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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0259329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192639

RESUMO

By identifying homogeneity in bone and soft tissue covariation patterns in living hominids, it is possible to produce facial approximation methods with interspecies compatibility. These methods may be useful for producing facial approximations of fossil hominids that are more realistic than currently possible. In this study, we conducted an interspecific comparison of the nasomaxillary region in chimpanzees and modern humans with the aim of producing a method for predicting the positions of the nasal tips of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. We addressed this aim by first collecting and performing regression analyses of linear and angular measurements of nasal cavity length and inclination in modern humans (Homo sapiens; n = 72) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 19), and then performing a set of out-of-group tests. The first test was performed on four subjects that belonged to the same genus as the training sample, i.e., Homo (n = 2) and Pan (n = 2), and the second test, which functioned as an interspecies compatibility test, was performed on Pan paniscus (n = 1), Gorilla gorilla (n = 3), Pongo pygmaeus (n = 1), Pongo abelli (n = 1), Symphalangus syndactylus (n = 3), and Papio hamadryas (n = 3). We identified statistically significant correlations in both humans and chimpanzees with slopes that displayed homogeneity of covariation. Prediction formulae combining these data were found to be compatible with humans and chimpanzees as well as all other African great apes, i.e., bonobos and gorillas. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that our set of regression models for approximating the position of the nasal tip are homogenous among humans and African apes, and can thus be reasonably extended to ancestors leading to these clades.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Face/anatomia & histologia , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fósseis/história , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/classificação , História Antiga , Humanos , Hylobatidae/anatomia & histologia , Hylobatidae/classificação , Masculino , Pan paniscus/anatomia & histologia , Pan paniscus/classificação , Papio hamadryas/anatomia & histologia , Papio hamadryas/classificação , Filogenia , Pongo abelii/anatomia & histologia , Pongo abelii/classificação , Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia , Pongo pygmaeus/classificação , Análise de Regressão
2.
J Hum Evol ; 165: 103151, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219955

RESUMO

Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) are a useful model for human social evolution for multiple reasons, including their multilevel society, intense cross-sex bonds, and intermale tolerance. Their most stable social grouping, the one-male unit (OMU)-comprising a leader male, females, and sometimes follower males-is formed via successive takeovers of individual females by males. While takeovers occur via both aggressive and non-aggressive mechanisms, aggressive herding is common during and after takeovers and appears crucial in maintaining OMUs. Here we use behavioral and demographic data from Filoha, Ethiopia to examine the relationship between aggressive takeovers and fitness correlates. We found no relationship between a male's percentage of takeovers that were aggressive and his presumed number of infants sired, nor his number of females or followers. However, we did find that a leader male's average intensity of aggression toward both other males and females around the time of a takeover was negatively related to his presumed number of infants sired. In addition, a leader male's average intensity of aggression toward other males was negatively related to his maximum number of followers. Finally, leader males exhibited more intense aggression toward females in interband, compared to intraband, takeovers. Our findings suggest that (1) leader males who limit their aggression toward other males may have greater success in attracting followers, thereby increasing their fitness via enhanced defense of the OMU; (2) exceptionally aggressive takeovers may lead to lower birth rates via female reproductive suppression; and (3) the extent to which males use aggression toward females depends on the context in which the takeover occurs. Overall, these results both suggest that hamadryas males use aggression selectively and underscore the ubiquity of intermale tolerance and female suppression in the hamadryas social system. This study lends insight into the interplay between male-female and male-male social dynamics during human evolution.


Assuntos
Papio hamadryas , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Agressão , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Social
3.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(3): 381-384, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001311

RESUMO

We studied exploratory activity and learning ability in sexually mature male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). The interspecies differences were analyzed by the following parameters: the level of exploratory activity, diversity of exploratory activity, concentration on the object, learning ability, training levels, and dynamics of learning. The studied group of hamadryas baboons showed higher levels of exploratory activity and learning ability than the group of rhesus monkeys.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Papio hamadryas , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Papio
4.
Zoo Biol ; 41(2): 108-121, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813119

