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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e013021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730707

RESUMO

To a better insight into the epidemiology and genetic diversity of protozoan hemoparasites infections in wild mammals, this study aimed to the post mortem detection of DNA from species of the order Piroplasmida (Babesia sp., Cytauxzoon sp., and Theileria sp.) and suborder Adelorina (Hepatozoon sp.) using polymerase chain reaction based on the 18S rRNA gene followed by genetic sequencing of blood and spleen samples collected from carcasses of 164 free-ranging and captive wild mammals from Mato Grosso state. Among them, one Leopardus pardalis, three Panthera onca, two Puma concolor were positive for Cytauxzoon sp., and six Tapirus terrestris tested positive for Piroplasmida, while one L. pardalis was positive for Hepatozoon sp. Furthermore, an uncharacterized piroplasmid genetically related to Theileria sp. previously detected in cats from Brazil was described in lowland tapirs. Despite the controversy regarding the epidemiological threat of these protozoa, the detection of these tick-borne agents in wild free-living and captive mammals, even when asymptomatic, demonstrates the importance of monitoring, particularly in hotspots such as the state of Mato Grosso, to verify the circulation and genetic diversity, to anticipate the possible emergence of diseases, and even their consequences to other animals as well as humans.


Assuntos
Babesia , Panthera , Piroplasmida , Animais , Babesia/genética , Brasil , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Filogenia , Piroplasmida/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255555, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613994

RESUMO

The jaguar (Panthera onca) is one of the most threatened carnivores in the Americas. Despite a long history of research on this charismatic species, to date there have been few systematic efforts to assess its population size and status in most countries across its distribution range. We present here the results of the two National Jaguar Surveys for Mexico, the first national censuses in any country within the species distribution. We estimated jaguar densities from field data collected at 13 localities in 2008-2010 (2010 hereafter) and 11 localities in 2016-2018 (2018 hereafter). We used the 2010 census results as the basis to develop a National Jaguar Conservation Strategy that identified critical issues for jaguar conservation in Mexico. We worked with the Mexican government to implement the conservation strategy and then evaluated its effectivity. To compare the 2010 and 2018 results, we estimated the amount of jaguar-suitable habitat in the entire country based on an ecological niche model for both periods. Suitable jaguar habitat covered ~267,063 km2 (13.9% of the country's territory) in 2010 and ~ 288,890 km2 (~14.8% of the country's territory) in 2018. Using the most conservative density values for each priority region, we estimated jaguar densities for both the high and low suitable habitats. The total jaguar population was estimated in ~4,000 individuals for 2010 census and ~4,800 for the 2018 census. The Yucatan Peninsula was the region with the largest population, around 2000 jaguars, in both censuses. Our promising results indicate that the actions we proposed in the National Jaguar Conservation Strategy, some of which have been implemented working together with the Federal Government, other NGO's, and land owners, are improving jaguar conservation in Mexico. The continuation of surveys and monitoring programs of the jaguar populations in Mexico will provide accurate information to design and implement effective, science-based conservation measures to try to ensure that robust jaguar populations remain a permanent fixture of Mexico's natural heritage.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Panthera/fisiologia , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Ecossistema , México , Densidade Demográfica
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20190314, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705929

RESUMO

Due to the reduction of the jaguar population, the formation of somatic cell cryobanks represents an interesting tool for its conservation. Nevertheless, the success of these cryobanks depends on the cryoprotectants used in cryopreservation. We evaluated the effects of the intracellular cryoprotectants (10% dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO; 10% ethylene glycol, EG) in the absence or presence of an extracellular cryoprotectant (0.2 M sucrose, SUC) on the morphology, confluence, viability, and metabolism of somatic cells derived from five jaguars belonging to Brazilian zoos. The morphology was presented in a descriptive manner, while the confluence, viability and metabolic activity were presented as means and compared using statistical tests. Non-cryopreserved cells were used as control and compared to frozen/thawed cells using cryoprotectants. No difference was observed for the morphology and confluence among non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved cells, regardless of the cryoprotectants. Only cryopreserved cells in EG (45.8%±12.9) had a reduction in their viability when compared to non-cryopreserved cells (97.8%±1.1). Only cryopreserved cells in DMSO with SUC (76.0%±2.7) or absence of SUC (77.0%±3.7) maintained their metabolic activity after thawing, when compared to non-cryopreserved cells (100.0%±6.7). Therefore, combinations of DMSO in the absence and presence of SUC were efficient in the cryopreservation of somatic cells of jaguars.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Panthera , Animais , Criopreservação , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1076-1084, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1345272

