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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11814, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083691

RESUMO

This is the first study in an aquatic ectotherm to combine a stoichiometric bioenergetic approach with an endpoint stochastic model to explore dietary macronutrient content. The combination of measuring respiratory gas (O2 and CO2) exchange, nitrogenous (ammonia and urea) excretion, specific dynamic action (SDA), metabolic energy substrate use, and whole-body protein synthesis in spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, was examined in relation to dietary protein. Three isoenergetic feeds were formulated with varying crude protein: 40%, 50% and 60%, corresponding to CP40, CP50 and CP60 treatments, respectively. Total CO2 and ammonia excretion, SDA magnitude and coefficient, and protein synthesis in the CP60 treatment were higher compared to the CP40 treatment. These differences demonstrate dietary protein influences post-prandial energy metabolism. Metabolic use of each major energy substrate varied at different post-prandial times, indicating suitable amounts of high-quality protein with major non-protein energy-yielding nutrients, lipid and carbohydrate, are critical for lobsters. The average contribution of protein oxidation was lowest in the CP50 treatment, suggesting mechanisms underlying the most efficient retention of dietary protein and suitable dietary inclusion. This study advances understanding of how deficient and surplus dietary protein affects energy metabolism and provides approaches for fine-scale feed evaluation to support sustainable aquaculture.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Palinuridae/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Fatores Etários , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190715, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076036

RESUMO

Spiny lobsters (Family Palinuridae) are a popular seafood in Brazil. We characterize the fishing activity and analyze the population of lobster species captured in the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. We monitored the landings of lobster fishermen at the start of the fishing season, from May 24 to November 21, in 2010, at Pirangi beach, the main landing point in the metropolitan area of Natal. The lobster fisherman in the region use small vessels and a compressor to dive in artificial reefs known as marambaias. The artisanal fishermen are engaged in several illegal practices and revealed a greater capture of lobsters categorized as small-sized for the market (11-13.95cm tail length). The capture area led to different fishing pressures for each species. For P. laevicauda, fishing pressure occurred for all size classes, while for P. meripurpuratus, pressure occurred partially, only for a few population cohorts. On regional scale, fishing involved a demand-supply trade balance centered on the size of capture vs. abundance, regardless of the natural interespecific differences on body size and the preferential distribution area. Our results provide key information for future decision making involving the fishing of spiny lobster.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Palinuridae , Animais , Brasil , Pesqueiros , Alimentos Marinhos
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 313, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complex life cycle of the coconut crab, Birgus latro, begins when an obligate terrestrial adult female visits the intertidal to hatch zoea larvae into the surf. After drifting for several weeks in the ocean, the post-larval glaucothoes settle in the shallow subtidal zone, undergo metamorphosis, and the early juveniles then subsequently make their way to land where they undergo further physiological changes that prevent them from ever entering the sea again. Here, we sequenced, assembled and analyzed the coconut crab genome to shed light on its adaptation to terrestrial life. For comparison, we also assembled the genomes of the long-tailed marine-living ornate spiny lobster, Panulirus ornatus, and the short-tailed marine-living red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus. Our selection of the latter two organisms furthermore allowed us to explore parallel evolution of the crab-like form in anomurans. RESULTS: All three assembled genomes are large, repeat-rich and AT-rich. Functional analysis reveals that the coconut crab has undergone proliferation of genes involved in the visual, respiratory, olfactory and cytoskeletal systems. Given that the coconut crab has atypical mitochondrial DNA compared to other anomurans, we argue that an abundance of kif22 and other significantly proliferated genes annotated with mitochondrial and microtubule functions, point to unique mechanisms involved in providing cellular energy via nuclear protein-coding genes supplementing mitochondrial and microtubule function. We furthermore detected in the coconut crab a significantly proliferated HOX gene, caudal, that has been associated with posterior development in Drosophila, but we could not definitively associate this gene with carcinization in the Anomura since it is also significantly proliferated in the ornate spiny lobster. However, a cuticle-associated coatomer gene, gammacop, that is significantly proliferated in the coconut crab, may play a role in hardening of the adult coconut crab abdomen in order to mitigate desiccation in terrestrial environments. CONCLUSION: The abundance of genomic features in the three assembled genomes serve as a source of hypotheses for future studies of anomuran environmental adaptations such as shell-utilization, perception of visual and olfactory cues in terrestrial environments, and cuticle sclerotization. We hypothesize that the coconut crab exhibits gene proliferation in lieu of alternative splicing as a terrestrial adaptation mechanism and propose life-stage transcriptomic assays to test this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Braquiúros , Palinuridae , Animais , Braquiúros/genética , Cocos , Feminino , Genômica
4.
Ecol Appl ; 31(6): e02364, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899297