RESUMO

Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) live in a complex multilevel social system with the one-male-unit (OMU) at the core. OMUs consist of an adult alpha male with one or several adult females, their dependent offspring and, sometimes a few follower males. Previous research has documented that OMUs form in four distinct ways in wild populations. In December 2015, Oakland Zoo introduced two juvenile males into the hamadryas baboon exhibit. At the time of this study, these males were approaching sexual maturity. The complex social structure of this species and the changing social dynamics that might result as they reach sexual maturity provide a unique opportunity to utilize social network analysis (SNA) methods to examine OMU formation in a captive setting with an eye toward potential management strategies. SNA is a visualization method of looking at social data that allows researchers to understand sociality in terms of the importance of each individual, any subgroups, as well as the larger overall group dynamic. Behavioral and proximity data were collected over 6 months (July-December 2019). These data were then transformed into networks to analyze the two now subadult males' behavior over time. We found that one of the subadult males began the formation of his first OMU following one of the four pathways found in wild studies. Despite changing group dynamics, overall group cohesion remained unchanged. This study reveals hamadryas OMU formation patterns in captivity following the initial unit pathway as well as suggests potential welfare management issues that might arise.


Assuntos
Papio hamadryas , Análise de Rede Social , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Social
5.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 60(4): 484-488, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193333

RESUMO

Alopecia occurs frequently in captive populations of nonhuman primates. Because multiple factors can play a role in alopecia, a better understanding of its etiology will help identify potential welfare concerns. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for alopecia in a breeding colony of baboons with a focus on pregnancy and age. Alopecia was scored on a scale of 0 (no alopecia) to 5 (severe alopecia) in 253 female baboons during routine physicals. The subjects ranged in age from 4 to 23 y (Mean = 9.6) and were categorized as pregnant (n = 83), nursing (n = 60) or control (n = 110). Resulting alopecia scores were combined into 2 categories (mild = 0 or 1; moderate = 2 or 3); no animals scored a 4 or 5. Significantly more pregnant females had moderate alopecia than did control females. There was no effect of age on alopecia. An unexpected outcome was that among nursing females, more of those with female infants had moderate alopecia than did those with male infants. The impact of the infant's sex on alopecia may be due to sex differences in maternal contact or maternal investment. This information adds to our understanding of alopecia risk factors in captive nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Alopecia , Papio hamadryas , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Alopecia/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Papio , Gravidez
6.
Zoo Biol ; 40(6): 503-516, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142749

RESUMO

Comprehensive knowledge of social groups within zoos allows for better understanding of the issues surrounding group stability and how to provide captive animals with optimal care. A developing area of sociality research that works to improve this understanding is social network analysis (SNA), which allows scientists to apply quantitative measures of group systems to represent social structure. In December 2015, Oakland Zoo introduced two new males to the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) exhibit. We examined the changing group structure of these baboons over the course of 6 months (July-December 2016) using social network analysis, specifically focusing on the changing social structure of the existing group and the utility of SNA methods for optimal care of captive animals. This study found that over time, the new males decreased their overall individual centrality, while some individuals had an increase in betweenness, a measure of an individual's intermediary role in the network. The results also illustrate the utility of social network analysis as tool for zoo management to examine how husbandry may have an impact on their animals, specifically for social species. Further research on the social networks of hamadryas baboon multi-clan formation could provide more information about the societal structure of this primate species, as well as the use of social network analysis as a valuable tool in captive animal management.


Assuntos
Papio hamadryas , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Análise de Rede Social
7.
Am J Primatol ; 83(5): e23248, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666273

RESUMO

Variation in spatial and temporal distribution of resources drives animal movement patterns. Links between ecology and behavior are particularly salient for the multilevel society of hamadryas baboons, in which social units cleave and coalesce over time in response to ecological factors. Here, we used data from GPS collars to estimate home range size and assess temporal patterns of sleeping site use in a band of hamadryas baboons in Awash National Park, Ethiopia. We used GPS data derived from 2 to 3 collared baboons over three 8-12-month collaring intervals to estimate annual and monthly home ranges using kernel density estimators (KDEs) and minimum convex polygons (MCPs). The 95% KDE home range was 64.11 km2 for Collaring Interval I (July 2015-March 2016), 85.52 km2 for Collaring Interval II (October 2016-October 2017), 76.43 km2 for Collaring Interval III (July 2018-May 2019), and 75.25 km2 across all three collaring intervals. MCP home ranges were 103.46 km2 for Collaring Interval I, 97.90 km2 for Collaring Interval II, 105.22 km2 for Collaring Interval III, and 129.33 km2 overall. Ninety-five percent KDE home range sizes did not differ across months, nor correlate with temperature or precipitation, but monthly MCP home ranges increased with monthly precipitation. Our data also revealed a southward home range shift over time and seven previously unknown sleeping sites, three of which were used more often during the wet season. Band cohesion was highest during dry months and lowest during wet months, with fissioning occurring more frequently at higher temperatures. One pair of collared individuals from Collaring Interval III spent 95% of nights together, suggesting they were members of the same clan. Our results both suggest that previous studies have underestimated the home range size of hamadryas baboons and highlight the benefits of remote data collection.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Papio hamadryas , Animais , Papio , Estações do Ano , Sono
8.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 60(2): 168-175, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441221

