Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.077
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249008, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355893

RESUMO

Abstract Horismenus camobiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described based on morphological, molecular and ecological data; this new species of chalcid wasp acts as hyperparasitoid of Opsiphanis invirae (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in its parasitoid Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto and Whitfield, 2019 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Diagnoses with morphological and molecular characters and illustrations are provided.


Resumo Horismenus camobiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) é descrita com base em dados morfológicos, moleculares e ecológicos; esta nova espécie Chalcididae atua como hiperparasitoide de Opsiphanis invirae (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) em pupas de seu parasitoide Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto and Whitfield, 2019 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Caracteres diagnósticos morfológicos e moleculares e ilustrações de H. camobiensis são fornecidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Vespas , Borboletas , Himenópteros , Pupa
2.
Environ Entomol ; 51(1): 77-82, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751381

RESUMO

Invasive black and pale swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench, and Vincetoxicum rossicum Kelopow), which are related to milkweeds, can act as ecological traps for monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)) as they lay eggs on them that fail to develop. A recently approved biological control agent against swallow-worts, Hypena opulenta Christoph, occupies the same feeding guild on swallow-worts as monarch larvae and could be perceived as a competitor to monarchs. We tested how the presence of this defoliating moth on swallow-worts may influence monarch host selection. In a two-year field experiment, we placed pale swallow-wort plants that were either infested with H. opulenta or noninfested as well as common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.), into monarch habitats to assess oviposition rates. In the laboratory, monarchs were either given a choice or not between milkweeds and black swallow-worts with or without H. opulenta. While monarchs strongly preferred common milkweed in the field, up to 25% of the eggs we observed were laid on pale swallow-wort, without preference for swallow-wort with (10.7%) or without (14.3%) H. opulenta. In laboratory choice and no-choice tests, monarchs did not lay any eggs on black swallow-wort, likely because of the long-term laboratory rearing on common milkweeds. Our results confirm that pale swallow-wort may act as an oviposition sink to monarchs in Michigan as well. Since the biological control program is still in its infancy, the nature of interactions between monarchs and H. opulenta may change as the biocontrol agent becomes more widespread.


Assuntos
Asclepias , Borboletas , Vincetoxicum , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Feminino , Oviposição
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3619, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750660

RESUMO

Nanostructures similar to those found in the vividly blue wings of Morpho butterflies and colorful photonic crystals enable structural color through constructive interference of light waves. Different from commonly studied structure-colored materials using periodic structures to manipulate optical properties, we report a previously unrecognized approach to precisely control the structural color and light transmission via a novel photonic colloidal gel without long-range order. Nanoparticles in this gel form micrometer-sized bicontinuous domains driven by the microphase separation of binary solvents. This approach enables dynamic coloration with a precise wavelength selectivity over a broad range of wavelengths extended well beyond the visible light that is not achievable with traditional methods. The dynamic wavelength selectivity is thermally tunable, reversible, and the material fabrication is easily scalable.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Nanoestruturas/química , Óptica e Fotônica , Fótons , Asas de Animais
4.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 58(5): 365-375, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653076

RESUMO

The baculovirus expression vector system using insect cells as a bioreactor has been used for in vitro expression of recombinant proteins and plays an important role in the fields of biology, agronomy, and medicine. Screening suitable host cell lines is an important part of the construction of insect cell baculovirus expression systems. In previous research, we used a single-cell cloning process with the Papilio xuthus cell line RIRI-PX1 and obtained the monoclonal cell line RIRI-PX1-C31. In this study, we compared the basic biological and recombinant protein expression characteristics of RIRI-PX1-C31 and its parent cell line RIRI-PX1 and found that the expression of recombinant ß-galactosidase in RIRI-PX1-C31 was significantly higher than that in the parental cell line. Further serum-free adaptation studies confirmed that RIRI-PX1-C31 can adapt to the growth environment of Express Five Serum-free medium and that its expression level of recombinant ß-galactosidase was significantly higher than that before adaptation.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Baculoviridae/genética , Linhagem Celular , Células Clonais , Expressão Gênica , Insetos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/genética , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
5.
Biol Lett ; 18(6): 20210639, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642381