RESUMO

An ultimate benefit of marine protected areas (MPAs) is to reverse trophic cascades caused by human-driven collapse of critical ecological interactions. Here we demonstrate that, despite a small scale (0.28 km2 ) and not being fully protected, an MPA with strict fishing management and habitat enhancement by artificial reefs (ARs) in southwest Japan can lead to well-established macroalgal communities on widespread sea urchin barrens through cascading effects of predator recovery. Areas with low urchin densities occurred in and around daytime lobster (Panulirus japonicus) shelters primarily formed by quarry-rock ARs inside the MPA. We confirmed in the laboratory that lobsters preyed on two dominant sea urchins (Echinometra sp. A and Heliocidaris crassispina), with size- and species-dependent predation. The area with few urchins extended farther (˜65 m) from an AR with numerous lobsters than from a natural shelter (patch reef) with far fewer lobsters. Causation of this pattern was confirmed by a tethering experiment showing that predation on urchins was similarly high at and near lobster shelters but decreased at ˜100 m from the AR to a similar level as at an unprotected site. Time-lapse photography revealed that predation on tethered urchins was due mostly to the largest size class of lobsters (>100 mm carapace length), which comprised only 7% of the population, highlighting the importance of large-sized lobsters in controlling urchin abundance in localized areas adjacent to urchin-dominated barrens. Despite an ongoing once-a-year fishing event permitted within the MPA, lobster populations were persistent, demonstrating that the cascading effect of the lobsters on urchins and ultimately macroalgae was robust to temporary reductions in predator population size. Erect macroalgal cover was not simply accounted for by snapshot urchin density or biomass, suggesting a hysteresis effect of the phase shifts between macroalgal dominance and urchin barren states.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Palinuridae , Comportamento Predatório , Ouriços-do-Mar , Animais , Ecossistema
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2663, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514853

RESUMO

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are designed to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. Some MPAs are also established to benefit fisheries through increased egg and larval production, or the spillover of mobile juveniles and adults. Whether spillover influences fishery landings depend on the population status and movement patterns of target species both inside and outside of MPAs, as well as the status of the fishery and behavior of the fleet. We tested whether an increase in the lobster population inside two newly established MPAs influenced local catch, fishing effort, and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) within the sustainable California spiny lobster fishery. We found greater build-up of lobsters within MPAs relative to unprotected areas, and greater increases in fishing effort and total lobster catch, but not CPUE, in fishing zones containing MPAs vs. those without MPAs. Our results show that a 35% reduction in fishing area resulting from MPA designation was compensated for by a 225% increase in total catch after 6-years, thus indicating at a local scale that the trade-off of fishing ground for no-fishing zones benefitted the fishery.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , California
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 230: 105704, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316749