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in Florida in July 2001, with 404 human cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as of February 2020. The subtropical climate of Florida is ideal for the mosquitoes that transmit WNV. We investigated the WNV seroprevalence in 3 NHP species housed outdoors at The Mannheimer Foundation in South Florida. From January to December 2016, 520 3 to 30 y old NHP were sampled at our 2 closed sites in Homestead and LaBelle: 200 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), 212 cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and 108 hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas). The presence of WNV IgG antibodies in these animals was determined by serum neutralization assays, which found a total seroprevalence of 14%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the baboons (29%) than the rhesus (11%) and cynomolgus (9%) macaques. The probability of seropositivity significantly increased with age, but sex and site did not significantly affect seroprevalence. The frequency of WNV seropositivity detected in these outdoor-housed NHP suggests that screening for WNV and other vector-borne diseases may be necessary prior to experimental use, particularly for infectious disease studies in which viremia or viral antibodies could confound results, and especially for populations housed outdoors in warm, wet climates. As no seropositive subjects demonstrated clinical signs of WNV and WNV exposure did not appear to significantly impact colony health, routine testing is likely unnecessary for most NHP colonies. However, WNV infection should still be considered as a differential diagnosis for any NHP presenting with nonspecific neurologic signs. Mosquito abatement plans and vigilant sanitation practices to further decrease mosquito and avian interaction with research NHP should also be considered.


Assuntos
Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Papio hamadryas , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Cruzamento , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/prevenção & controle , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia
9.
Elife ; 92020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319742

RESUMO

The Red Sea was witness to important events during human history, including the first long steps in a trade network (the spice route) that would drive maritime technology and shape geopolitical fortunes for thousands of years. Punt was a pivotal early node in the rise of this enterprise, serving as an important emporium for luxury goods, including sacred baboons (Papio hamadryas), but its location is disputed. Here, we use geospatial variation in the oxygen and strontium isotope ratios of 155 baboons from 77 locations to estimate the geoprovenance of mummified baboons recovered from ancient Egyptian temples and tombs. Five Ptolemaic specimens of P. anubis (404-40 BC) showed evidence of long-term residency in Egypt prior to mummification, consistent with a captive breeding program. Two New Kingdom specimens of P. hamadryas were sourced to a region that encompasses much of present-day Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti, and portions of Somalia and Yemen. This result is a testament to the tremendous reach of Egyptian seafaring during the 2nd millennium BC. It also corroborates the balance of scholarly conjecture on the location of Punt.


Strontium is a chemical element that can act as a geographic fingerprint: its composition differs between locations, and as it enters the food chain, it can help to retrace the life history of extant or past animals. In particular, strontium in teeth ­ which stop to develop early ­ can reveal where an individual was born; strontium in bone and hair, on the other hand, can show where it lived just before death. Together, these analyses may hold the key to archaeological mysteries, such as the location of a long-lost kingdom revered by ancient Egyptians. For hundreds of years, the Land of Punt was one of Egypt's strongest trading partners, and a place from which to import premium incense and prized monkeys. Travellers could reach Punt by venturing south and east of Egypt, suggesting that the kingdom occupied the southern Red Sea region. Yet its exact location is still highly debated. To investigate, Dominy et al. examined the mummies of baboons present in ancient Egyptian tombs, and compared the strontium compositions of the bones, hair and teeth of these remains with the ones found in baboons living in various regions across Africa. This shed a light on the origins of the ancient baboons: while some were probably raised in captivity in Egypt, others were born in modern Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and Yemen ­ areas already highlighted as potential locations for the Land of Punt. The work by Dominy et al. helps to better understand the ancient trade routes that shaped geopolitical fortunes for millennia. It also highlights the need for further archaeological research in Eritrea and Somalia, two areas which are currently understudied.