RESUMO

The jaguar is the largest feline in the Americas and in the face of the threat of extinction and the reduction of natural areas, keeping the species in captivity may be important for its conservation. This condition can lead to a reduction in well-being, especially due to spatial limitation and lack of environmental stimulus. In recent decades, techniques have been sought to minimize the negative impacts of captivity, with an increase in the use of environmental enrichment and operational conditioning in order to facilitate routine procedures for the animal management. In this scenario, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of conditioning on the welfare of jaguars in captivity, analyzing behavioral and physiological effects through salivary cortisol. Seven jaguars were studied in a Scientific Breeder. There was an increase in behaviors associated with welfare and cortisol during conditioning, possibly related to learning. The increase in behaviors associated with welfare suggests that the technique can contribute to improve the quality of life of these animals in captivity.(AU)


A onça-pintada é o maior felino das Américas e, diante da ameaça de extinção e da redução de áreas naturais, manter a espécie em cativeiro pode ser importante para sua conservação. Essa condição pode levar à redução no bem-estar, especialmente devido à limitação espacial e à carência de estímulos ambientais. Nas últimas décadas, têm sido buscadas técnicas para minimizar os impactos negativos do cativeiro, com crescimento da utilização de enriquecimento ambiental e do condicionamento operante, com o intuito de facilitar procedimentos de rotina do manejo dos animais. Nesse cenário, o presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar os efeitos do condicionamento sobre o bem-estar de onças-pintadas em cativeiro, analisando-se efeitos comportamentais e fisiológicos por meio do cortisol salivar. Foram estudadas sete onças-pintadas em um criadouro científico. Houve aumento dos comportamentos associados ao bem-estar e do cortisol durante o condicionamento, possivelmente relacionados à aprendizagem. O aumento nos comportamentos de bem-estar sugere que a técnica pode contribuir para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses animais em cativeiro.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Reforço Psicológico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Bem-Estar do Animal , Condicionamento Psicológico , Panthera
5.
PLoS Biol ; 19(8): e3001336, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383738

RESUMO

Conserving and managing biodiversity in the face of ongoing global change requires sufficient evidence to assess status and trends of species distributions. Here, we propose novel indicators of biodiversity data coverage and sampling effectiveness and analyze national trajectories in closing spatiotemporal knowledge gaps for terrestrial vertebrates (1950 to 2019). Despite a rapid rise in data coverage, particularly in the last 2 decades, strong geographic and taxonomic biases persist. For some taxa and regions, a tremendous growth in records failed to directly translate into newfound knowledge due to a sharp decline in sampling effectiveness. However, we found that a nation's coverage was stronger for species for which it holds greater stewardship. As countries under the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework renew their commitments to an improved, rigorous biodiversity knowledge base, our findings highlight opportunities for international collaboration to close critical information gaps.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Biodiversidade , Ecologia/normas , Ecologia/tendências , Animais , Artiodáctilos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia/métodos , Internacionalidade , Panthera
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14164, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238947

RESUMO

Big cats (Genus: Panthera) are among the most threatened mammal groups of the world, owing to hunting, habitat loss, and illegal transnational trade. Conservation genetic studies and effective curbs on poaching are important for the conservation of these charismatic apex predators. A limited number of microsatellite markers exists for Panthera species and researchers often cross-amplify domestic cat microsatellites to study these species. We conducted data mining of seven Panthera genome sequences to discover microsatellites for conservation genetic studies of four threatened big cat species. A total of 32 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified in silico and tested with 152 big cats, and were found polymorphic in most of the tested species. We propose a set of 12 novel microsatellite markers for use in conservation genetics and wildlife forensic investigations of big cat species. Cumulatively, these markers have a high discriminatory power of one in a million for unrelated individuals and one in a thousand for siblings. Similar PCR conditions of these markers increase the prospects of achieving efficient multiplex PCR assays. This study is a pioneering attempt to synthesise genome wide microsatellite markers for big cats.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Genoma , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Panthera/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Marcadores Genéticos , Polimorfismo Genético , Probabilidade
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293067