RESUMO

Warning coloration provides a textbook example of natural selection, but the frequent observation of polymorphism in aposematic species presents an evolutionary puzzle. We investigated biogeography and polymorphism of warning patterns in the widespread butterfly Danaus chrysippus using records from citizen science (n = 5467), museums (n = 8864) and fieldwork (n = 2586). We find that polymorphism in three traits controlled by known mendelian loci is extensive. Broad allele frequency clines, hundreds of kilometres wide, suggest a balance between long-range dispersal and predation of unfamiliar morphs. Mismatched clines for the white hindwing and forewing tip in East Africa are consistent with a previous finding that the black wingtip allele has spread recently in the region through hitchhiking with a heritable endosymbiont. Light/dark background coloration shows more extensive polymorphism. The darker genotype is more common in cooler regions, possibly reflecting a trade-off between thermoregulation and predator warning. Overall, our findings show how studying local adaptation at the global scale provides a more complete picture of the evolutionary forces involved.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Pigmentação , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/genética , Ciência do Cidadão , Frequência do Gene , Fenótipo , Comportamento Predatório , Seleção Genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(25): e2205073119, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696564

RESUMO

Environmental clines in organismal defensive traits are usually attributed to stronger selection by enemies at lower latitudes or near the host's range center. Nonetheless, little functional evidence has supported this hypothesis, especially for coevolving plants and herbivores. We quantified cardenolide toxins in seeds of 24 populations of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) across 13 degrees of latitude, revealing a pattern of increasing cardenolide concentrations toward the host's range center. The unusual nitrogen-containing cardenolide labriformin was an exception and peaked at higher latitudes. Milkweed seeds are eaten by specialist lygaeid bugs that are even more tolerant of cardenolides than the monarch butterfly, concentrating most cardenolides (but not labriformin) from seeds into their bodies. Accordingly, whether cardenolides defend seeds against these specialist bugs is unclear. We demonstrate that Oncopeltus fasciatus (Lygaeidae) metabolized two major compounds (glycosylated aspecioside and labriformin) into distinct products that were sequestered without impairing growth. We next tested several isolated cardenolides in vitro on the physiological target of cardenolides (Na+/K+-ATPase); there was little variation among compounds in inhibition of an unadapted Na+/K+-ATPase, but tremendous variation in impacts on that of monarchs and Oncopeltus. Labriformin was the most inhibitive compound tested for both insects, but Oncopeltus had the greater advantage over monarchs in tolerating labriformin compared to other compounds. Three metabolized (and stored) cardenolides were less toxic than their parent compounds found in seeds. Our results suggest that a potent plant defense is evolving by natural selection along a geographical cline and targets specialist herbivores, but is met by insect tolerance, detoxification, and sequestration.


Assuntos
Asclepias , Borboletas , Cardenolídeos , Heterópteros , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Asclepias/metabolismo , Borboletas/metabolismo , Cardenolídeos/química , Cardenolídeos/metabolismo , Cardenolídeos/toxicidade , Herbivoria , Heterópteros/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20212801, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673860

RESUMO

The nymphalid butterfly genus Junonia has remarkable dispersal abilities. Occurring on every continent except Europe and Antarctica, Junonia are often among the only butterflies on remote oceanic islands. The biogeography of Junonia has been controversial, plagued by taxonomic disputes, small phylogenetic datasets, incomplete taxon sampling, and shared interspecific mitochondrial haplotypes. Junonia originated in Africa but its route into the New World remains unknown. Presented here is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive Junonia phylogeny to date, using full mitogenomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA repeats from 40 of 47 described species. Junonia is monophyletic and the genus Salamis is its probable sister clade. Genetic exchange between Indo-Pacific Junonia villida and New World Junonia vestina is evident, suggesting a trans-Pacific route into the New World. However, in both phylogenies, the sister clades to most New World Junonia contain both African and Asian species. Multiple trans-Atlantic or trans-Pacificinvasions could have contributed to New World diversification. Hybridization and lateral transfer of mitogenomes, already well-documented in New World Junonia, also occurs in at least two Old World lineages (Junonia orithya/Junonia hierta and Junonia iphita/Junonia hedonia). Variation associated with reticulate evolution creates challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction, but also may have contributed to patterns of speciation and diversification in this genus.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Borboletas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Haplótipos , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20220322, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673865