Assuntos
Comércio/história , Múmias/história , Papio hamadryas , Navios/história , Viagem/história , Animais , Egito , História Antiga , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise
10.
Diabetes ; 69(11): 2414-2422, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855170

RESUMO

The long-term success of pancreatic islet transplantation (Tx) as a cure for type 1 diabetes remains limited. Islet loss after Tx related to apoptosis, inflammation, and other factors continues to limit Tx efficacy. In this project, we demonstrate a novel approach aimed at protecting islets before Tx in nonhuman primates (NHPs) (baboons) by silencing a gene (caspase-3) responsible for induction of apoptosis. This was done using siRNA (siCas-3) conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (MNs). In addition to serving as carriers for siCas-3, these nanoparticles also act as reporters for MRI, so islets labeled with MN-siCas-3 can be monitored in vivo after Tx. In vitro studies showed the antiapoptotic effect of MN-siCas-3 on islets in culture, resulting in minimal islet loss. For in vivo studies, donor baboon islets were labeled with MN-siCas-3 and infused into recipient diabetic subjects. A dramatic reduction in insulin requirements was observed in animals transplanted with even a marginal number of labeled islets compared with controls. By demonstrating the protective effect of MN-siCas-3 in the challenging NHP model, this study proposes a novel strategy to minimize the number of donor islets required from either cadaveric or living donors.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/métodos , Nanopartículas , Medicina de Precisão , Animais , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Papio hamadryas
11.
J Biol Chem ; 295(38): 13138-13149, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727852

RESUMO

The human innate immunity factor apolipoprotein L-I (APOL1) protects against infection by several protozoan parasites, including Trypanosoma brucei brucei Endocytosis and acidification of high-density lipoprotein-associated APOL1 in trypanosome endosomes leads to eventual lysis of the parasite due to increased plasma membrane cation permeability, followed by colloid-osmotic swelling. It was previously shown that recombinant APOL1 inserts into planar lipid bilayers at acidic pH to form pH-gated nonselective cation channels that are opened upon pH neutralization. This corresponds to the pH changes encountered during endocytic recycling, suggesting APOL1 forms a cytotoxic cation channel in the parasite plasma membrane. Currently, the mechanism and domains required for channel formation have yet to be elucidated, although a predicted helix-loop-helix (H-L-H) was suggested to form pores by virtue of its similarity to bacterial pore-forming colicins. Here, we compare recombinant human and baboon APOL1 orthologs, along with interspecies chimeras and individual amino acid substitutions, to identify regions required for channel formation and pH gating in planar lipid bilayers. We found that whereas neutralization of glutamates within the H-L-H may be important for pH-dependent channel formation, there was no evidence of H-L-H involvement in either pH gating or ion selectivity. In contrast, we found two residues in the C-terminal domain, tyrosine 351 and glutamate 355, that influence pH gating properties, as well as a single residue, aspartate 348, that determines both cation selectivity and pH gating. These data point to the predicted transmembrane region closest to the APOL1 C terminus as the pore-lining segment of this novel channel-forming protein.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína L1/química , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Apolipoproteína L1/imunologia , Sequências Hélice-Alça-Hélice , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Papio hamadryas , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/imunologia
12.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570742