RESUMO

Large carnivore attacks on humans are a serious form of human-wildlife interaction which has increased globally in recent decades. When attacks occur, both humans and large carnivores suffer, highlighting the need to characterize these conflicts toward mitigation of attacks. We investigated brown bear (Ursus arctos) and Persian leopard (Panthera pardus) attacks on humans across Iran using reports provided by the Government of Iran during 2012-2020. We characterized temporal and spatial patterns of attacks, as well as species-specific attributes. We identified 83 attacks resulting in 77 human injuries and 6 fatalities. Bears were responsible for more attacks (63%) than leopards (37%). Attacks occurred more frequently during defensive reactions by bears and leopards on adult male people while livestock herding during the day in spring and summer. Bears reportedly attacked people more often in western provinces of Iran, while leopards attacked more frequently in northern provinces. We recommend that the Iran Department of the Environment consider implementing a national reporting system to document bear and leopard attacks on people. We further suggest development of national bear and leopard management plans that emphasize mitigating human risk to improve human attitudes toward these carnivore species to facilitate their conservation.


Assuntos
Panthera/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Ursidae/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e240219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105645

RESUMO

Snow leopard (Panthera unica) is a felid which lives in the highly rugged areas of alpine regions in different mountain ranges of South and Central Asia. This solitary animal needs large spaces for its ranges but due to climate change and relatively faster rate of global warming in South Asian mountain ranges, its habitat is going to shrink and fragment by tree-line shifts and change in hydrology of the area. Vegetative modification of montane flora and competition with domestic goats will create its prey's population to decline along with a chance of a direct conflict and competition with the common leopard. Common leopard being more adaptable, grouped, and larger in size can be a significant stressor for a smaller and solitary snow leopard. Habitat would shrink, and snow leopard can possibly move upslope or northward to central Asian ranges and their predicted migratory patterns are unknown.


Assuntos
Felidae , Panthera , Animais , Ásia , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema
9.
J Exp Biol ; 224(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160050

RESUMO

The predicted rise of global temperatures is of major concern for ectotherms because of its direct impact on their behavior and physiology. As physiological performance mediates a species' resilience to warming exposure, physiological plasticity could greatly reduce the susceptibility to climate change. We studied the degree to which Diplolaemus leopardinus lizards are able to adjust behavioral and physiological traits in response to short periods of temperature change. We used a split cross design to measure the acclimation response of preferred body temperature (Tp), and the thermal performance curve of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and evaporative water loss (EWL). Our results showed that plasticity differs among traits: whereas Tp and EWL showed lower values in warm conditions, the body temperature at which RMR was highest increased. Moreover, RMR was affected by thermal history, showing a large increase in response to cold exposure in the group initially acclimated to warm temperatures. The reduction of EWL and the increase in optimal temperature will give lizards the potential to partially mitigate the impact of rising temperatures in the energy cost and water balance. However, the decrease in Tp and the sensitivity to the warm thermal history of RMR could be detrimental to the energy net gain, increasing the species' vulnerability, especially considering the increase of heat waves predicted for the next 50 years. The integration of acclimation responses in behavioral and physiological traits provides a better understanding of the range of possible responses of lizards to cope with the upcoming climatic and environmental modifications expected as a result of climate change.


Assuntos
Iguanas , Lagartos , Panthera , Aclimatação , Animais , Argentina , Mudança Climática , Temperatura
10.
Primates ; 62(4): 555-562, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950405

RESUMO

Predation is a major cause of mortality in non-human primates, and considered a selective force in the evolution of primate societies. Although larger body size is considered as protection against predation, evidence for predation on great apes by carnivores comes from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo spp.). Here, we describe the first encounter between wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) and a leopard (Panthera pardus). A single leopard was confronted by a group of habituated bonobos for three hours. Two adult males and one adolescent female bonobo actively harassed the leopard, which remained still for most of the encounter and reacted only to close approaches by bonobos. While no predation was observed, their behaviours confirm that bonobos perceive leopards as potential predators. Our report adds novel information to descriptions from other African ape species, and sheds light on the behavioural repertoire of bonobos' anti-predation strategies. For future investigations, we suggest tagging leopards to remotely monitor their movements and allow assessment of encounter rates as one of several factors influencing predation pressure.