RESUMO

Active dispersal is driven by extrinsic and intrinsic factors at the three stages of departure, transfer and settlement. Most empirical studies capture only one stage of this complex process, and knowledge of how much can be generalized from one stage to another remains unknown. Here we use genetic assignment tests to reconstruct dispersal across 5 years and 232 habitat patches of a Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) metapopulation. We link individual dispersal events to weather, landscape structure, size and quality of habitat patches, and individual genotype to identify the factors that influence the three stages of dispersal and post-settlement survival. We found that nearly all tested factors strongly affected departure probabilities, but that the same factors explained very little variation in realized dispersal distances. Surprisingly, we found no effect of dispersal distance on post-settlement survival. Rather, survival was influenced by weather conditions, quality of the natal habitat patch, and a strong interaction between genotype and occupancy status of the settled habitat patch, with more mobile genotypes having higher survival as colonists rather than as immigrants. Our work highlights the multi-causality of dispersal and that some dispersal costs can only be understood by considering extrinsic and intrinsic factors and their interaction across the entire dispersal process.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Ecossistema , Genótipo , Dinâmica Populacional , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1856): 20210207, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694743

RESUMO

Supergenes maintain adaptive clusters of alleles in the face of genetic mixing. Although usually attributed to inversions, supergenes can be complex, and reconstructing the precise processes that led to recombination suppression and their timing is challenging. We investigated the origin of the BC supergene, which controls variation in warning coloration in the African monarch butterfly, Danaus chrysippus. By generating chromosome-scale assemblies for all three alleles, we identified multiple structural differences. Most strikingly, we find that a region of more than 1 million bp underwent several segmental duplications at least 7.5 Ma. The resulting duplicated fragments appear to have triggered four inversions in surrounding parts of the chromosome, resulting in stepwise growth of the region of suppressed recombination. Phylogenies for the inversions are incongruent with the species tree and suggest that structural polymorphisms have persisted for at least 4.1 Myr. In addition to the role of duplications in triggering inversions, our results suggest a previously undescribed mechanism of recombination suppression through independent losses of divergent duplicated tracts. Overall, our findings add support for a stepwise model of supergene evolution involving a variety of structural changes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Genomic architecture of supergenes: causes and evolutionary consequences'.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Alelos , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Inversão Cromossômica , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1856): 20210198, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694751

RESUMO

It has long been suggested that dimorphic female-limited Batesian mimicry of two closely related Papilio butterflies, Papilio memnon and Papilio polytes, is controlled by supergenes. Whole-genome sequencing, genome-wide association studies and functional analyses have recently identified mimicry supergenes, including the doublesex (dsx) gene. Although supergenes of both the species are composed of highly divergent regions between mimetic and non-mimetic alleles and are located at the same chromosomal locus, they show critical differences in genomic architecture, particularly with or without an inversion: P. polytes has an inversion, but P. memnon does not. This review introduces and compares the detailed genomic structure of mimicry supergenes in two Papilio species, including gene composition, repetitive sequence composition, breakpoint/boundary site structure, chromosomal inversion and linkage disequilibrium. Expression patterns and functional analyses of the respective genes within or flanking the supergene suggest that dsx and other genes are involved in mimetic traits. In addition, structural comparison of the corresponding region for the mimicry supergene among further Papilio species suggests three scenarios for the evolution of the mimicry supergene between the two Papilio species. The structural features revealed in the Papilio mimicry supergene provide insight into the formation, maintenance and evolution of supergenes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Genomic architecture of supergenes: causes and evolutionary consequences'.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico/genética , Borboletas/genética , Inversão Cromossômica , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Asas de Animais
11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1856): 20210193, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694756