RESUMO

Recurrent dinoflagellate blooms of Alexandrium catenella expose the economically and ecologically important Southern Rock Lobster in Tasmania to paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), and it is unknown if PST accumulation adversely affects lobster performance, health and catchability. In a controlled aquaculture setting, lobsters were fed highly contaminated mussels to accumulate toxin levels in the hepatopancreas (mean of 6.65 mg STX.2HCl equiv. kg-1), comparable to those observed in nature. Physiological impact of PST accumulation was comprehensively assessed by a range of behavioural (vitality score, righting ability and reflex impairment score), health (haemocyte count, bacteriology, gill necrosis and parasite load), nutritional (hepatopancreas index and haemolymph refractive index) and haemolymph biochemical (21 parameters including electrolytes, metabolites, and enzymes) parameters during a 63 day period of uptake and depuration of toxins. Exposure to PST did not result in mortality nor significant changes in the behavioural, health, or nutritional measures suggesting limited gross impact on lobster performance. Furthermore, most haemolymph biochemical parameters measured exhibited no significant difference between control and exposed animals. However, the concentration of potassium in the haemolymph increased with PST, whilst the concentration of lactate and the sodium:potassium ratio decreased with PST. In addition, exposed lobsters showed a hyperglycaemic response to PST exposure, indicative of stress. These findings suggest that PST accumulation results in some measurable indicators of stress for lobsters. However, these changes are likely within the adaptive range for Jasus edwardsii and do not result in a significant impairment of gross performance. Our findings support previous conclusions that crustaceans are relatively tolerant to PST and the implications for the lobster fishery are discussed.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Palinuridae/metabolismo , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bivalves/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Saxitoxina/metabolismo , Frutos do Mar , Austrália do Sul , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115478, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254599

RESUMO

Staotcysts, the mechanosensory organs common to many marine invertebrates, have shown sensitivity to aquatic noise. Previously, rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) from a remote site with little exposure to anthropogenic noise incurred persistent damage to the statocyst and righting reflex following exposure to seismic air gun signals. Here, J. edwardsii collected from a site subject to high levels of anthropogenic noise were exposed to an equivalent seismic air gun signal regime as the previous study of noise-naïve lobsters. Following exposure, both control and exposed treatments were found to have damage to the statocyst equivalent to that of noise-naïve lobsters following seismic exposure, which led to the conclusion that the damage was pre-existing and not exacerbated by seismic exposure. The source of the damage in the lobsters in this study could not be ascertained, but the soundscape comparisons of the collection sites showed that the noisy site had a 5-10 dB greater level of noise, equivalent to a 3-10 times greater intensity, in the 10-700 Hz range than was found at the remote collection site. In addition to the lack of further damage following seismic exposure, no disruption to the righting reflex was observed. Indeed, compared to the noise naïve lobsters, the lobsters here demonstrated an ability to cope with or adapt to the mechanosensory damage, indicating a need for better understanding of the ecological impacts of the damage caused by low frequency noise on marine organisms. More broadly, this study raises historical exposure to noise as a previously unrecognised but vitally important consideration for studies of aquatic noise.


Assuntos
Ruído , Palinuridae , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21235, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277537

RESUMO

In an ocean warming hotspot off south-east Australia, many species have expanded their ranges polewards, including the eastern rock lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi. This species is likely extending its range via larval advection into Tasmanian coastal waters, which are occupied by the more commercially important southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Here, thermal tolerances of these lobster species at two life stages were investigated to assess how they may respond to warming ocean temperatures. We found that the pattern, optimum and magnitude of thermal responses differed between performance measures, life stages and species. Sagmariasus verreauxi had a warmer optimal temperature for aerobic scope and escape speed than J. edwardsii. However, J. edwardsii had a higher magnitude of escape speed, indicating higher capacity for escape performance. There were also differences between life stages within species, with the larval stage having higher variation in optimal temperatures between measures than juveniles. This inconsistency in performance optima and magnitude indicates that single performance measures at single life stages are unlikely to accurately predict whole animal performance in terms of life-time survival and fitness. However, combined results of this study suggest that with continued ocean warming, S. verreauxi is likely to continue to extend its distribution polewards and increase in abundance in Tasmania.


