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1.
Chemosphere ; 304: 135246, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679985

RESUMO

Aim of this research was to treat the organics enriched Paper and Pulp Industry (PPI) effluents using multi-metal tolerant predominant indigenous bacterial species. In addition, assessing the potential of treated bacterial biomass as a single cell protein (SCP). The multi-metal tolerant Streptomyces tuirus OS1 was enumerated from the Paper and Pulp Industry (PPI) effluents was identified through standard molecular characterization. S. tuirus OS1 proficiently ameliorated organic contaminants in PPI effluent in the in study at 35 °C, 45 °C, and 25 °C. Fortunately, the S. tuirus OS1 considerably increased the dissolved oxygen level in treated PPI effluent in 30 days of bioremediation process. Interestingly, at 35 °C of bioremediation process the S. tuirus OS1 demonstrated increased dried biomass (7.1 g L-1) with the total crude protein (SCP) as 5.3 g L-1 (78.79%) in 30 days of bioremediation process. These findings suggest that S. tuirus OS1 is capable of reducing organic pollutants in PPI effluents and producing biomass with enriched protein content.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Proteínas na Dieta , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Papel , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1216: 339987, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691677

RESUMO

Herein, the applicability of electromembrane extraction (EME), as an efficient and paper-compatible separation technique, was envisaged over customized microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs). The utility of EME was assessed on 2D planar and 3D origami structures using different types of electrodes including stainless steel and paper-based electrodes. The overall separation procedure was integrated to colorimetric detection demonstrated for copper ions as the model analyte. According to the obtained results, EME based on 3D design of µPADs could effectively be performed under low applied voltage. Using 3D architecture, the analyte could be quantified within the range of 40.0-1500.0 µg L-1 with limit of detection down to 20.0 µg L-1 using smart phone camera as signal read-out. The proposed platform showed remarkable compatibility with direct analysis from untreated real samples of human blood and spring water.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Papel , Colorimetria/métodos , Eletrodos , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1208: 339844, 2022 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525581

RESUMO

In this paper, simultaneous enrichment and separation of ions and amphoteric components were successfully demonstrated by using electric field (E) and pH gradient (double gradient) in the ion depletion zone of anion concentration polarization interface established on a paper fluid channel. Experimental results were visualized with colored ions (bright blue and amaranth) and protein probes (phycocyanin and cytochrome C). With optimization, colored phycocyanin and bovine hemoglobin with similar pI as that of albumin and immunoglobulin respectively were well separated in 900 s with 10-fold enrichment effect. Based on the separation and enrichment function of this paper-based analytical device (PAD) and rapid selective staining of human serum albumin (HSA) with bromophenol blue, a rapid colorimetric detection of HSA was implemented with smartphone camera. A limit of detection (LOD) of 5.2 mg·L-1 was achieved in the clinically significant range of 10-300 mg·L-1 (R2 = 0.99). This method was applied to real human urine samples with good agreement (ɑ = 0.01) to clinical detection method (immunoturbidimetry). With the separation and enrichment functions of PAD, both the specificity and sensitivity were enhanced, which provides a solid basis for point-of-care test of microalbuminuria. Therefore, this PAD device is potential for sample pretreatment and detection of target components from complex physiological samples.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Ficocianina , Colorimetria/métodos , Humanos , Íons , Limite de Detecção , Papel , Albumina Sérica Humana/urina , Smartphone
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(9)2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590912

RESUMO

Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Detection and quantification of cancer biomarkers plays a critical role in cancer early diagnosis, screening, and treatment. Clinicians, particularly in developing countries, deal with high costs and limited resources for diagnostic systems. Using low-cost substrates to develop sensor devices could be very helpful. The interest in paper-based sensors with colorimetric detection increased exponentially in the last decade as they meet the criteria for point-of-care (PoC) devices. Cellulose and different nanomaterials have been used as substrate and colorimetric probes, respectively, for these types of devices in their different designs as spot tests, lateral-flow assays, dipsticks, and microfluidic paper-based devices (µPADs), offering low-cost and disposable devices. However, the main challenge with these devices is their low sensitivity and lack of efficiency in performing quantitative measurements. This review includes an overview of the use of paper for the development of sensing devices focusing on colorimetric detection and their application to cancer biomarkers. We highlight recent works reporting the use of paper in the development of colorimetric sensors for cancer biomarkers, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and others. Finally, we discuss the main advantages of these types of devices and highlight their major pitfalls.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Colorimetria , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Papel , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
5.
Food Chem ; 390: 133173, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594772