Assuntos
Pan paniscus , Panthera/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Masculino
11.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(2): 139-148, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951769

RESUMO

This study was carried out to provide information on the taxonomic classification and analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Spirometra theileri. One strobila of S. theileri was collected from the intestine of an African leopard (Panthera pardus) in the Maswa Game Reserve, Tanzania. The complete mtDNA sequence of S. theileri was 13,685 bp encoding 36 genes including 12 protein genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs with absence of atp8. Divergences of 12 protein-coding genes were as follow: 14.9% between S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei, 14.7% between S. theileri and S. decipiens, and 14.5% between S. theileri with S. ranarum. Divergences of 12 proteins of S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei ranged from 2.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad5, while S. theileri varied from S. decipiens and S. ranarum by 1.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad3. Phylogenetic relationship of S. theileri with eucestodes inferred using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences exhibited identical tree topologies. A clade composed of S. decipiens and S. ranarum formed a sister species to S. erinaceieuropaei, and S. theileri formed a sister species to all species in this clade. Within the diphyllobothridean clade, Dibothriocephalus, Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra formed a monophyletic group, and sister genera were well supported.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Spirometra/genética , Animais , Genoma Helmíntico , Masculino , Panthera/parasitologia , Filogenia , Spirometra/classificação , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Tanzânia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250900, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010352

RESUMO

The endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia occurs in human use landscapes in the mountains of South and Central Asia. Conservationists generally agree that snow leopards must be conserved through a land-sharing approach, rather than land-sparing in the form of strictly protected areas. Effective conservation through land-sharing requires a good understanding of how snow leopards respond to human use of the landscape. Snow leopard density is expected to show spatial variation within a landscape because of variation in the intensity of human use and the quality of habitat. However, snow leopards have been difficult to enumerate and monitor. Variation in the density of snow leopards remains undocumented, and the impact of human use on their populations is poorly understood. We examined spatial variation in snow leopard density in Spiti Valley, an important snow leopard landscape in India, via spatially explicit capture-recapture analysis of camera trap data. We camera trapped an area encompassing a minimum convex polygon of 953 km2. Our best model estimated an overall density of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.31-0.82) mature snow leopards per 100 km2. Using AIC, our best model showed the density of snow leopards to depend on estimated wild prey density, movement about activity centres to depend on altitude, and the expected number of encounters at the activity centre to depend on topography. Models that also used livestock biomass as a density covariate ranked second, but the effect of livestock was weak. Our results highlight the importance of maintaining high density pockets of wild prey populations in multiple-use landscapes to enhance snow leopard conservation.


Assuntos
Panthera , Altitude , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Índia , Gado , Modelos Estatísticos , Panthera/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Comportamento Predatório
13.
J Med Entomol ; 58(4): 1936-1940, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855359

RESUMO

Two individuals of the jaguar, Panthera onca (L.), were captured near the municipality of Presidente Figueiredo, Brazilian Amazon, during the years of 2017 and 2018. The jaguars presented furuncular myiasis caused by the human botfly Dermatobia hominis (L.) on the rear thighs and tail. This is the first record of infestation of D. hominis in P. onca in the Amazon region.


Assuntos
Dípteros/patogenicidade , Miíase/veterinária , Panthera/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Brasil , Larva/patogenicidade , Floresta Úmida
14.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(6): 389-393, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678537

RESUMO

Leopard attacks on humans are reported most often from the Indian subcontinent. The bite wounds are complex injuries infected with polymicrobial inoculum and may present as punctures, abrasions, lacerations or avulsions. The presentation and acceptable treatment of these injuries vary according to the wound. We hereby describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a male victim with leopard bite injuries on the head and neck region. As bite injuries are commonly found on and around the face, maxillofacial surgeons should be familiar with the therapy. Through thorough clinical and radiological examination, it is essential to prevent missing any hidden injuries, which can easily turn lethal. To benefit the rural population, more health facilities need to be established in remote areas.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Traumatismos Faciais , Lesões do Pescoço , Panthera , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Traumatismos Faciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Faciais/terapia , Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Lesões do Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Pescoço/terapia
15.
Zoo Biol ; 40(4): 288-296, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755259

RESUMO

Ex-situ conservation strategies such as the formation of somatic cell banks are valuable tools for the conservation of jaguars, whose population has been declining in recent years. Once properly established, these cells can be successfully leveraged for future applications. We aimed to assess the effects of in vitro culture and cryopreservation on the establishment of fibroblasts derived from jaguars. Initially, we identified five dermal fibroblastic lines using morphology and immunophenotyping assays; these lines were then subjected to two experiments. In the first experiment, the viability, metabolism, and proliferative activity of cells at different passages (first, third, and tenth) were evaluated. In the second experiment, the cells were cryopreserved and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis were evaluated after one, three, and ten passages. Noncryopreserved cells were used as controls. The in vitro culture after first, third, and tenth passages and cryopreservation conditions did not affect the proliferative activity and viability. However, cells cultured until tenth passage and frozen/thawed cells showed reduced metabolism. In addition, cryopreserved cells showed higher levels of intracellular ROS and altered ΔΨm when compared with those of noncryopreserved cells. Finally, frozen/thawed cells cultured after ten passages showed reduced proliferative activity and number of viable cells than did frozen/thawed cells cultured after one and three passages. In summary, we have shown that viable fibroblasts can be established from jaguar skin and that although these cells do not show altered viability and proliferative activity, they do undergo damage during extended culture and cryopreservation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/veterinária , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Criopreservação/veterinária , Derme/citologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Panthera , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249072, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755706