Assuntos
Aptidão Genética/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Animais , Austrália , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Palinuridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Regressão , Tasmânia , Temperatura
9.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 882, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole mitogenomes or short fragments (i.e., 300-700 bp of the cox1 gene) are the markers of choice for revealing within- and among-species genealogies. Protocols for sequencing and assembling mitogenomes include 'primer walking' or 'long PCR' followed by Sanger sequencing or Illumina short-read low-coverage whole genome (LC-WGS) sequencing with or without prior enrichment of mitochondrial DNA. The aforementioned strategies assemble complete and accurate mitochondrial genomes but are time consuming and/or expensive. In this study, I first tested whether mitogenomes can be sequenced from long-read nanopore sequencing data exclusively. Second, I explored the accuracy of the long-read assembled genomes by comparing them to a 'gold' standard reference mitogenome retrieved from the same individual using Illumina sequencing. Third and lastly, I tested if the long-read assemblies are useful for mitophylogenomics and barcoding research. To accomplish these goals, I used the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus, an ecologically relevant species in shallow water coral reefs and target of the most lucrative fishery in the greater Caribbean region. RESULTS: LC-WGS using a MinION ONT device and various de-novo and reference-based assembly pipelines retrieved a complete and highly accurate mitogenome for the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Discordance between each of the long-read assemblies and the reference mitogenome was mostly due to indels at the flanks of homopolymer regions. Although not 'perfect', phylogenetic analyses using entire mitogenomes or a fragment of the cox1 gene demonstrated that mitogenomes assembled using long reads reliably identify the sequenced specimen as belonging to P. argus and distinguish it from other related species in the same genus, family, and superorder. CONCLUSIONS: This study serves as a proof-of-concept for the future implementation of in-situ surveillance protocols using the MinION to detect mislabeling in P. argus across its supply chain. Mislabeling detection will improve fishery management in this overexploited lobster. This study will additionally aid in decreasing costs for exploring meta-population connectivity in the Caribbean spiny lobster and will aid with the transfer of genomics technology to low-income countries.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Nanoporos , Palinuridae , Animais , Região do Caribe , Palinuridae/genética , Filogenia
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18092, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093550

RESUMO

Anthropogenic inputs into coastal ecosystems are causing more frequent environmental fluctuations and reducing seawater pH. One such ecosystem is Florida Bay, an important nursery for the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. Although adult crustaceans are often resilient to reduced seawater pH, earlier ontogenetic stages can be physiologically limited in their tolerance to ocean acidification on shorter time scales. We used a Y-maze chamber to test whether reduced-pH seawater altered the orientation of spiny lobster pueruli toward chemical cues produced by Laurencia spp. macroalgae, a known settlement cue for the species. We tested the hypothesis that pueruli conditioned in reduced-pH seawater would be less responsive to Laurencia spp. chemical cues than pueruli in ambient-pH seawater by comparing the proportion of individuals that moved to the cue side of the chamber with the proportion that moved to the side with no cue. We also recorded the amount of time (sec) before a response was observed. Pueruli conditioned in reduced-pH seawater were less responsive and failed to select the Laurencia cue. Our results suggest that episodic acidification of coastal waters might limit the ability of pueruli to locate settlement habitats, increasing postsettlement mortality.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Larva/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Região do Caribe , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16463, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020553

RESUMO

As coral populations decline across the Caribbean, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the forces that inhibit coral survivorship and recovery. Predation by corallivores, such as the short coral snail Coralliophila abbreviata, are one such threat to coral health and recovery worldwide, but current understanding of the factors controlling corallivore populations, and therefore predation pressure on corals, remains limited. To examine the extent to which bottom-up forces (i.e., coral prey), top-down forces (i.e., predators), and marine protection relate to C. abbreviata distributions, we surveyed C. abbreviata abundance, percent coral cover, and the abundance of potential snail predators across six protected and six unprotected reefs in the Florida Keys. We found that C. abbreviata abundance was lower in protected areas where predator assemblages were also more diverse, and that across all sites snail abundance generally increased with coral cover. C. abbreviata abundance had strong, negative relationships with two gastropod predators-the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and the grunt black margate (Anisotremus surinamensis), which may be exerting top-down pressure on C. abbreviata populations. Further, we found the size of C. abbreviata was also related to reef protection status, with larger C. abbreviata on average in protected areas, suggesting that gape-limited predators such as P. argus and A. surinamensis may alter size distributions by targeting small snails. Combined, these results provide preliminary evidence that marine protection in the Florida Keys may preserve critical trophic interactions that indirectly promote coral success via control of local populations of the common corallivorous snail C. abbreviata.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Caramujos/fisiologia , Animais , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Palinuridae/fisiologia
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(10)2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003631