RESUMO

Non-human primates (NHPs) are known hosts for adenoviruses (AdVs), so there is the possibility of the zoonotic or cross-species transmission of AdVs. As with humans, AdV infections in animals can cause diseases that range from asymptomatic to fatal. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of AdVs in: (i) fecal samples of apes and monkeys from different African countries (Republic of Congo, Senegal, Djibouti and Algeria), (ii) stool of humans living near gorillas in the Republic of Congo, in order to explore the potential zoonotic risks. Samples were screened by real-time and standard PCRs, followed by the sequencing of the partial DNA polymerase gene in order to identify the AdV species. The prevalence was 3.3 folds higher in NHPs than in humans. More than 1/3 (35.8%) of the NHPs and 1/10 (10.5%) of the humans excreted AdVs in their feces. The positive rate was high in great apes (46%), with a maximum of 54.2% in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 35.9% in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), followed by monkeys (25.6%), with 27.5% in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and 23.1% in baboons (seven Papio papio and six Papio hamadryas). No green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) were found to be positive for AdVs. The AdVs detected in NHPs were members of Human mastadenovirus E (HAdV-E), HAdV-C or HAdV-B, and those in the humans belonged to HAdV-C or HAdV-D. HAdV-C members were detected in both gorillas and humans, with evidence of zoonotic transmission since phylogenetic analysis revealed that gorilla AdVs belonging to HAdV-C were genetically identical to strains detected in humans who had been living around gorillas, and, inversely, a HAdV-C member HAdV type was detected in gorillas. This confirms the gorilla-to-human transmission of adenovirus. which has been reported previously. In addition, HAdV-E members, the most often detected here, are widely distributed among NHP species regardless of their origin, i.e., HAdV-E members seem to lack host specificity. Virus isolation was successful from a human sample and the strain of the Mbo024 genome, of 35 kb, that was identified as belonging to HAdV-D, exhibited close identity to HAdV-D members for all genes. This study provides information on the AdVs that infect African NHPs and the human populations living nearby, with an evident zoonotic transmission. It is likely that AdVs crossed the species barrier between different NHP species (especially HAdV-E members), between NHPs and humans (especially HAdV-C), but also between humans, NHPs and other animal species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Mastadenovirus/classificação , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/transmissão , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops/virologia , Congo/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Djibuti/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gorilla gorilla/virologia , Humanos , Macaca/virologia , Mastadenovirus/genética , Pan troglodytes/virologia , Papio hamadryas/virologia , Papio papio/virologia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365096

RESUMO

Biometric ratios of the relative length of the rays in the hand have been analyzed between primate species in the light of their hand function or phylogeny. However, how relative lengths among phalanges are mechanically linked to the grasping function of primates with different locomotor behaviors remains unclear. To clarify this, we calculated cross and triple-ratios, which are related to the torque distribution, and the torque generation mode at different joint angles using the lengths of the phalanges and metacarpal bones in 52 primates belonging to 25 species. The torque exerted on the finger joint and traction force of the flexor tendons necessary for a cylindrical grip and a suspensory hand posture were calculated using the moment arm of flexor tendons measured on magnetic resonance images, and were compared among Hylobates spp., Ateles sp., and Papio hamadryas. Finally, the torques calculated from the model were validated by a mechanical study detecting the force exerted on the phalanx by pulling the digital flexor muscles during suspension in these three species. Canonical discriminant analysis of cross and triple-ratios classified primates almost in accordance with their current classification based on locomotor behavior. The traction force was markedly reduced with flexion of the MCP joint parallel to the torque in brachiating primates; this was notably lower in the terrestrial quadrupedal primates than in the arboreal primates at mild flexion. Our mechanical study supported these features in the torque and traction force generation efficiencies. Our results suggest that suspensory or terrestrial quadrupedal primates have hand structures that can exert more torque at a suspensory posture, or palmigrade and digitigrade locomotion, respectively. Furthermore, our study suggests availability of the cross and triple-ratios as one of the indicators to estimate the hand function from the skeletal structure.


Assuntos
Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Primatas/anatomia & histologia , Primatas/fisiologia , Animais , Atelinae/anatomia & histologia , Atelinae/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/anatomia & histologia , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/diagnóstico por imagem , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/fisiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Hylobates/anatomia & histologia , Hylobates/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ossos Metacarpais/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Metacarpais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Metacarpais/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/anatomia & histologia , Papio hamadryas/anatomia & histologia , Papio hamadryas/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Torque
14.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 168(6): 793-796, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328945

RESUMO

We compared experimental activity, behavioral activity in the experiment, of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and baboons (Papio hamadryas). Baboons showed higher levels of experimental activity. The contrast in the activity between the species is probably associated with species-specific characteristics of the behavior and different ability to adapt under new conditions. In particular, they may be the result of lower plasticity of rhesus monkeys with respect to experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/psicologia , Papio hamadryas/psicologia , Animais , Feminino , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Masculino , Papio hamadryas/fisiologia , Testes Psicológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 26(9-10): 475-489, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802695