RESUMO

Analytical sciences have witnessed emergent techniques for efficient clinical and industrial food adulterants detection. In this review, the contributions made by the paper-based devices are highlighted for efficient and rapid detection of food adulterants and additives, which is the need of the hour and how different categories of techniques have been developed in the past decade for upgrading the performance for point-of-care testing. A simple strategy with an arrangement for detecting specific adulterants followed by the addition of samples to obtain well-defined qualitative or quantitative signals for confirming the presence of target species. The paper-based microfluidics-based technology advances and prospects for food adulterant detection are discussed given the high-demand from the food sectors and serve as a valued technology for food researchers working in interdisciplinary technological frontiers.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Microfluídica , Papel
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458878

RESUMO

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) represent one of the promising green analytical strategies for low-cost and simple determination of various analytes. The actual task is the development of such devices for quantitation of antioxidants, e.g., flavonoids. In this paper, possibilities of a novel three-reagent µPAD including silver nitrate, 4-nitrophenyldiazonium tetrafluoroborate, and iron(III) chloride as reagents are assessed with respect to the determination of dihydroquercetin. It is shown that all the three reagents produce different colorimetric responses that can be detected by a mini-spectrophotometer-monitor calibrator or by a smartphone. The method is applicable to direct measuring high contents of dihydroquercetin (the linearity range is 0.026-1 mg mL-1, and the limit of detection is 7.7 µg mL-1), which is favorable for many dietary supplements. The analysis of a food supplement was possible with the relative standard deviations of 9-26%, which is satisfactory for quantitative and semiquantitative determinations. It was found that plotting a calibration graph in 3D space of the three reagents' responses allows us to distinguish dihydroquercetin from its close structural analogue, quercetin.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Colorimetria/métodos , Compostos Férricos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Papel , Quercetina/análogos & derivados
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 288: 119371, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450633

RESUMO

Herein, a facile strategy was proposed for preparing a high-strength and super-hydrophobic packaging paper with improved moisture and air barrier properties, which was derived from cellulosic pulps, micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC), and nano-silica (n-SiO2). Owning to the laminated process followed by spraying approach, MFC and n-SiO2 were assembled onto two surfaces of the cellulose paper base, respectively, endowing the mechanical behaviors and superhydrophobic performance of this biodegradable composite papers as packaging material. The as-obtained multilayered papers demonstrated impressive dry tensile strength and remarkable wet tensile strength of 6542.5 N/m and 5875 N/m, which were increased by 56% and 2277%, respectively. In addition, the multilayered paper with rational mechanical properties possessed low permeabilities of air (3.17 × 10-3 µm·Pa-1·s-1), oxygen (9.687 cm3·m-2·day-1·atm), and water vapor (378.24 g·m-2·day-1), respectively, as well as a superhydrophobic performance with the contact angle of ~151.2°. Overall, the feasibility of large-scale production of biodegradable packaging materials in the paper-making industry is demonstrated by the fact that the micro/nanostructures and hydrophobic surfaces could be directly constructed on cellulosic paperboard.


Assuntos
Celulose , Dióxido de Silício , Celulose/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Papel , Vapor , Resistência à Tração
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 353: 127078, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395367

RESUMO

The present study aimed to enzymatic deinking of waste papers and to valorize the effluent for biobutanol production. Application of fungal enzymatic cocktail (cellulase, amylase, xylanase, pectinase, lipase, and ligninase) on office used paper, newspaper, and ballpen written paper leading to improvement in brightness (84.91, 72.51, 76.69 % ISO), InKd (82.89, 68.95, 76.49%), κ-number (12.9, 13.6, and 13.1), opacity (27.91, 30.07, and 2.85%), tensile strength (49.24, 45.31, and 46.98 Nm/g), respectively and indices were consistent with chemical treated pulps. The quality of effluent generated during enzymatic deinking in respect to BOD and COD level was eco-friendlier than the chemical process. The enzyme-treated effluent was employed as supporting substrate for butanol (18.4 g/l) production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. Material balance and life cycle assessment of the whole processes were evaluated to validate its industrial and environmental relevance.