RESUMO

Connectivity of natural areas through biological corridors is essential for ecosystem resilience and biodiversity conservation. However, robust assessments of biodiversity in corridor areas are often hindered by logistical constraints and the statistical challenges of modeling data from multiple species. Herein, we used a hierarchical community occupancy model in a Bayesian framework to evaluate the status of medium and large-sized mammals in a critical link of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC) in Costa Rica. We used camera traps deployed from 2013-2017 to detect 18 medium (1-15 kg) and 6 large (>15 kg) mammal species in a portion of two Jaguar Conservation Units (JCUs) and the Corridor linking them. Camera traps operated for 16,904 trap nights across 209 stations, covering an area of 880 km2. Forest cover was the most important driver of medium and large-sized mammal habitat use, with forest specialists such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) strongly associated with high forest cover, while habitat generalists such as coyotes (Canis latrans) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) were associated with low forest cover. Medium and large-sized mammal species richness was lower in the Corridor area ([Formula: see text] = 9.78±1.84) than in the portions evaluated of the two JCUs ([Formula: see text] = 11.50±1.52). Puma and jaguar habitat use probabilities were strongly correlated with large prey species richness (jaguar, r = 0.59, p<0.001; puma, r = 0.72, p<0.001), and correlated to a lesser extent with medium prey species richness (jaguar, r = 0.36, p = 0.003; puma, r = 0.23, p = 0.064). Low estimated jaguar habitat use probability in one JCU (Central Volcanic Cordillera: [Formula: see text] = 0.15±0.11) suggests that this is not the jaguar stronghold previously assumed. In addition, the western half of the Corridor has low richness of large mammals, making it necessary to take urgent actions to secure habitat connectivity for mammal populations.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Costa Rica , Panthera/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Puma/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647057

RESUMO

Population assessments of wide-ranging, cryptic, terrestrial mammals rely on camera trap surveys. While camera trapping is a powerful method of detecting presence, it is difficult distinguishing rarity from low detection rate. The margay (Leopardus wiedii) is an example of a species considered rare based on its low detection rates across its range. Although margays have a wide distribution, detection rates with camera traps are universally low; consequently, the species is listed as Near Threatened. Our 12-year camera trap study of margays in protected broadleaf forest in Belize suggests that while margays have low detection rate, they do not seem to be rare, rather that they are difficult to detect with camera traps. We detected a maximum of 187 individuals, all with few or no recaptures over the years (mean = 2.0 captures/individual ± SD 2.1), with two-thirds of individuals detected only once. The few individuals that were recaptured across years exhibited long tenures up to 9 years and were at least 10 years old at their final detection. We detected multiple individuals of both sexes at the same locations during the same survey, suggesting overlapping ranges with non-exclusive territories, providing further evidence of a high-density population. By studying the sparse annual datasets across multiple years, we found evidence of an abundant margay population in the forest of the Cockscomb Basin, which might have been deemed low density and rare, if studied in the short term. We encourage more long-term camera trap studies to assess population status of semi-arboreal carnivore species that have hitherto been considered rare based on low detection rates.


Assuntos
Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Florestas , Panthera/fisiologia , Meio Selvagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Belize , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino
18.
J Virol ; 95(13): e0017821, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762419