RESUMO

Supergenes are genetic architectures associated with discrete and concerted variation in multiple traits. It has long been suggested that supergenes control these complex polymorphisms by suppressing recombination between sets of coadapted genes. However, because recombination suppression hinders the dissociation of the individual effects of genes within supergenes, there is still little evidence that supergenes evolve by tightening linkage between coadapted genes. Here, combining a landmark-free phenotyping algorithm with multivariate genome-wide association studies, we dissected the genetic basis of wing pattern variation in the butterfly Heliconius numata. We show that the supergene controlling the striking wing pattern polymorphism displayed by this species contains several independent loci associated with different features of wing patterns. The three chromosomal inversions of this supergene suppress recombination between these loci, supporting the hypothesis that they may have evolved because they captured beneficial combinations of alleles. Some of these loci are, however, associated with colour variations only in a subset of morphs where the phenotype is controlled by derived inversion forms, indicating that they were recruited after the formation of the inversions. Our study shows that supergenes and clusters of adaptive loci in general may form via the evolution of chromosomal rearrangements suppressing recombination between co-adapted loci but also via the subsequent recruitment of linked adaptive mutations. This article is part of the theme issue 'Genomic architecture of supergenes: causes and evolutionary consequences'.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Alelos , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Inversão Cromossômica , Cor , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Asas de Animais
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1856): 20210192, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694757

RESUMO

Supergenes are tightly linked sets of loci that are inherited together and control complex phenotypes. While classical supergenes-governing traits such as wing patterns in Heliconius butterflies or heterostyly in Primula-have been studied since the Modern Synthesis, we still understand very little about how they evolve and persist in nature. The genetic architecture of supergenes is a critical factor affecting their evolutionary fate, as it can change key parameters such as recombination rate and effective population size, potentially redirecting molecular evolution of the supergene in addition to the surrounding genomic region. To understand supergene evolution, we must link genomic architecture with evolutionary patterns and processes. This is now becoming possible with recent advances in sequencing technology and powerful forward computer simulations. The present theme issue brings together theoretical and empirical papers, as well as opinion and synthesis papers, which showcase the architectural diversity of supergenes and connect this to critical processes in supergene evolution, such as polymorphism maintenance and mutation accumulation. Here, we summarize those insights to highlight new ideas and methods that illuminate the path forward for the study of supergenes in nature. This article is part of the theme issue 'Genomic architecture of supergenes: causes and evolutionary consequences'.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Insetos , Genômica , Asas de Animais
13.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269701, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700160

RESUMO

The preference-performance hypothesis explains host specificity in phytophagous insects, positing that host plants chosen by adults confer the greatest larval fitness. However, adults sometimes oviposit on plants supporting low larval success because the components of host specificity (adult preference, plant palatability, and larval survival) are non-binary and not necessarily correlated. Palatability (willingness to eat) is governed by chemical cues and physical barriers such as trichomes, while survival (ability to complete development) depends upon nutrition and toxicity. Absence of a correlation between the components of host specificity results in low-performance hosts supporting limited larval development. Most studies of specificity focus on oviposition behavior leaving the importance and basis of palatability and survival under-explored. We conducted a comprehensive review of 127 plant species that have been claimed or tested to be hosts for the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus to classify them as non-hosts, low performance, or high performance. We performed a meta-analysis to test if performance status could be explained by properties of neurotoxic cardenolides or trichome density. We also conducted a no-choice larval feeding experiment to identify causes of low performance. We identified 34 high performance, 42 low performance, 33 non-hosts, and 18 species with unsubstantiated claims. Mean cardenolide concentration was greater in high- than low-performance hosts and a significant predictor of host status, suggesting possible evolutionary trade-offs in monarch specialization. Other cardenolide properties and trichome density were not significant predictors of host status. In the experiment, we found, of the 62% of larvae that attempted to eat low-performance hosts, only 3.5% survived to adult compared to 85% of those on the high-performance host, demonstrating that multiple factors affect larval host plant specificity. Our study is the first to classify all known host plants for monarchs and has conservation implications for this threatened species.


