total lack of a vertebral body is a rare finding, mostly due to infectious diseases or tumors. We report the case of an adult male from the necropolis next to "Temple of the Millions of Years" of Thutmose III dated to the Late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period (2345-2055 BCE). He showed a fracture of T12, more than 50%, associated with the complete disappearance of the body of L1 and bilateral transverse process. Infection and tumor involvement were ruled out due to the morphology of the spinal segment. The most likely diagnosis was complete body agenesis. Congenital kyphosis related to vertebral agenesis has been described as a possibility in paleopathology, but it had not been reported until now.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Cifose , Adulto , Antigo Egito , Humanos , Cifose/complicações , Masculino , Paleopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
J Craniofac Surg ; 33(1): 70-75, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260447

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aims at presenting a case of symmetrical and bilateral thinning observed in a skull belonging to the skeleton of a mature woman from the medieval cemetery of Caravate (north Italy). Macroscopical, radiological, and histological analyses were performed to investigate the condition. The analyses allowed us to detect a progressive loss of both the outer table and the diploe, and the sparing of the inner table. As a controversial condition in the clinical and paleopathological literature, this case poses some difficulties in discussing the differential diagnosis. However, the sex determination, estimation of the age-at-death and different characteristics observed at the level of the postcranial bones, in particular the fractures recorded on different vertebral bodies, allowed us to correlate the biparietal thinning found in this subject to ageing and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Osteoporose , Feminino , Cabeça , História Medieval , Humanos , Itália , Paleopatologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
World Neurosurg ; 157: 36-44, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607065

RESUMO

Skull vault trepanation is a surgical practice that has been found in prehistoric human remains. We carried out a review of the literature on cranial trepanations performed during the Bronze Age in Italy. In total, 19 individuals, most of whom were adult males, with 33 trepanations have been reported, including a new specimen from the Italian Middle Bronze Age (1700-1400 BCE), found at Grotta della Monaca (Calabria). The evidence of cranial trepanations is geographically uneven across Italy, with the highest occurrence in Sardinia. Several trepanation techniques were applied in Italy during this period, where the drilling method was the most common solitary technique utilized. The survival rate of 79.3% in Bronze Age Italy suggests that trepanation was carried out with remarkable success. This analysis gives further insight into ancient human behavior and enhances our knowledge of surgical practices in antiquity, shedding light on the origins of neurosurgery.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgia/história , Crânio/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Arqueologia , Craniotomia , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Paleopatologia , Trepanação/história , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4884760, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840973

RESUMO

The human skeleton of a young adult male with marked asymmetry of the bilateral upper extremities was excavated from the Mashiki-Azamabaru site (3000-2000 BCE) on the main island of Okinawa in the southwestern archipelago of Japan. The skeleton was buried alone in a corner of the cemetery. In this study, morphological and radiographic observations were made on this skeleton, and the pathogenesis of the bone growth disorder observed in the left upper limb was discussed. The maximum diameter of the midshaft of the humerus was 13.8 mm on the left and 21.2 mm on the right. The long bones comprising the left upper extremity lost the structure of the muscle attachments except for the deltoid tubercle of the humerus. The bone morphology of the right upper extremity and the bilateral lower extremities was maintained and was close to the mean value of females from the Ohtomo site in northwestern Kyushu, Japan, during the Yayoi period. It is assumed that the anomalous bone morphology confined to the left upper extremity was secondary to the prolonged loss of function of the muscles attached to left extremity bones. In this case, birth palsy, brachial plexus injury in childhood, and acute grey matter myelitis were diagnosed. It was suggested that this person had survived into young adulthood with severe paralysis of the left upper extremity due to injury or disease at an early age.


Assuntos
Fósseis/patologia , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/história , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/patologia , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/história , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Paleopatologia , Esqueleto/diagnóstico por imagem , Esqueleto/patologia , Extremidade Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Extremidade Superior/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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