Assuntos
Celulase , Clostridium acetobutylicum , 1-Butanol , Butanóis , Tinta , Papel
9.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(1): 37-40, mar. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1369159

RESUMO

El sangrado genital en niñas prepúberes es un signo poco frecuente y siempre requiere determinar su causa. Se necesitan una detallada anamnesis y examen físico, con el conocimiento adecuado de la anatomía uroginecológica, y, en muchos casos, estudios de imágenes y exámenes complementarios, para arribar al diagnóstico. Se presenta el caso de una niña de 7 años con sangrado genital, cuyo examen físico y estudios complementarios fueron poco concluyentes, y que requirió un procedimiento invasivo para su resolución. (AU)


Genital bleeding in prepubertal girls is a rare sign and always requires determining its cause. A detailed history and physical examination are needed, with adequate knowledge of urogynecological anatomy, and in many cases, imaging studies and complementary tests, to arrive at the diagnosis. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with genital bleeding, whose physical examination and complementary studies were inconclusive, requiring an invasive procedure for its resolution. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Vagina/lesões , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Papel , Ultrassonografia , Exame Ginecológico
10.
Anal Sci ; 38(5): 759-767, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344195

RESUMO

The membraneless-gas separation microfluidic paper-based analytical device (ML-GS µPAD), consisting of donor, spacer, and acceptor layers, was developed to monitor total ammonia in fish pond water. The principle of the analysis involved the addition of sodium hydroxide solution to the sample zone in the donor layer containing ammonia/ammonium, and the produced ammonia gas diffuses through the spacer to the detection zone in the acceptor layer containing red rose extract to produce a color change from pink to blue corresponding to the ammonia/ammonium concentration. Under optimum conditions, the proposed method provided good linearity of ammonia in the range concentration of 0-100 mg L-1 (R2 = 0.9993) with LOD and LOQ of 2.25 and 7.51 mg L-1, respectively. This method was successfully applied to fish pond water samples without significant influence of interfering compounds with recoveries in the range of 103-110%, indicating good selectivity and accuracy of the proposed method.


Assuntos
Amônia , Compostos de Amônio , Amônia/análise , Indicadores e Reagentes , Microfluídica , Papel , Lagoas , Água
11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(13): 3959-3970, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352162

RESUMO

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have been widely used in point-of-care testing owing to their simple operation, low volume of the sample required, and the lack of the need for an external force. To obtain accurate semi-quantitative or quantitative results, µPADs need to respond to the challenges posed by differences in reaction conditions. In this paper, multi-layer µPADs are fabricated by the imprinting method for the colorimetric detection of C-reactive protein (CRP). Different lighting conditions and shooting angles of scenes are simulated in image acquisition, and the detection-related performance of µPADs is improved by using a machine learning algorithm. The You Only Look Once (YOLO) model is used to identify the areas of reaction in µPADs. This model can observe an image only once to predict the objects present in it and their locations. The YOLO model trained in this study was able to identify all the reaction areas quickly without incurring any error. These reaction areas were categorized by classification algorithms to determine the risk level of CRP concentration. Multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and residual network algorithms were used for the classification tasks, where the latter yielded the highest accuracy of 96%. It has a promising application prospect in fast recognition and analysis of µPADs.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Proteína C-Reativa , Aprendizado de Máquina , Papel
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3427, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236904

RESUMO

A one-step analysis method was developed for four types of amino acids using a microfluidic paper-based analytical device fabricated from chromatography filtration paper and laminate films. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase was used to detect each amino acid. The obtained laminated paper-based analytical device (LPAD) contained four enzymatic reaction areas. Colorimetric detection was performed based on the molybdenum blue reaction. A model method for the simple, easy, and simultaneous detection of several amino acid concentrations was suggested, in contrast to the conventional methods such as HPLC or LC-MS. The method provided a selective quantification at the ranges of 3.6-100 µM for tryptophan, 10.1-100 µM for glycine, 5.9-100 µM for histidine and 5.6-100 µM for lysine with a detection limit of 1.1 µM, 3.3 µM, 1.9 µM and 1.8 µM, respectively. LPAD fabrication was considerably simple, and the subsequent detection process was easy and required a short period of time (within 15 min).


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Aminoácidos , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/química , Histidina/análise , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica , Papel
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 352: 127076, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351569

RESUMO

The effective degradation of KL from paper mill effluent is an important for environmental safety. This research is primarily concerned with the identification of KL-degrading Bacillus cereus from activated sludge and their possible use for the degradation of Kraft lignin (KL). This strain was involved in the production of lignin peroxidase-LiP (3.20 U/mL), manganese peroxidase-MnP (20.36 U/mL), and laccase (21.35 U/mL) enzymes, which were responsible for high KL degradation (89%) and decolorization (40%) at 1000 mg/L KL in 3 days. The SEM-EDS, UV-Vis, FTIR, and GC-MS analysis were used to analyze the bacterial cell and KL interactions to trace the KL degradation process. The significant reduction of pollutants (KL-72.5%, color-62.0%, COD-45.05%) and reduction in toxicity (80%) of bacterial-treated effluent indicated that B. cereus has the potential to be used in the degradation of pollutants from paper mill effluents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Águas Residuárias , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Lignina/metabolismo , Papel , Águas Residuárias/análise
14.
Sci Justice ; 62(2): 221-228, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277236