RESUMO

As the hosts of lentiviruses, almost 40 species of felids (family Felidae) are distributed around the world, and more than 20 feline species test positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lineage of lentiviruses. These observations suggest that FIVs globally infected a variety of feline species through multiple cross-species transmission events during a million-year history. Cellular restriction factors potentially inhibit lentiviral replication and limit cross-species lentiviral transmission, and cellular APOBEC3 deaminases are known as a potent restriction factor. In contrast, lentiviruses have evolutionary-acquired viral infectivity factor (Vif) to neutralize the APOBEC3-mediated antiviral effect. Because the APOBEC3-Vif interaction is strictly specific for viruses and their hosts, a comprehensive investigation focusing on Vif-APOBEC3 interplay can provide clues that will elucidate the roles of this virus-host interplay on cross-species transmission of lentiviruses. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation with 144 patterns of a round robin test using 18 feline APOBEC3Z3 genes, an antiviral APOBEC3 gene in felid, and 8 FIV Vifs and derived a matrix showing the interplay between feline APOBEC3Z3 and FIV Vif. We particularly focused on the interplay between the APOBEC3Z3 of three felids (domestic cat, ocelot, and Asian golden cat) and an FIV Vif (strain Petaluma), and revealed that residues 65 and 66 of the APOBEC3Z3 protein of multiple felids are responsible for the counteraction triggered by FIV Petaluma Vif. Altogether, our findings can be a clue to elucidate not only the scenarios of the cross-species transmissions of FIVs in felids but also the evolutionary interaction between mammals and lentiviruses. IMPORTANCE Most of the emergences of new virus infections originate from the cross-species transmission of viruses. The fact that some virus infections are strictly specific for the host species indicates that certain "species barriers" in the hosts restrict cross-species jump of viruses, while viruses have evolutionary acquired their own "arms" to overcome/antagonize/neutralize these hurdles. Therefore, understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to successful cross-species viral transmission is crucial for considering the menus of the emergence of novel pathogenic viruses. In the field of retrovirology, APOBEC3-Vif interaction is a well-studied example of the battles between hosts and viruses. Here, we determined the sequences of 11 novel feline APOBEC3Z3 genes and demonstrated that all 18 different feline APOBEC3Z3 proteins tested exhibit anti-feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) activity. Our comprehensive investigation focusing on the interplay between feline APOBEC3 and FIV Vif can be a clue to elucidate the scenarios of the cross-species transmissions of FIVs in felids.


Assuntos
Desaminase APOBEC-1/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene vif/metabolismo , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/metabolismo , Infecções por Lentivirus/transmissão , Animais , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Infecções por Lentivirus/patologia , Panthera , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e023820, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787735

RESUMO

Dermatobia hominis is a parasite widely distributed in neotropical regions. The parasitic phase of the cycle is characterized by the formation of a subcutaneous nodule in the host, which can promote infestation by other dipterans and skin infections. The aim of this report is to register parasitism by D. hominis in free-ranging Panthera onca captured in the Brazilian wetland and to determine significant biological and meteorological factors that are likely to influence the presence of larval parasitism in captured wild jaguars. Between 2011 to 2020, 34 jaguars were captured and examined manually by searching for lesions characteristic of myiasis. By manual compression in the subcutaneous nodules, larvae morphologically identified as D. hominis (first and third instars) were collected from 13 jaguars. A multinomial logistic regression showed that adult jaguars had 16.49-fold higher odds of being parasitized than subadults. Thus, jaguars captured in the season of July-September have 34.01- and 11.42-fold higher odds of being parasitized compared to the seasons of October-December and April-June, respectively, which is associated with high total monthly precipitation in the previous season. The present study is the first to describe parasitism by D. hominis larvae in jaguars.


Assuntos
Panthera , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brasil/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos
20.
Zoo Biol ; 40(4): 280-287, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739467

RESUMO

Biological resource banks represent valuable tools for the conservation of species vulnerable to extinction, such as the jaguar. Cryobanks of skins have the potential to safeguard rare genotypes, allowing the potential exploitation of biological samples in animal multiplication technologies and the study of genetic variability. Determination of the most suitable skin regions for tissue conservation can help increase the efficiency of cryobanks and the storage of biological samples. To this end, we evaluated the effects of vitrification of skin tissues from the ear, caudal, and femoral regions of a post-mortem jaguar belonging to a zoo in Brazil. Non-vitrified and vitrified samples were evaluated and compared using quantitative methods, focusing on skin thickness, cell quantification, number of perinuclear halos, collagen and elastic density, and proliferative activity. No differences were observed in skin thickness, number of perinuclear halos, elastic density, and proliferative activity between non-vitrified and vitrified tissues in skin from any region. However, vitrified tissues derived from femoral skin showed a reduction in the number of fibroblasts, epidermal cells and collagen density compared to non-vitrified tissues. In summary, the ear and caudal regions provided the best conservation of somatic tissues derived from jaguars, and skin samples from these regions are therefore the most suitable for the formation of cryobanks.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/veterinária , Panthera/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Vitrificação , Animais , Orelha , Cauda
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