RESUMO

Sexual development involves the successive and overlapping processes of sex determination, sexual differentiation, and ultimately sexual maturation, enabling animals to reproduce. This provides a mechanism for enriched genetic variation which enables populations to withstand ever-changing environments, selecting for adapted individuals and driving speciation. The molecular mechanisms of sexual development display a bewildering diversity, even in closely related taxa. Many sex determination mechanisms across animals include the key family of "doublesex- and male abnormal3-related transcription factors" (Dmrts). In a few exceptional species, a single Dmrt residing on a sex chromosome acts as the master sex regulator. In this study, we provide compelling evidence for this model of sex determination in the ornate spiny lobster Panulius ornatus, concurrent with recent reports in the eastern spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi. Using a multi-tissue transcriptomic database established for P. ornatus, we screened for the key factors associated with sexual development (by homology search and using previous knowledge of these factors from related species), providing an in-depth understanding of sexual development in decapods. Further research has the potential to close significant gaps in our understanding of reproductive development in this ecologically and commercially significant order.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Palinuridae/genética , Desenvolvimento Sexual , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Palinuridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 176: 107472, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926898

RESUMO

Japanese spiny lobsters (Panulirus japonicus) exhibiting white opaque abdominal muscle were found in Mie and Wakayama prefectures, in mid-Western Japan. Microscopically, two types of microsporidian spores, ovoid and rod-shaped, were observed infecting the muscle. Histologically, both types of spore were detected inside myofibers of the abdomen, appendages, and cardiac muscles and were often both observed in a single myofiber simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ovoid spores have villous projections on the surface, and that ovoid and rod-shaped spores have a polar filament with 12 coils and 6 to 8 coils respectively. Merogonic and sporogonic stages were observed around ovoid spores, but rarely around rod-shaped spores. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences obtained from both spore types were identical to each other, indicating that this microsporidian exhibits a clear spore dimorphism. Phylogenetic analysis based on the rDNA sequences indicates that this microsporidian is part of a clade consisting of the genera Ameson and Nadelspora, with the most closely related species being A. herrnkindi found in the Caribbean spiny lobster P. argus. Based on ultrastructural features, molecular phylogenetic data, host type and geographical differences among known species in these genera, the species found in whitened abdominal muscles of the Japanese spiny lobster is described as Ameson iseebi sp. nov.


Assuntos
Microsporídios/classificação , Palinuridae/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microsporídios/citologia , Microsporídios/genética , Microsporídios/ultraestrutura , Músculos/microbiologia , Músculos/patologia , RNA Fúngico/análise , RNA Ribossômico/análise
14.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 176: 107457, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882233

RESUMO

The spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) is currently affected by an unenveloped, icosahedral, DNA virus termed Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1), a virulent and pathogenic virus that produces a long-lasting infection that alters the physiology and behaviour of heavily infected lobsters. Gut-associated microbiota is crucial for lobster homeostasis and well-being, but pathogens could change microbiota composition affecting its function. In PaV1 infection, the changes of gut-associated microbiota are yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we used high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to compare the bacterial microbiota in intestines of healthy and heavily PaV1-infected male and female juveniles of spiny lobsters P. argus captured in Puerto Morelos Reef lagoon, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We found that basal gut-associated microbiota composition showed a sex-dependent bias, with females being enriched in amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) assigned to Sphingomonas, while males were enriched in the genus Candidatus Hepatoplasma and Aliiroseovarius genera. Moreover, the alpha diversity of microbiota decreased in PaV1-infected lobsters. A significant increase of the genus Candidatus Bacilloplasma was observed in infected lobsters, as well as a significant decrease in Nesterenkonia, Caldalkalibacillus, Pseudomonas, Cetobacterium and Phyllobacterium. We also observed an alteration in the abundances of Vibrio species. Results from this study suggest that PaV1 infection impacts intestinal microbiota composition in Panulirus argus in a sex-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Palinuridae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Masculino , Palinuridae/virologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 183: 105122, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891901