RESUMO

It is well established that a large proportion of paper banknotes in circulation contain traces of cocaine. Being able to discriminate between the innocent transfer of illicit drug particles acquired through everyday interactions with surfaces such as banknotes, as opposed to transfer resulting from criminal activities can provide valuable intelligence that can inform an investigation. With many countries adopting polymer banknotes as legal tender, it is important to consider the transfer of cocaine from these surfaces as well as the retention of these particulates on polymer banknotes for evaluative interpretation in crime reconstruction. This comparison study assessed three contact variables (force, time, and rotation) on the transfer of cocaine particulates from paper and polymer banknotes onto a human skin proxy. The persistence of cocaine particulates was assessed through a realistic scenario which mimicked a cash transaction. Quantifiable amounts of cocaine were transferred onto the human skin proxy across all of the contacts assessed, with a greater transfer observed with contacts involving polymer banknotes and those contacts which involved rotation. Following extensive handling, cocaine persisted on both banknote types, with paper banknotes retaining larger amounts of cocaine than polymer banknotes. These findings show that cocaine can persist on both paper and polymer banknotes for extended periods of time following handling and is therefore available for transfer. This transfer then readily occurs, even when contact is brief and involves relatively small forces. A key distinction between the banknote types was that cocaine particulates are more likely to transfer from polymer banknotes due to the lower retention rate of particulates on this surface. Such insights can aid in evaluating the relevance of illicit drug particles identified on items or persons of interest in crime reconstruction approaches.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Drogas Ilícitas , Humanos , Papel , Polímeros
15.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1199: 339588, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227387

RESUMO

Low cost and user-friendly paper microfluidic devices, combined with DNA-based biosensors with binding capacities for specific molecules, have been proposed for the developing of novel platforms that ease and speed-up the process of cell secretion monitoring. In this work, we present the first cellulose microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the single-step detection of cell secreted Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor through a self-reporting Structure Switching Signaling Aptamer. A three-part Structure Switching Signaling Aptamer was designed with an aptameric sequence specific for VEGF, which provides a quantifiable fluorescent signal through the displacement of a quencher upon VEGF recognition. The VEGF biosensor was integrated in cellulose paper, enabling the homogenous distribution of the sensor in the paper substrate and the detection of as low as 0.34 ng of VEGF in 30 min through fluorescence intensity analysis. As a proof-of-concept, the biosensor was incorporated in a microfluidic paper-based analytical device format containing a VEGF detection zone and a control zone, which was applied for the detection of cell secreted VEGF in the supernatant of mesenchymal stem cells culture plates, demonstrating its potential use in cell biology research.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Microfluídica , Papel , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
16.
Anal Chem ; 94(12): 5132-5139, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293204

RESUMO

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) are emerging as a prominent platform for disease detection, specifically in developing countries. This paper device offer simplicity and affordability not typically seen in centralized laboratory settings. However, detection limits in µPADs are inadequate and often require test results to be read within a specific time interval to ensure accuracy. To overcome these challenges, we are developing an on-chip mass spectrometry (MS) detection strategy for immunoassays performed on paper substrates. Herein, we present our initial results from a proof-of-concept study toward the development of µPADs capable of storing immunoassay reagents within the confinements of the 3D device, automatic splitting of biofluid into four individual test zones, immuno-capture of the disease biomarker, and on-chip MS detection of the captured species. The reported study encourages the development of point-of-care and direct-to-customer testing using disposable µPADs to collect samples, followed by sensitive analysis using portable MSs. We demonstrate this capability using malaria Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) antigen detection.