RESUMO

Background: Conceptually, a tissue engineered heart valve would be especially appealing in the pediatric setting since small size and somatic growth constraints would be alleviated. In this study, we utilized porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) for valve replacement. Of note, we evaluated the material responses of PSIS and subsequently its acute function and somatic growth potential in the mitral position. Methods and Results: Material and mechanical assessment demonstrated that both fatigued 2ply (∼65 µm) and 4ply (∼110 µm) PSIS specimens exhibited similar failure mechanisms, but at an accelerated rate in the former. Specifically, the fatigued 2ply PSIS samples underwent noticeable fiber pullout and recruitment on the bioscaffold surface, leading to higher yield strength (p < 0.05) and yield strain (p < 0.05) compared to its fatigued 4ply counterparts. Consequently, 2ply PSIS mitral valve constructs were subsequently implanted in juvenile baboons (n = 3). Valve function was longitudinally monitored for 90 days postvalve implantation and was found to be robust in all animals. Histology at 90 days in one of the animals revealed the presence of residual porcine cells, fibrin matrix, and host baboon immune cells but an absence of tissue regeneration. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the altered structural responses of PSIS, postfatigue, rather than de novo tissue formation, are primarily responsible for the valve's ability to accommodate somatic growth during the acute phase (90 days) following mitral valve replacement. Impact Statement Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) offer the potential of supporting somatic growth. In this study, we investigated a porcine small intestinal submucosa bioscaffold for pediatric mitral heart valve replacement. The novelty of the study lies in identifying material responses under mechanical loading conditions and its effectiveness in being able to function as a TEHV. In addition, the ability of the scaffold valve to support acute somatic growth was evaluated in the Baboon model. The current study contributes toward finding a solution for critical valve diseases in children, whose current prognosis for survival is poor.


Assuntos
Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Animais , Ecocardiografia , Fibrina/química , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Hidrodinâmica , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Masculino , Papio hamadryas , Suínos
16.
Dev Psychobiol ; 62(2): 191-201, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372992

RESUMO

This study examined 3-year old children and monkeys' capacities to prepare for immediate future events. In Study 1, children were presented with several tube apparatuses with two exits. When targets were certain to emerge from both, children tended to prepare to catch them by covering each exit. When it was uncertain where targets would emerge, however, they tended to prepare for only one possibility. These results substantiate the claim that simultaneous preparation for mutually exclusive possibilities develops relatively late. Study 2 found no evidence for such a capacity in monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, Cebus apella, Papio hamadryas) given the same tasks.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Haplorrinos/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Animais , Atelinae , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Papio hamadryas , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Sapajus apella , Incerteza
17.
J Med Primatol ; 49(1): 3-9, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709573

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The baboon is a well-characterized model of human early stage atherosclerosis. However, histological and morphological changes involved in atherogenesis in baboons are not known. Previously, we challenged baboons with a high-cholesterol, high-fat diet for two years and observed fatty streak and plaque lesions in iliac arteries (RCIA). METHODS: We evaluated histological and morphological changes of baboon arterial lesions and control arteries. In addition, we evaluated the vascular expression of CD68 and SMαA markers with progression of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: We observed changes that correlated with extent of atherosclerosis, including increased maximum intimal thickness. We demonstrated at molecular level the infiltration of smooth muscle cells and macrophages into the intimal layer. Further, we observed histological and morphological discordancy between the affected and adjacent areas of the same RCIA. CONCLUSION: Atherogenesis in baboons is accompanied by histological, morphological, and molecular changes, as in humans, providing insights to evaluate the mechanisms underlying early stage atherosclerosis in target tissues.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Colesterol/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Artéria Ilíaca/patologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Papio hamadryas
18.
Zootaxa ; 4619(1): zootaxa.4619.1.3, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716315