RESUMO

Southern rock lobster (SRL1, Jasus edwardsii) are caught from the wild waters of southern Australia and form an important commodity economically for the fisheries industry in Australia. Between landing and export, SRL are held in specialised tanks within holding facilities for varying time periods before being exported to China. During the 2015-16 fishing season a lower stock survival rate was reported by some holding facilities when compared to previous fishing seasons. An investigation was undertaken to identify possible causes and favouring factors using a retrospective, single cohort, observational study. A custom questionnaire was built and trialled to collect qualitative and quantitative information on facilities infrastructure and capacity (10 questions), water systems (16 questions), SRL stock and health management (12 questions). Onsite visits and interviews of consenting holding facilities, with active holding operations, were conducted. Facilities were categorised into different capacity and management profiles based on a multivariate factor analysis. The association between facility profiles and perceived sub-optimal survival was then explored using simple logistic regression models. Out of the 83 license holders on record, 63 were in operation at the time of survey and 52 (83%) consented to participate. Perceived sub-optimal survival was reported in 22 (42%) facilities. The capacity, bio-filtration and water management practices across the surveyed facilities was highly variable but did not appear to be associated with survival. However, 'Intensive holding' facilities compared to the 'Extensive holding' facilities were significantly associated with an increased risk of sub-optimal survival (OR = 7.0, 95% CI: 2.1-26.13, P = 0.002). 'Intensive holding' facilities were more likely to hold higher annual tonnage sourced from distant, diverse and higher number of sources, to multiple handle and stock SRL in crates (as opposed to free swimming in tanks), and hold them for longer time periods. Holding practices are highly diverse across the SRL industry with little evidence of impact on survival, however, intensive and large scale holding practices appeared to be at higher risk of sub-optimal survival. A longitudinal and finer scale study is warranted to identify which one(s) of the stock management practices directly impact SRL survival during holding.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Longevidade , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Pesqueiros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Austrália do Sul , Tasmânia , Vitória
16.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 649, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crustaceans express several classes of receptor genes in their antennules, which house olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and non-olfactory chemosensory neurons. Transcriptomics studies reveal that candidate chemoreceptor proteins include variant Ionotropic Receptors (IRs) including both co-receptor IRs and tuning IRs, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels, Gustatory Receptors, epithelial sodium channels, and class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, expresses in its antennules nearly 600 IRs, 17 TRP channels, 1 Gustatory Receptor, 7 epithelial sodium channels, 81 GPCRs, 6 G proteins, and dozens of enzymes in signaling pathways. However, the specific combinatorial expression patterns of these proteins in single sensory neurons are not known for any crustacean, limiting our understanding of how their chemosensory systems encode chemical quality. RESULTS: The goal of this study was to use transcriptomics to describe expression patterns of chemoreceptor genes in OSNs of P. argus. We generated and analyzed transcriptomes from 7 single OSNs, some of which were shown to respond to a food odor, as well as an additional 7 multicell transcriptomes from preparations containing few (2-4), several (ca. 15), or many (ca. 400) OSNs. We found that each OSN expressed the same 2 co-receptor IRs (IR25a, IR93a) but not the other 2 antennular coIRs (IR8a, IR76b), 9-53 tuning IRs but only one to a few in high abundance, the same 5 TRP channels plus up to 5 additional TRPs, 12-17 GPCRs including the same 5 expressed in every single cell transcriptome, the same 3 G proteins plus others, many enzymes in the signaling pathways, but no Gustatory Receptors or epithelial sodium channels. The greatest difference in receptor expression among the OSNs was the identity of the tuning IRs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide an initial view of the combinatorial expression patterns of receptor molecules in single OSNs in one species of decapod crustacean, including receptors directly involved in olfactory transduction and others likely involved in modulation. Our results also suggest differences in receptor expression in OSNs vs. other chemosensory neurons.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Palinuridae/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/genética , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/metabolismo , Palinuridae/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971953