Assuntos
Malária , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Malária/diagnóstico , Espectrometria de Massas , Microfluídica , Papel
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114184, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339073

RESUMO

This study reports an economical and portable point-of-care (POC) monitoring device based on artificial multi-enzyme cascade systems for multiple detection purposes. The device was made up of a disposable three dimensional microfluidic paper-based analytical device (3D µPAD) with multiple detection zones and a smartphone readout. On-paper synthesis of a multifunctional mimetic composite, based on the CeO2 nanoparticles embedded in the amino-functionalized Fe metal-organic frameworks (CeO2@NH2-MIL-88B(Fe)), for cascade reactions was the main achievement of this work. The 3D µPAD was applied for simultaneous quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, and the detection process consisted of the enzymatic reaction of each sugar by anchored enzymes on the metal-organic frameworks (MOF) and successive oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Utilizing the new artificial mimicking system improved the color development uniformity and resulted in a reliable detection tool, with excellent detection limits in the range of 20-280 µM. It was directly applied to analyze the sugars levels of human total blood, urine, semen, honey and juice samples with the relative errors of less than 7.7% compared with the HPLC method. The cost-effective and easy-to-use µPAD has a great potential to be used in either medical diagnostics or the food industry. Also, it can be considered as a competitive POC method for patients in disadvantaged communities or emergencies.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanopartículas , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Colorimetria , Frutose , Glucose , Humanos , Maltose , Papel , Sacarose
18.
Adv Mater ; 34(19): e2109367, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289432

RESUMO

Although paperless technologies are becoming ubiquitous, paper and paper-based materials remain one of the most widely used resources, predicted to exceed an annual total of 460 million metric tons by 2030. Given the environmental challenges, deleterious impact on natural resources, and waste associated with conventional wood-based paper manufacturing, developing more sustainable strategies to source, produce, and recycle paper from natural materials is essential. Here, the development and production of reusable and recyclable paper are reported. This approach offers a pathway for easily producing natural pollen grains via ecofriendly, economical, scalable, and low-energy fabrication routes. It is demonstrated that the pollen-based paper exhibits high-quality printability, readability, and erasability, enabling its reuse. Based on the pH-responsive morphological responses of engineered pollen materials, a method for hygro stable printing and on-demand unprinting is presented. The reusability of the pollen paper renders it more advantageous than conventional single-print wood-based paper. This study thus provides possible pathways to utilize non-allergenic pollen, which is renewable and naturally abundant, as a sustainable source of reusable paper. While this work primarily deals with paper, the methods described here can be extended to produce other products such as cartons and containers for the storage and transport of liquid and solid materials.


Assuntos
Papel , Madeira
19.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 56(3): 394-404, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visual analogue scales (VASs) are used in a variety of patient-, observer- and clinician-reported outcome measures. While typically included in measures originally developed for pen-and-paper completion, a greater number of clinical trials currently use electronic approaches to their collection. This leads researchers to question whether the measurement properties of the scale have been conserved during the migration to an electronic format, particularly because electronic formats often use a different scale length than the 100 mm paper standard. METHODS: We performed a review of published studies investigating the measurement comparability of paper and electronic formats of the VAS. RESULTS: Our literature search yielded 26 studies published between 1997 and 2018 that reported comparison of paper and electronic formats using the VAS. After excluding 2 publications, 23 of the remaining 24 studies included in this review reported electronic formats of the VAS (eVAS) and paper formats (pVAS) to be equivalent. A further study concluded that eVAS and pVAS were both acceptable but should not be interchanged. eVAS length varied from 21 to 200 mm, indicating that 100 mm length is not a requirement. CONCLUSIONS: The literature supports the hypothesis that eVAS and pVAS provide comparable results regardless of the VAS length. When implementing a VAS on a screen-based electronic mode, we recommend following industry best practices for faithful migration to minimise the likelihood of non-comparability with pVAS.


Assuntos
Papel , Qualidade de Vida , Eletrônica , Humanos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Escala Visual Analógica
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(26): 39486-39499, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35103941

RESUMO

Nowadays, the paper industry supplies its required fibers either from primary fibers, including wood and plants, or waste papers, called secondary fibers. One of the most challenging recycling processes is deinking of papers digitally printed with electrophotographic ink. In order to produce optically high-quality paper from recycled waste papers, deinking step is required at the desired levels. In this work, the environmentally friendly green enzymatic deinking of printed paper was modeled and optimized via an innovative approach called artificial intelligence method. The effect of treatment temperature, treatment time, and enzyme dosage on mechanical properties (tensile and burst strengths) as well as optical properties (whiteness and brightness) of handsheet was investigated. The developed code can appropriately learn the non-linear behavior of deinking process, and make decisions according to the pattern constructed intelligently. Finally, multi-objective optimization at the specified treatment temperature, treatment time, and enzyme dosage was performed to identify the best conditions for enzyme-deinked handsheet (maximized mechanical and optical properties).


Assuntos
Tinta , Papel , Inteligência Artificial , Reciclagem/métodos , Temperatura
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