RESUMO

We studied the chorionic morphology of six species of Hamadryas, and together with previous studies, we compared our results with previously published phylogenies for the genus. Samples were obtained from 19 females collected between 2013 and 2017 whose abdomens were sectioned and preserved for later dissection. Eggs were extracted from those dissections and used for the descriptions and illustrations of the chorion. The Hamadryas egg is of the globose type; it is quasi-spheroidal and has multiple polygonal grids with differentiation in specific zones/regions, and knolls with macrocells in their summits that arise in the apical third. These characteristics are very different from those found in the majority of Biblidinae and for those reported in the literature for Batesia and Panacea, which belong to the same subtribe as Hamadryas (Ageroniina, now Ageroniini). Chorionic characters support a previously suggested division of the genus (februa, feronia and laodamia groups) and they agree with the phylogenetic proposal based on morphological characters. Our study expands previous morphological work focused on this genus and compiles all the information available to date about the exochorion of Hamadryas, which now includes data for 10 species and that of Ectima thecla thecla, the putative sister group of Hamadryas.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Papio hamadryas , Animais , Córion , Feminino , Óvulo , Filogenia
19.
J Hum Evol ; 137: 102667, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629289

RESUMO

Reconstructions of hominin evolution have long benefited from comparisons with nonhuman primates, especially baboons and chimpanzees. The hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is arguably one of the best such models, as it exhibits both the male kin bonding and the cross-sex pair bonding thought to have been important in hominin evolution. Here we link processes of behavioral evolution in hamadryas baboons with those in a Plio-Pleistocene hominin, provisionally identified as Homo erectus (sensu lato) - a pivotal species in that its larger body and brain size and wider ranging patterns increased female costs of reproduction, increasing the importance of sociality. The combination of these higher costs of reproduction and shifts in diet and food acquisition have previously been argued to have been alleviated either via strengthening of male-female bonds (involving male provisioning and the evolution of monogamy) or via the assistance of older, post-reproductive females (leading to post-reproductive longevity in females, i.e., the grandmother hypothesis). We suggest that both arrangements could have been present in Plio-Pleistocene hominins if they lived in multilevel societies. Here we expand on our earlier scenario with two sets of recent data in support of it, (1) archaeological data from the 2 million year old Oldowan site of Kanjera South, Kenya and other sites that are suggestive of tool dependent foraging on nutrient dense resources (animal carcasses and plant underground storage organs), cooperation, and food sharing; and (2) a pattern of genetic variation in hamadryas baboons that suggests the operation of kin selection among both males and females at multiple levels of society. Taken together, these two sets of data strengthen our model and support the idea of a complex society linked by male-male, male-female, and female-female bonds at multiple levels of social organization in Plio-Pleistocene hominins.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae/psicologia , Papio hamadryas/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Feminino , Quênia , Masculino
20.
Am J Primatol ; 81(7): e23029, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297842

RESUMO

The consumption of meat may provide herbivorous animals with important nutrients that are scarce in their plant-based diet. Seasonal variation in plant food availability has been suggested to motivate dietary flexibility in a range of species and thus primates may seek more prey when key plant resources are unavailable. Alternatively, prey encounter rate may drive meat eating. Here we investigate patterns of meat eating in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) at Filoha, Awash National Park, Ethiopia. The Filoha baboons rely largely on doum palm fruit (Hyphaene thebaica), which are available most months of the year, and the young leaves of Acacia senegal, which are more abundant during the wet season. We hypothesized that the baboons would consume more meat when H. thebaica and A. senegal were less available, which we tested by comparing meat eating and consumption of these plant food species from March 2005 through February 2006. Our results reveal a high rate of vertebrate meat eating at Filoha (0.028/hour of observation) compared with other hamadryas sites. We found no relationship, however, between meat eating (either insect or vertebrate) and either rainfall or consumption of H. thebaica or A. senegal, indicating that availability of preferred plant resources does not drive meat consumption. Vertebrate consumption and time spent feeding were significantly negatively associated; there was no relationship, however, between the consumption of animal matter and either home range size or daily path length. Vertebrate and insect consumption alternated throughout the year such that the baboons maintained a small amount of animal matter in their diet year-round. Our results suggest that the baboons do not often actively seek animal matter, but consume it opportunistically, with the presence of locust and dragonfly swarms driving insect consumption, and both prey availability and the availability of feeding time shaping vertebrate predation.


Assuntos
Carnivoridade , Dieta , Papio hamadryas/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Acacia , Animais , Arecaceae , Etiópia , Feminino , Frutas , Insetos , Masculino , Folhas de Planta , Estações do Ano , Vertebrados
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