Assuntos
Asclepias , Borboletas , Animais , Cardenolídeos , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Larva
14.
Biol Lett ; 18(5): 20220145, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538843

RESUMO

Prey are expected to flee from an approaching predator when the cost of remaining (i.e. being captured) exceeds the cost of fleeing. In species where individuals experience less predation pressure, delayed escape responses to predatory threats are predicted. Therefore, non-chalant behaviour should be observed in unpalatable and Batesian mimetic prey while rapid escape behaviour may be displayed in palatable and non-mimetic prey from closely related species. This study compared the flight initiation distances (FIDs; the distances at which a prey starts to flee during a standardized human approach) of several sympatric swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) in two areas with different temperate zones. As predicted, it was found that unpalatable species had significantly shorter FIDs than palatable species in both areas. By contrast, FIDs of Batesian mimic species were significantly longer than those of unpalatable model species and were not significantly different from those of palatable species. FIDs were not significantly different between mimetic and non-mimetic forms of the intraspecific polymorphic species Papilio polytes. The mimetic species or form may reduce the risk of revealing their identity (i.e. palatability) through early escape behaviour. These findings have implications for the selective forces that affect the escape tendency of prey.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
15.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 469, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577926

RESUMO

Animals derive resources from their diet and allocate them to organismal functions such as growth, maintenance, reproduction, and dispersal. How variation in diet quality can affect resource allocation to life-history traits, in particular those important to locomotion and dispersal, is poorly understood. We hypothesize that, particularly for specialist herbivore insects that are in co-evolutionary arms races with host plants, changes in host plant will impact performance. From their coevolutionary arms-race with plants, to a complex migratory life history, Monarch butterflies are among the most iconic insect species worldwide. Population declines initiated international conservation efforts involving the replanting of a variety of milkweed species. However, this practice was implemented with little regard for how diverse defensive chemistry of milkweeds experienced by monarch larvae may affect adult fitness traits. We report that adult flight muscle investment, flight energetics, and maintenance costs depend on the host plant species of larvae, and correlate with concentration of milkweed-derived cardenolides sequestered by adults. Our findings indicate host plant species can impact monarchs by affecting fuel requirements for flight.


Assuntos
Asclepias , Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Cardenolídeos , Herbivoria , Larva
16.
Oecologia ; 199(2): 427-439, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35616737

RESUMO

Understanding population responses to environmental conditions is key in the current context of climate change and the extreme climatic events that are threatening biodiversity in an unprecedented way. In this work, we provide a framework for understanding butterfly population responses to weather and extreme climatic seasons by taking into account topographic heterogeneity, species' life-cycles and density-dependent processes. We used a citizen-science database of Mediterranean butterflies that contains long-term population data (28 years) on 78 butterfly species from 146 sites in the Mediterranean mesic and alpine climate regions. Climatic data were obtained from 93 meteorological stations operating during this period near the butterfly sites. We studied how seasonal precipitation and temperature affect population growth while taking into account the effects of density dependence. Our results reveal (i) the beneficial effects of winter and spring precipitation for butterfly populations, which are most evident in the Mediterranean region and in univoltine species, and mainly affect the larval stage; (ii) a general negative effect of summer rain in the previous year, which affects the adult stage; and (iii) a consistent negative effect of mild autumns and winters on population growth. In addition, density dependence played a major role in the population dynamics of most species, except for those with long-term negative population trends. Our analyses also provide compelling evidence that both extreme population levels in previous years and extreme climatic seasons in the current year provoke population crashes and explosions, especially in the Mediterranean mesic region.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
17.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0261912, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511895

RESUMO

Populations of the entomopathogenic fungus Batkoa major were analyzed using sequences of four genomic regions and evaluated in relation to their genetic diversity, insect hosts and collection site. This entomophthoralean pathogen killed numerous insect species from 23 families and five orders in two remote locations during 2019. The host list of this biotrophic pathogen contains flies, true bugs, butterflies and moths, beetles, and barkflies. Among the infected bugs (Order Hemiptera), the spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) is a new invasive planthopper pest of various woody plants that was introduced to the USA from Eastern Asia. A high degree of clonality occurred in the studied populations and high gene flow was revealed using four molecular loci for the analysis of population structure. We did not detect any segregation in the population regarding host affiliation (by family or order), or collection site. This is the first description of population structure of a biotrophic fungus-generalist in the entomopathogenic Order Entomophthorales. This analysis aimed to better understand the potential populations of entomopathogen-generalists infecting emerging invasive hosts in new ecosystems.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Entomophthorales , Hemípteros , Animais , Ecossistema , Fungos , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Humanos , Insetos , Estações do Ano
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1855): 20200505, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634924