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) has become a widely utilized method for studying gene function, yet despite this many of the mechanisms surrounding RNAi remain elusive. The core RNAi machinery is relatively well understood, however many of the systemic mechanisms, particularly double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transport, are not. Here, we demonstrate that dsRNA binding proteins in the serum contribute to systemic RNAi and may be the limiting factor in RNAi capacity for species such as spiny lobsters, where gene silencing is not functional. Incubating sera from a variety of species across phyla with dsRNA led to a gel mobility shift in species in which systemic RNAi has been observed, with this response being absent in species in which systemic RNAi has never been observed. Proteomic analysis suggested lipoproteins may be responsible for this phenomenon and may transport dsRNA to spread the RNAi signal systemically. Following this, we identified the same gel shift in the slipper lobster Thenus australiensis and subsequently silenced the insulin androgenic gland hormone, marking the first time RNAi has been performed in any lobster species. These results pave the way for inducing RNAi in spiny lobsters and for a better understanding of the mechanisms of systemic RNAi in Crustacea, as well as across phyla.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes , Palinuridae , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Humanos , Palinuridae/genética , Palinuridae/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
18.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 175: 107453, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798534

RESUMO

The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) is a highly commercial species and comprises the largest spiny lobster fishery in the world. Although populations have declined throughout its range, there is little known regarding its diseases and pathogens. The objectives of this study were to provide illustrated and standardized methods for postmortem examination, and to describe baseline gross and microscopic pathology for P. argus. From July 2017-March 2019, a postmortem examination including comprehensive histological assessment was performed on 313 fishery-caught lobsters. Epibionts and lesions observed include branchial cirriped infestation (69%), branchial encysted nemertean worm larvae (23%), tail fan necrosis (11%), skeletal muscle necrosis (7%), antennal gland calculi (6%), branchial infarction (2%), and microsporidiosis (0.6%). This report confirms the rare prevalence of microsporidiosis in P. argus and describes nemertean worm larvae in the gill. This study also reports a condition resembling excretory calcinosis in spiny lobster. The methods and data produced by this study facilitate disease diagnosis and sustainable stock management of P. argus.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Palinuridae/microbiologia , Palinuridae/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , São Cristóvão e Névis
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846430

RESUMO

Indo-Pacific lionfish have become invasive throughout the western Atlantic. Their predatory effects have been the focus of much research and are suggested to cause declines in native fish abundance and diversity across the invaded range. However, little is known about their non-consumptive effects, or their effects on invertebrates. Lionfish use shelters on the reef, thus there is potential for competition with other shelter-dwelling organisms. We demonstrate similar habitat associations between invasive lionfish, native spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) and native long-spined sea urchins (Diadema antillarum), indicating the potential for competition. We then used a laboratory experiment to compare activity and shelter use of each species when alone and when lionfish were paired with each native species. Spiny lobsters increased their activity but did not change their shelter use in the presence of a lionfish, whilst long-spined sea urchins changed neither their activity nor shelter use. However, lionfish reduced their shelter use in the presence of spiny lobsters and long-spined sea urchins. This study highlights the importance not only of testing for the non-consumptive effects of invasive species, but also exploring whether native species exert non-consumptive effects on the invasive.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Espécies Introduzidas , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Dinâmica Populacional
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607762

RESUMO

Diverse animals use Earth's magnetic field to guide their movements, but the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying the magnetic sense remain enigmatic. One hypothesis is that particles of the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) provide the basis of magnetoreception. Here we examined gene expression in the central nervous system of a magnetically sensitive invertebrate, the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), after applying a magnetic pulse known to alter magnetic orientation behavior. Numerous genes were differentially expressed in response to the pulse, including 647 in the brain, 1256 in the subesophageal ganglion, and 712 in the thoracic ganglia. Many such genes encode proteins linked to iron regulation, oxidative stress, and immune response, consistent with possible impacts of a magnetic pulse on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. Additionally, however, altered expression also occurred for numerous genes with no apparent link to magnetoreception, including genes encoding proteins linked to photoreception, carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, and other physiological processes. Overall, the results are consistent with the magnetite hypothesis of magnetoreception, yet also reveal that in spiny lobsters, a strong pulse altered expression of > 10% of all expressed genes, including many seemingly unrelated to sensory processes. Thus, caution is required when interpreting the effects of magnetic pulses on animal behavior.


Assuntos
Palinuridae/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação , Região do Caribe , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos da radiação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Campos Magnéticos , Orientação/fisiologia , Palinuridae/genética , Palinuridae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação
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