RESUMO

Structural colours, produced by the reflection of light from ultrastructures, have evolved multiple times in butterflies. Unlike pigmentary colours and patterns, little is known about the genetic basis of these colours. Reflective structures on wing-scale ridges are responsible for iridescent structural colour in many butterflies, including the Müllerian mimics Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene. Here, we quantify aspects of scale ultrastructure variation and colour in crosses between iridescent and non-iridescent subspecies of both of these species and perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. We show that iridescent structural colour has a complex genetic basis in both species, with offspring from crosses having a wide variation in blue colour (both hue and brightness) and scale structure measurements. We detect two different genomic regions in each species that explain modest amounts of this variation, with a sex-linked QTL in H. erato but not H. melpomene. We also find differences between species in the relationships between structure and colour, overall suggesting that these species have followed different evolutionary trajectories in their evolution of structural colour. We then identify genes within the QTL intervals that are differentially expressed between subspecies and/or wing regions, revealing likely candidates for genes controlling structural colour formation. This article is part of the theme issue 'Genetic basis of adaptation and speciation: from loci to causative mutations'.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cor , Pigmentação/genética , Asas de Animais
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 837: 155714, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525339

RESUMO

As synthetic pesticides play a major role in pollinator decline worldwide, biopesticides have been gaining increased attention to develop more sustainable methods for pest management in agriculture. These biocontrol agents are usually considered as safe for non-target species, such as pollinators. Unfortunately, when it comes to non-target insects, only the acute or chronic effects on survival following exposure to biopesticides are tested. Although international boards have highlighted the need to include also behavioral and morphophysiological traits when assessing risks of plant protection products on pollinators, no substantial concerns have been raised about the risks associated with sublethal exposure to these substances. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the studies investigating the potential adverse effects of biopesticides on different taxa of pollinators (bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, flies, and wasps). We highlight the fragmentary knowledge on this topic and the lack of a systematic investigation of these negative effects of biopesticides on insect pollinators. We show that all the major classes of biopesticides, besides their direct toxicity, can also cause a plethora of more subtle detrimental effects in both solitary and social species of pollinators. Although research in this field is growing, the current risk assesment approach does not suffice to properly assess all the potential side-effects that these agents of control may have on pollinating insects. Given the urgent need for a sustainable agriculture and wildlife protection, it appears compelling that these so far neglected detrimental effects should be thoroughly assessed before allegedly safe biopesticides can be used in the field and, in this view, we provide a perspective for future directions.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Mariposas , Vespas , Animais , Abelhas , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Insetos/fisiologia , Polinização
20.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(13): 3998-4012, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535680

RESUMO

Recent climate and land-use changes are having substantial impacts on biodiversity, including population declines, range shifts, and changes in community composition. However, few studies have compared these impacts among multiple taxa, particularly because of a lack of standardized time series data over long periods. Existing data sets are typically of low resolution or poor coverage, both spatially and temporally, thereby limiting the inferences that can be drawn from such studies. Here, we compare climate and land-use driven occupancy changes in butterflies, grasshoppers, and dragonflies using an extensive data set of highly heterogeneous observation data collected in the central European region of Bavaria (Germany) over a 40-year period. Using occupancy models, we find occupancies (the proportion of sites occupied by a species in each year) of 37% of species have decreased, 30% have increased and 33% showed no significant trend. Butterflies and grasshoppers show strongest declines with 41% of species each. By contrast, 52% of dragonfly species increased. Temperature preference and habitat specificity appear as significant drivers of species trends. We show that cold-adapted species across all taxa have declined, whereas warm-adapted species have increased. In butterflies, habitat specialists have decreased, while generalists increased or remained stable. The trends of habitat generalists and specialists both in grasshoppers and semi-aquatic dragonflies, however did not differ. Our findings indicate strong and consistent effects of climate warming across insect taxa. The decrease of butterfly specialists could hint towards a threat from land-use change, as especially butterfly specialists' occurrence depends mostly on habitat quality and area. Our study not only illustrates how these taxa showed differing trends in the past but also provides hints on how we might mitigate the detrimental effects of human development on their diversity in the future.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Odonatos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Clima , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente)
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...